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Department 

THE  ^^ 

harfn*C3losy 

University 

PHARMACOPCEI^-: 


.  ,.^onto 

OF  THE 


UNITED  STATES  OF  AMERICA 


NINTH  DECENNIAL  REVISION 


BY  AUTHORITY  OF  THE 

UNITED  STATES  PHARMACOPCEIAL  CONVENTION 

HELD  AT  WASHINGTON,   D.C.,   MAT   10,   1910 


PREPARED   BY  THE   COMMITTEE  OF  REVISION   AND 
PUBLISHED  BY  THE  BOARD  OF  TRUSTEES 


OFFICIAL  FROM  SEPTEMBER  1,  1916 


PHILADELPHIA 

AGENTS 

P.  BLAKISTON'S  SON  &  COMPANY 

SUB-AGENTS 
New  York,  PAUL  B.  HOEBER,  67  East  59th  Street 

Chicago.  CHICAGO  MEDICAL  BOOK  CO.,  Congress  and  Honore  Streets 
St.  Louis.  LEWIS  S.  MATTHEWS  &  CO..  3563  Olive  Street 
San  Francisco,  POTTER  BROTHERS  CO.  INC.,  571  Market  Street 


PHARMACOPCEIA 

OF    TBB 

UNITED  STATES   OF  AMERICA 

NINTH    DECENNIAI.    mBTISIO.V 


OFFICIAL    COPY 


l-ilOPrBlUHX 


P  A-'.^A 


Entered  acpording  to  Act  of  Congress,  in  the  year  1916.  by 

The  Board  of  Trustees 

of  the 

United  States  Pharmacopoeial  Conventics 

In  the  Ofiace  of  the  Librarian  of  Congress  at  Washingtoii 


All  rights  reserved 


PRINTERS  AND   BINDERS 

J.  B.  LIPPINCOTT  COMPANY 
i'nii,ADi:i.ri;iA 


CONTENTS 

PART  I 

PAGB 

Historical  Introduction ▼ 

Articles  of  Incorporation xix 

Abstract  of  the  Proceedings  of  the  Ninth  Decennial  Convention,  1910   .    .    .  xxiii 

General  Principles  To  Be  Followed  for  the  Ninth  Revision xxxi 

Preface xxxv 

Introductory  Notices xlv 

International  Protocol liii 

Admissions,  Deletions  and  Changes lix 

Articles  Added  to  Part  I,  U.S. P.  IX      lix 

Articles  Dismissed  from  U.S. P.  VIII Ix 

Articles  Added  to  Part  II,  U.S.P.  IX Ixiii 

Articles  Dismissed  from  Appendix,  U.S.P.  VIII Ixv 

Changes  in  Official  Latin  Titles .  Ixvi 

Changes  in  Official  English  Titles Ixvii 

Comparative  Table  Showing  the  Strength  of  the  More  Important  Pharmaco- 
poeial  Substances  and  Preparations  in  the  Preceding  and  in  the  Present 

Pharmacopoeia Ixviii 

The  Pharmacopoeia  of  the  United  States  of  America 1 


PART  II 

Atomic  Weights 503 

Elements  and  Pharmacopoeial  Chemicals 504 

Multiples  of  Some  Atomic  and  Molecular  Weights 520 

Reagents 521 

Test  Solutions 521 

Volumetric  Solutions 555 

Indicators  for  Acidimetry  and  Alkalimetry 579 

General  Tests 584 

1.  Arsenic  Test 584 

2.  Arsenic  Test,  Bettendorf  s 586 

3.  Heavy  Metals  Test 586 

4.  Electrolytic  Determinations 587 

5.  Assay  for  Chlorides,  Bromides  and  Iodides 588 

6.  Assay  for  AlkaU  Salts  of  Organic  Acids ^  589 

7 .  Determination  of  Ash  or  Non-volatile  Matter 589 

8.  Iodine  Absorption  Value 590 

9.  Saponification  Value 590 

10.  Acid  Number  for  Resins 591 

11.  Determination  of  Crude  Fiber 591 

12.  Determination  of  Volatile  Extractive,  Soluble  in  Ether 591 

iii 


IV  CONTENTS 


13.  Determination  of  Non-volatile  Extractive,  Soluble  in  Ether 592 

14.  Determination  of  Alcohol  in  Official  Preparations  with  List  of  Alco- 

holic Percentages 592 

15.  Proximate  Assays  (General  Directions) 593 

16.  Melting  Points 596 

17.  Boihng  Points 598 

18.  Congealing  Points 599 

19.  Solubihties 599 

20.  Gasometric  Estimations 600 

21.  Optical  Rotation 602 

22.  Refractive  Index 603 

23.  Biological  Assays 604 

Standard  Thermometers 610 

Powders 612 

Percolation 613 

Sterilization 616 

Diagnostical  Reagents  and  Clinical  Tests 618 

Tables 628 

Thermometric  Equivalents 628 

Alcoholometric  Table 633 

Temperature  Corrections  for  Alcoholometric  Table 636 

Acid  and  AlkaU  Tables 638 

Acetic  Acid 639 

Hydrochloric  Acid .  642 

Nitric  Acid 643 

Sulphuric  Acid 646 

Ammonia 649 

Reduction  of  Apparent  to  True  Specific  Gravity 650 

Reduction  of  Apparent  Weight  in  Air  to  Weight  in  Vacuum 651 

Cahbration  of  Pycnometers 652 

CaUbration  of  Glass  Measuring  Apparatus 653 

Metric  Equivalents 654 

Weight  and  Volume  Relations 658 

Converting  Metric  Quantities  in  Pharmaceutical  Processes  to  Quantities 

in  the  Avoirdupois  System 660 

Converting  Metric  Quantities  in  Pharmaceutical  Processes  to  Quantities 

in  Apothecaries  Measures 661 

Converting  Metric  Quantities  in  Pharmaceutical  Processes  to  Quantities 

in  Apothecaries  Weights 662 

Index 663 


HISTORICAL   INTRODUCTION 

IN  January,  1817,  Dr.  Lyman  Spalding,*  of  New  York  City,  sub- 
mitted to  the  Medical  Society  of  the  County  of  New  York  a  project 
for  the  formation  of  a  National  Pharmacopoeia,  f 

Dr.  Spalding's  plan  was  as  follows:  The  United  States  were  to  be 
divided  into  four  districts — Northern,  Middle,  Southern,  and  Western; 
the  New  England  States  to  form  the  Northern  District;  New  York, 
New  Jersey,  Pennsylvania,  Delaware,  Maryland,  and  the  District  of 
Columbia,  the  Middle  District;  and  the  States  south  and  west  of  these 
borders  to  constitute  the  other  two  districts. 

The  plan  provided  that  a  Convention  should  be  called  in  each  of  these 
districts,  to  be  composed  of  delegates  from  all  the  medical  societies  and 
schools  situated  within  each  of  them.  Each  District  Convention  was  to 
form  a  Pharmacopoeia,  and  appoint  delegates  to  a  General  Convention, 
to  be  held  in  Washington.  To  this  General  Convention  the  four  District 
Pharmacopoeias  should  be  taken,  and  from  the  material  thus  brought 

*  Born  at  Cornish,  N.H.,  June  5,  1775;  died  at  Portsmouth,  N.H.,  October 30,  1821. 

t  While  European  pharmacopoeias  were  chiefly  relied  upon  as  authorities  previous 
to  the  appearance  of  the  first  official  Pharmacopoeia  of  the  United  States  of  America, 
yet  a  few  works  had  appeared,  previous  to  this  time,  which  deserve  to  be  recorded 
here. 

In  1778  there  was  published  at  Philadelphia  a  small  Pharmacopoeia  for  the  use 
of  the  Mihtary  Hospital  of  the  U.S.  Army  located  at  Lititz,  Lancaster  Co.,  Penn- 
sylvania, under  the  title:  "Pharmacopoeia  simpliciorum  et  efficaciorum,  in  usiun 
nosocomii  militaris,  ad  exercitum  foederatarum  Americce  civitatum  pertinentis; 
hodiernae  nostrae  inopise  rerumque  angustiis,  feroci  hostium  ssevitiae,  belloque  crudeU 
ex  inopinato  patriae  nostrae  illato  debitis,  maxime  accommodata."  A  second  edition 
of  this  appeared  in  1781,  on  the  title-page  of  which  Dr.  WiUiam  Brown  is  men- 
tioned as  author. 

On  October  3,  1805,  the  Counsellors  of  the  Massachusetts  Medical  Society  ap- 
pointed a  Committee  to  draft  a  Pharmacopoeia  adapted  to  the  special  wants  of  their 
section  of  this  country.  The  Committee,  consisting  of  Dr.  James  Jackson  and  Dr. 
John  C.  Warren,  endeavored  to  secure  the  co-operation  of  medical  institutions  in 
other  States,  with  the  object  of  making  the  work  national,  but  without  success. 
They  presented  the  result  of  their  labors  to  the  Coimsellors  on  June  5,  1807,  and 
the  work  was  issued  some  time  in  the  early  part  of  1808.  It  was  based  upon  the 
last  preceding  edition  of  the  Edinburgh  Pharmacopoeia,  but  contained  much  original 
matter,  among  which  was  a  posological  and  prosodial  table. 

In  1815  the  Physicians  and  Surgeons  of  the  New  York  Hospital  appointed  Dr. 
Samuel  L.  Mitchill  and  Dr.  Valentine  Seaman  a  Committee  to  prepare  a  Pharma- 
copoeia for  the  use  of  that  institution.  This  was  issued  in  1816,  and  enjoyed  for 
some  years  an  authority  of  more  than  local  character. 

V 


VI  HISTORICAL  iNtRODUCtlON 


together  a  National  Pharmacopceia  should  be  compiled.  Dr.  Spalding's 
plan  was  approved  by  the  committee  to  which  it  was  referred,  and  sub- 
sequently, through  the  agency  of  the  Medical  Society  of  the  State  of 
New  York,  it  was  carried  into  effect.  This  society  issued  circulars  re- 
questing the  co-operation  of  the  several  incorporated  State  Medical 
Societies,  the  several  incorporated  Colleges  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons, 
or  Medical  Schools,  or  such  medical  bodies  as  constituted  a  faculty  in 
any  incorporated  university  or  college  in  the  United  States ;  and  in  any 
State  or  Territory  in  which  there  was  no  incorporated  medical  society, 
college,  or  school,  voluntary  associations  of  physicians  and  surgeons 
were  invited  to  assist  in  the  imdertaking. 

The  follo^^^ng  organizations  approved  the  plan  of  forming  a  National 
Pharmacopoeia,  and  appointed  delegates  to  district  conventions :  Massa- 
chusetts Medical  Society,  June  2,  1818;  College  of  Physicians  and  Sur- 
geons in  the  City  of  New  York,  June  25,  1818;  Medical  and  Chirurgical 
Faculty  of  Maryland,  June,  1818;  Rhode  Island  Medical  Society,  Sep- 
tember 1,  1818;  Medical  Society  of  South  Carolina,  September,  1818; 
Medical  Society  of  the  District  of  Columbia,  October  5,  1818;  Cormec- 
ticut  Medical  Society,  October  15,  1818;  Medical  Institution  of  Yale 
College,  October  28,  1818;  Vermont  Medical  Society,  October,  1818; 
Board  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons  of  the  First  Medical  District  of  the 
State  of  Indiana,  November  3,  1818;  College  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons 
of  the  Western  District  of  the  State  of  New  York,  January,  1819;  Col- 
lege of  Physicians  of  Philadelphia,  February  2,  1819;  Medical  Faculty 
of  Brown  University,  March  15,  1819;  Medical  School  at  Lexington, 
Kentucky,  April,  1819;  New  Hampshire  Medical  Society,  May  5, 
1819;  Medical  Society  of  New  Jersey,  May  11,  1819;  Medical  Society 
of  the  State  of  .Delaware,  May,  1819;  Medical  Society  of  Georgia,  May, 
1819. 

The  Medical  College  of  Ohio  and  the  Medical  Society  of  New  Orleans 
approved  the  formation  of  a  National  Pharmacopoeia,  but  they  did  not 
appoint  delegates. 

The  District  Convention  for  the  New  England  States  was  held  in 
Boston,  June  1,  1819,  and  a  District  Pharmacopoeia  was  adopted. 

The  District  Convention  of  the  Middle  States  was  held  in  Philadel- 
phia, June  1,  1819,  and  two  outlines  of  Pharmacopoeias,  submitted  by 
the  delegates  from  New  York  and  Philadelphia,  were  formed  into  one, 
which  was  adopted  as  the  Pharmacopoeia  of  the  Middle  District. 

There  were  no  conventions  held  in  the  Southern  and  Western  Districts, 
but  measures  were  taken,  by  those  concerned,  to  secure  a  representation 


HISTORICAL  INTRODUCTION  VU 

of  the  Southern  District  in  the  General  Convention  at  Washington. 
The  General  Convention  for  the  formation  of  a  National  Pharmacopoeia 
assembled  in  the  Capitol,  at  Washington,  January  1,  1820,  and  elected 
Samuel  L.  Mitchill,  M.D.,  President,  and  Thomas  T.  Hewson,  M.D,, 
Secretary. 

The  two  Pharmacopoeias  prepared  in  the  Northern  and  Middle  Dis- 
tricts were  submitted  to  examination,  compared  in  detail,  and  their 
contents,  with  such  additions  as  were  thought  necessary,  consolidated 
into  one  work,  which,  after  full  revision,  was  adopted  by  the  General 
Convention,  and  ordered  to  be  published  by  a  committee  appointed  for 
that  purpose,  of  which  Dr.  Lyman  Spalding  was  chairman.  It  was 
published  in  Boston,  December  15,  1820,  in  both  the  Latin  and  English 
languages,  a  second  edition  appearing  in  1828. 

FIRST  REVISION 

Before  adjourning,  the  General  Convention  of  1820  made  arrange- 
ments for  the  future  revision  of  the  work.  It  instructed  its  President  to 
issue,  on  January  1,  1828,  writs  of  election  to  the  several  incorporated 
State  Medical  Societies  and  incorporated  Medical  Colleges  and  Schools 
in  the  Northern  District,  requiring  them  to  ballot  for  three  delegates  to 
a  General  Convention  to  be  held  at  Washington  on  January  1,  1830, 
for  the  purpose  of  revising  the  American  Pharmacopoeia;  and  that  these 
several  institutions  be  requested  to  forward  to  the  President,  on  or 
before  April  1,  1829,  the  names  of  three  persons  thus  designated  by 
ballot;  and  the  President  of  the  Convention  was  requested,  on  the  said 
day,  to  assort  and  count  the  said  votes,  and  to  notify  the  three  persons, 
who  should  have  the  greatest  number  of  votes,  of  their  election;  and, 
in  case  there  should  not  be  three  persons  who  had  a  greater  number  of 
votes  than  others,  then  the  said  President  was  desired  to  put  a  ballot 
into  the  box  for  each  of  those  persons  who  had  an  equal  number  of 
votes,  and  draw  therefrom  such  number  of  ballots  as  should  make  the 
number  of  delegates  three,  and  notify  as  before  directed. 

This  resolution  was  to  apply  in  like  manner  to  the  Middle,  Southern, 
and  Western  Districts. 

Accordingly,  there  were  to  be  three  delegates  from  each  of  the  four 
districts,  the  Convention  thus  to  consist  of  twelve  delegates. 

Notwithstanding  the  care  thus  exercised  by  the  Convention  of  1820  to 
arrange  for  a  Convention  in  1830,  a  serious  misunderstanding  occurred, 
the  result  of  which  was  that  two  Pharmacopoeias  were  pubUshed  in 
1830 — one  in  New  York  and  one  in  Philadelphia. 


Vlll  HISTORICAL  INTRODUCTION 

The  President  issued,  on  January  1,  1828,  writs  of  election,  as  in- 
structed by  the  Convention  of  1820;  but,  on  account  of  a  certain  am- 
biguity of  expression  in  the  resolution  of  the  Convention  of  1820,  and 
perhaps,  also,  in  the  communication  of  President  Mitchill  addressed 
to  the  various  societies  and  colleges,  some  of  the  organizations  did  not 
correctly  understand  what  was  expected  of  them,  and  instead  of  sending 
to  President  Mitchill  the  state  of  the  ballot,  sent  to  him  merely  its  result. 
It  appears  to  have  been  the  impression  in  many  places  that  the  societies 
addressed  were  to  choose  delegates,  and  that  the  delegates  thus  chosen 
were  to  proceed  to  Washington. 

President  Mitchill  received  returns  from  the  Northern  and  Middle 
Districts,  but  none  from  the  Southern  and  Western  Districts.  He 
counted  the  ballots  returned  to  him,  as  he  understood  that  they  should 
be  counted,  and  notified  the  three  chosen  by  each  of  the  two  districts 
of  their  election,  but  the  appointment  of  the  delegates  for  the  Middle 
District  was  not  satisfactory  to  many  of  the  medical  societies  of  that 
region. 

The  delegates  from  the  Northern  and  Middle  Districts  who  had  been 
notified  by  President  Mitchill  of  their  election  resolved,  by  general 
concurrence,  and  for  the  sake  of  convenience,  to  hold  the  meeting  of 
the  Convention  at  New  York  instead  of  Washington,  as  directed  by 
the  authority  under  which  they  were  chosen.  Eli  Ives,  M.D.,  of  Yale 
College,  Connecticut,  was  elected  President.  As  they  were  so  few  in 
number,  they  adjourned  for  six  months  in  order  to  obtain  assistance 
from  the  medical  fraternity  of  the  country.  They  issued  a  circular  to 
each  of  the  Medical  Societies  and  Medical  Institutions  in  the  United 
States  not  represented  in  the  Convention,  requesting  each  to  appoint 
a  delegate  to  co-operate  with  this  Convention  in  revising  the  American 
Pharmacopoeia;  and,  provided  no  delegate  should  be  appointed,  or,  if 
appointed,  be  unable  to  attend,  said  society  or  medical  institution  or 
delegates  were  requested  to  communicate  their  ideas,  in  relation  to  the 
revision  of  the  Pharmacopoeia,  to  the  Convention  at  their  next  session 
to  be  held  on  the  first  Wednesday  of  June,  1830,  at  the  College  of  Phy- 
sicians and  Surgeons  of  New  York. 

The  Convention  met,  according  to  agreement,  in  New  York,  June  2, 
1830,  ten  delegates  being  present,  representing:  Connecticut,  South 
Carolina,  New  York,  Ohio,  and  Western  Massachusetts.  They  revised 
the  Pharmacopoeia  of  1820,  authorized  the  publication  of  their  revision, 
and,  before  adjourning,  provided  for  a  subsequent  revision  in  1835.  The 
book  was  published  in  New  York,  November,  1830. 


HISTORICAL   INTRODUCTION  IX 

In  consequence  of  the  dissatisfaction  existing  in  the  Middle  District, 
arrangements  were  made  to  hold  a  Convention  at  Washington,  January, 
1830,  which  should  be  more  fairly  representative  of  the  medical  societies, 
colleges,  and  schools  of  the  Middle  District. 

The  Convention  was  held  in  the  Capitol,  at  Washington,  January  4, 
1830.  It  consisted  of  eight  delegates,  two  from  New  Jersey,  two  from 
Philadelphia,  one  from  Delaware,  one  from  IVIaryland,  and  two  from  the 
District  of  Columbia,  all  members  from  the  Middle  District.  Lewis 
Condict,  M.D.,  of  New  Jersey,  was  elected  President. 

Since  many  sections  of  the  United  States  were  not  represented  at  this 
Convention,  and  it  appeared  desirable  that  the  various  medical  interests 
of  the  country  should  have  their  due  representation,  it  was  resolved, 
soon  after  the  organization  of  the  Convention,  that  the  Surgeon-General 
of  the  Army,  the  senior  surgeon  of  the  Navy,  stationed  at  Washington, 
and  those  Members  of  Congress  who  were  practitioners  of  medicine, 
should  be  invited  to  participate  in  the  proceedings. 

In  compliance  with  this  invitation,  the  Surgeon-General  of  the  Army, 
the  senior  surgeon  of  the  Navy,  and  three  Members  of  Congress  took 
their  seats  in  the  Convention,  thus  increasing  the  number  of  the  dele- 
gates to  thirteen.  The  Convention  appointed  a  Committee  of  Revision 
consisting  of  a  Chairman  and  two  members  from  each  of  the  following 
cities,  viz.:  Boston,  New  York,  Philadelphia,  Baltimore,  Washington, 
Charleston,  Lexington,  and  Cincinnati. 

The  Chairman  of  the  Committee  was  requested  to  open  a  correspond- 
ence with  the  several  members  for  the  purpose  of  submitting  to  their 
examination  a  revised  draft  of  the  Pharmacopoeia  presented  to  the  Con- 
vention by  the  delegates  from  Pennsylvania.  He  was  also  instructed  to 
call  a  meeting  of  the  Committee  in  Philadelphia.  Any  three  members 
were  constituted  a  quorum  for  the  transaction  of  business,  and,  after 
a  careful  examination  of  the  several  communications  that  might  be 
submitted  to  them,  they  were  to  prepare  a  revised  edition  of  the  Phar- 
macopoeia, and  make  the  necessary  arrangements  for  its  publication. 

The  Committee  performed  the  duty  imposed  upon  them,  and  their 
revision  of  the  Pharmacopoeia  was  published  in  Philadelphia  in  1831. 

SECOND  REVISION 

Previous  to  adjournment,  the  Convention  arranged  for  a  Convention 
in  1840,  by  the  following  resolution:  "Resolved,  That  the  President  of 
this  Convention  shall,  on  the  first  day  of  January,  1839,  issue  a  notice, 
requesting  the  different  incorporated  State  Medical  Societies,  the  incor- 


HISTORICAL  INTRODUCTION 


porated  Medical  Colleges,  and  the  incorporated  Colleges  of  Physicians 
and  Surgeons,  throughout  the  United  States,  each  to  elect  a  number  of 
delegates,  not  exceeding  three,  to  attend  a  General  Convention  to  be 
held  at  Washington,  D.C.,  on  the  first  Monday  in  January,  1840." 

The  plan  of  the  New  York  Convention  for  a  revision  of  the  Pharma- 
copoeia in  1835  was  abandoned.  The  plan  of  the  AVashington  Conven- 
tion for  a  revision  in  1840  was  generally  recognized  as  the  more  feasible 
and  was  fully  carried  out. 

The  notices  for  the  choice  of  delegates  to  the  Convention  of  1840 
were  issued  by  Lewis  Condict,  M.D.,  President  of  the  Washington  Con- 
vention of  1830,  in  accordance  with  the  resolution  quoted  above.  The 
Convention  assembled  at  Washington. on  the  first  day  of  January,  1840, 
twenty  delegates  being  present,  representing  the  Rhode  Island  Medical 
Society,  the  New  Jersey  Medical  Society,  the  College  of  Phj^sicians  of 
Philadelphia,  the  University  of  Pennsylvania,  the  Jefferson  Medical 
College  of  Philadelphia,  the  Delaware  Med'cal  Society,  the  Washing- 
ton University  of  Baltimore,  the  Medical  and  Chirurgical  Faculty  of 
Maryland,  the  Medical  Society  of  the  District  of  Columbia,  the  Colum- 
bian Medical  College,  the  Vincennes  Medical  Society  of  Indiana,  and 
the  Medical  Society  of  Georgia. 

The  credentials  of  delegates  from  the  Medical  Society  of  Vermont,  the 
Medical  Society  of  New  Hampshire,  the  Albany  Medical  College,  and 
the  College  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons  of  Lexington,  Kentucky,  were 
presented,  but  the  delegates  did  not  make  their  appearance  during  the 
session.    Lewis  Condict,  M.D.,  of  New  Jersey,  was  elected  President. 

With  the  view  of  giving  the  various  medical  interests  of  the  country 
proper  representation  in  the  Convention,  the  Surgeon-General  of  the 
Army  and  the  senior  surgeon  of  the  Navy  stationed  at  Washington 
were  invited  to  participate  in  the  proceedings.  The  Convention  ap- 
pointed a  Committee  of  Revision  and  Publication,  consisting  of  seven 
members  (three  to  form  a  quorum),  and  the  meetings  of  the  Committee 
to  be  held  at  Philadelphia.  To  this  Committee  were  referred  all 
communications  received  by  the  Convention  from  the  various  organiza- 
tions represented.  The  Committee  was  authorized  to  request  the  co- 
operation of  the  colleges  of  pharmacy  in  the  United  States,  and  to 
publish  the  work  after  the  completion  of  the  revision.  Valuable  assis- 
tance was  rendered  the  Committee  by  the  Colleges  of  Pharmacy  of 
Boston  and  New  York;  the  Philadelphia  College  of  Pharmacy  pre- 
sented a  complete  revised  copy  of  the  Pharmacopeia,  elaborated  with 
ability  and  great  industry;  the  Committee  accepted,  after  deliberate 


HISTORICAL  INTRODUCTION  Xl 


examination,  nearly  all  of  the  suggestions,  and  this  caused  delay  in 
the  issue  of  the  work.  The  book  was  not  published  until  early  in  the 
year  1842.  In  this  revision  the  Latin  version  was  omitted.  The  proc- 
ess of  displacement  or  percolation  was  introduced  for  the  first  time. 

THIRD  REVISION 

Before  adjourning,  provision  was  made,  by  the  following  resolution, 
for  a  Convention  in  1850: 

"The  President  of  this  Convention  shall,  on  the  first  day  of  May, 
1849,  issue  a  notice,  requesting  the  several  incorporated  State  Medical 
Societies,  the  incorporated  Medical  Colleges,  the  incorporated  Colleges 
of  Physicians  and  Surgeons,  and  the  incorporated  Colleges  of  Pharmacy, 
throughout  the  United  States,  each  to  elect  a  number  of  delegates,  not 
exceeding  three,  to  attend  a  General  Convention  to  be  held  at  Wash- 
ington, on  the  first  Monday  in  May,  1850." 

In  accordance  with  this  resolution,  the  Convention  met  at  Washing- 
ton, May  6,  1850,  thirty  delegates  being  present,  representing:  the 
Rhode  Island  Medical  Society,  the  Geneva  Medical  College,  the  College 
of  Pharmacy  of  the  City  of  New  York,  the  Medical  Society  of  New 
Jersey,  the  College  of  Physicians  of  Philadelphia,  the  University  of 
Pennsylvania,  the  Jefferson  Medical  College  of  Philadelphia,  the  Medical 
Faculty  of  the  Pennsylvania  College,  the  Medico-Chirurgical  College 
of  Philadelphia,  the  Philadelphia  College  of  Pharmacy,  the  Medical 
Society  of  Delaware,  the  Medical  and  Chirurgical  Faculty  of  Maryland, 
the  Medical  Society  of  the  District  of  Columbia,  the  National  Medical 
College  of  the  District  of  Colurfibia,  the  Medical  Department  of  the 
National  Institute,  the  Georgetown  Medical  College,  and'  the  Rush 
Medical  College  of  Chicago. 

The  credentials  of  delegates  from  the  New  Hampshire  Medical  Insti- 
tution, the  University  of  Buffalo,  the  Medical  Department  of  Hampden- 
Sidney  College,  the  Medical  Society  of  South  Carolina,  the  Medical 
College  of  Ohio,  the  Cincinnati  College  of  Pharmacy,  the  Missouri 
Medical  Society,  the  Wisconsin  State  Medical  Society,  and  the  Medical 
Faculty  of  the  University  of  Iowa  were  presented,  but  the  delegates  did 
not  make  their  appearance  during  the  session. 

George  B,  Wood,  M.D.,  of  Philadelphia,  was  chosen  President.  The 
Surgeon-General  of  the  Army  and  the  Chief  of  the  Bureau  of  Medicine 
and  Surgery  of  the  Navy  Department  were  invited  to  participate  in  the 
proceedings. 

The  Convention  appointed  a  Committee  of  Revision  and  Publication. 


Xll  HISTORICAL  INTRODUCTION 

consisting  of  the  President  of  the  Convention  and  three  other  members, 
three  to  form  a  quorum;  the  meetings  of  the  Committee  were  held  in 
Philadelphia,  and  the  Committee  published  the  revised  work  in  1851.  A 
second  edition  was  issued  in  1855. 

FOURTH  REVISION 

Before  adjourning,  the  Convention  of  1850  made  arrangements  for 
a  Convention  to  be  held  on  the  first  Wednesday  in  May,  1860,  by  a 
resolution  similar  to  the  one  adopted  by  the  Convention  of  1840. 

The  Convention  met  in  1860,  thirty  delegates  being  present,  repre- 
senting: the  Maine  Medical  Association,  the  Massachusetts  Medical 
Society,  the  Massachusetts  College  of  Pharmacy,  the  Connecticut  State 
Medical  Society,  the  Medical  Society  of  the  State  of  New  York,  the 
New  York  Academy  of  Medicine,  the  College  of  Pharmacy  of  the  City 
of  New  York,  the  University  of  Pennsylvania,  the  Jefferson  Medical 
College  of  Philadelphia,  the  College  of  Physicians  of  Philadelphia,  the 
Philadelphia  College  of  Pharmacy,  the  Delaware  State  Medical  Society, 
the  University  of  Maryland,  the  Maryland  College  of  Pharmacy,  the 
National  Medical  College  of  Washington,  the  Medical  Society  of  the 
District  of  Columbia,  the  United  States  Army,  and  the  United  States 
Navy.    George  B.  Wood,  M.D.,  of  Philadelphia,  was  chosen  President. 

A  Committee  of  Revision  and  Publication  was  appointed,  consisting 
of  nine  members,  including  the  President  of  the  Convention.  To  this 
Committee  were  referred  all  communications  relating  to  the  revision  of 
the  Pharmacopoeia.  Three  members  were  to  form  a  quorum.  The 
Committee  was  to  meet  in  Philadelphia,  and  was  authorized  to  publish 
the  work  after  its  revision.  The  book  was  published  in  June,  1863. 
Before  adjourning,  the  Convention  made  arrangements,  by  a  resolution 
similar  to  that  adopted  by  the  Convention  of  1850,  for  a  Convention  in 
1870. 

FIFTH  REVISION 

In  accordance  with  this  resolution,  a  Convention  met  in  Washington, 
Wednesday,  May  4,  1870,  sixty  delegates  being  present,  representing: 
the  St.  Louis  Medical  College,  the  Maryland  College  of  Pharmacy,  the 
Missouri  Medical  College,  the  St.  Louis  College  of  Pharmacy,  the  Chi- 
cago College  of  Pharmacy,  the  Medical  Society  of  the  District  of  Colum- 
bia, the  Medical  College  of  Virginia,  the  Massachusetts  College  of  Phar- 
macy, the  Medical  Society  of  the  State  of  New  York,  the  College  of 


HISTORICAL   INTRODUCTION  XllI 

Physicians  of  Philadelphia,  the  College  of  Pharmacy  of  the  City  of  New 
York,  the  National  Medical  College  of  Washington,  the  University  of 
Pennsylvania,  the  Jefferson  Medical  College  of  Philadelphia,  the  Phila- 
delphia College  of  Pharmacy,  the  College  of  Pharmacy  of  Baldwin 
University,  the  Medico-Chirurgical  Society  of  Louisville,  the  Baltimore 
Medical  Association,  the  Medical  Department  of  Georgetown  College, 
the  Washington  University  of  Baltimore,  the  Massachusetts  Medical 
Society,  the  Maine  Medical  Association,  the  University  of  Buffalo,  the 
Medical  and  Chirurgical  Society  of  Maryland,  the  Baltimore  Medical 
Association,  the  University  of  Nashville,  the  University  of  Maryland, 
the  Pharmaceutical  College  of  Howard  University,  the  University  of 
Virginia,  and  the  Woman's  Medical  College  of  Philadelphia. 

Such  Members  of  Congress  as  were  graduates  of  regular  medical 
schools,  the  Surgeon-General  of  the  Army,  and  the  Chief  of  the 
Bureau  of  Medicine  and  Surgery  of  the  Navy  Department  were  invited 
to  take  seats  in  the  Convention  and  participate  in  its  deliberations. 
Joseph  Carson,  M.D.,  of  Philadelphia,  was  elected  President  of  the 
Convention. 

A  Committee  of  Revision  and  Publication,  consisting  of  fifteen  mem- 
bers, was  appointed  and  given  definite  instructions  as  to  the  general 
plan  to  be  followed  in  revising  the  Pharmacopoeia. 

A  resolution  was  adopted  directing  "that  measures  of  capacity  be 
abandoned  in  the  Pharmacopoeia,  and  that  the  quantities  in  all  formulas 
be  expressed  in  weights  and  in  parts  by  weight."  The  Committee  of 
'  Revision  by  a  unanimous  vote  decided  that  the  adoption  of  the  principle 
of  parts  by  weight  was  impracticable,  and  definite  weights  and  measures 
were  used  in  the  Pharmacopoeia. 

Before  adjourning,  it  was  resolved  that  the  rules  adopted  by  the  Con- 
vention of  1860,  for  the  meeting  of  1870,  be  adopted  for  the  Convention 
of  1880,  simply  changing  the  dates. 

The  fifth  revision  of  the  Pharmacopoeia  was  published  in  1873. 

SIXTH  REVISION 

The  next  Convention  assembled  on  May  5,  1880,  at  Washington. 
There  were  one  hundred  and  nine  delegates  accredited  from  ten  Medical 
Societies,  twenty-three  Medical  Colleges,  eleven  Pharmaceutical  Col- 
leges, and  the  medical  departments  of  the  Army,  the  Navy,  and  the 
Marine  Hospital  Service.  Seventy-five  delegates  attended  the  meeting. 
Dr.  Robert  Amory,  of  Boston,  was  elected  President  of  the  Convention. 

Important  changes  were  directed  at  this  meeting  to  be  made  in  the 


XIV  HISTORICAL  INTRODUCTION 

Pharmacopoeia,  the  more  prominent  ones  being  the  following :  all  articles 
were  to  be  arranged  in  alphabetical  order;  a  new  chemical  nomencla- 
tm"e  was  to  be  introduced;  quantities  were  to  be  stated  in  "parts  by 
weight,"  and  descriptions  of  crude  drugs  and  of  chemicals  were  to  be 
made  more  comprehensive  and  exact.  Numerous  tables  were  also 
directed  to  be  added  to  the  work.  A  Committee  of  Revision  was  elected, 
consisting  of  twenty-five  members,  and  its  powers  and  duties  were 
expressly  defined. 

Regarding  the  call  to  be  issued  for  the  Convention  of  1890,  it  was 
resolved  that  the  President  of  the  Convention  of  1880  should,  on  or 
about  the  first  day  of  May,  1889,  issue  a  notice  requesting  the  several 
incorporated  Medical  Societies,  the  incorporated  Medical  Colleges,  the 
incorporated  Colleges  of  Pharmacy,  the  incorporated  Pharmaceutical 
Societies  throughout  the  United  States,  the  American  Medical  Associa- 
tion, and  the  American  Pharmaceutical  Association,  each  to  elect  a 
number  of  delegates,  not  exceeding  three;  the  Surgeon-General  of  the 
Army,  the  Surgeon-General  of  the  Navy,  and  the  Surgeon-General  of  the 
Marine  Hospital  Service,  each  to  appoint  not  exceeding  three  medical 
officers,  to  attend  a  General  Convention  for  the  Revision  of  the  Pharma- 
copoeia of  the  United  States,  to  be  held  in  Washington,  D.C.,  on  the 
first  Wednesday  of  May,  1890. 

It  was  also  resolved  that  the  several  bodies,  as  well  as  the  Medical 
Departments  of  the  Army,  the  Navy,  and  the  Marine  Hospital  Service, 
thus  addressed,  should  also  be  requested  by  the  President  to  submit  the 
Pharmacopoeia  to  a  careful  revision  and  to  transmit  the  result  of  their* 
labors,  through  their  delegates,  to  the  Committee  of  Revision,  at  least 
three  months  before  the  meeting  of  the  Convention. 

The  several  medical  and  pharmaceutical  bodies  were  further  to  be 
requested  to  transmit  to  the  President  of  the  Convention  of  1880  the 
names  and  residences  of  their  respective  delegates,  as  soon  as  they  had 
been  appointed ;  a  list  of  whom  was  to  be  published,  under  his  authority, 
for  the  information  of  the  medical  public,  in  the  newspapers  and  medical 
journals,  in  the  month  of  March,  1890. 

Finally,  it  was  resolved  that  in  the  event  of  the  death,  resignation,  or 
inability  of  the  President  of  the  Convention  to  act,  these  duties  should 
devolve  successively,  in  the  following  order  of  precedence:  upon  the 
Vice-Presidents,  the  Secretary,  the  Assistant  Secretary,  and  the  Chair- 
man of  the  Committee  of  Revision  and  Publication  of  the  Pharmacopoeia. 

The  sixth  revision  of  the  Pharmacopoeia  was  published  at  the  close 
of  October,  1882. 


HISTORICAL  INTRODUCTION  XV 

SEVENTH  REVISION 

In  accordance  with  the  instructions  of  the  Convention  of  1880,  the 
Convention  for  the  Seventh  Decennial  Revision  of  the  Pharmacopoeia 
of  the  United  States  of  America  met  on  May  7,  1890,  in  the  City  of 
Washington,  one  hundred  and  seventy-five  delegates  being  present, 
representing  the  Medical  Departments  of  the  United  States  Army,  the 
United  States  Navy,  the  United  States  Marine  Hospital  Service,  and 
fifteen  Medical  Societies  or  Associations,  twenty-three  Medical  Colleges 
and  Universities,  twenty-five  Pharmaceutical  Associations,  and  twenty- 
three  Colleges  of  Pharmacy  and  Universities. 

Dr.  Horatio  C.  Wood,  of  Philadelphia,  was  elected  President. 

It  was  recommended  by  the  Convention  that  assay  processes  should 
be  appended  to  the  United  States  Pharmacopoeia!  description  of  the 
energetic  or  otherwise  important  drugs,  and  to  such  galenical  prepara- 
tions as  the  Committee  of  Revision  of  the  Pharmacopoeia  should  deem 
wise,  especial  care  being  taken  that  the  assay  processes  for  opium  and 
cinchona  should  be  attended  with  as  little  manipulative  difficulty 
as  possible;  that  the  standard  of  purity  for  drugs  should  not  be  above 
the  point  of  practicability;  that  the  strength  of  official  tinctures  and 
wines  should  be  ten  per  cent,  as  far  as  advisable  in  the  judgment  of  the 
Committee;  that  no  substances  protected  by  proprietary  rights,  or 
produced  solely  under  a  patented  process,  should  be  introduced  into  the 
Pharmacopoeia. 

In  regard  to  weights  and  measures,  the  principle  of  parts  by  weight 
was  abandoned,  and  the  Committee  of  Revision  was  instructed  to  direct 
soHds  to  be  weighed  and  liquids  to  be  measured,  except  in  those  cases 
in  which  the  Committee  should  find  it  advisable  to  use  weights  only; 
also,  that  the  metric  system  should  be  employed. 

The  Committee  of  Revision,  consisting  of  twenty-six  members,  which 
was  elected  by  the  Convention,  proceeded  to  revise  the  Pharmacopoeia 
in  accordance  with  their  instructions. 

Before  its  adjournment,  the  Convention  for  the  Revision  of  the  United 
States  Pharmacopoeia  directed  that  the  President  of  this  Convention 
shall,  on  or  about  the  first  day  of  May,  1899,  issue  a  notice  requesting 
the  several  bodies  represented  in  the  Conventions  of  1880  and  1890,  and 
also  such  other  incorporated  State  Medical  and  Pharmaceutical  Associa- 
tions, and  incorporated  Colleges  of  Medicine  and  Pharmacy,  as  shall 
have  been  in  continuous  operation  for  at  least  five  years  immediately 
preceding,  to  elect  a  number  of  delegates,  not  exceeding  three,  and  the 
Surgeon-General  of  the  Army,  the  Surgeon-General  of  the  Navy,  and 


XVI  HISTORICAL   INTRODUCTION 

the  Surgeon-General  of  the  Marine  Hospital  Service,  each,  to  appoint, 
not  exceeding  three,  medical  officers,  to  attend  a  General  Convention  for 
the  Revision  of  the  Pharmacopoeia  of  the  United  States,  to  be  held  in 
Washington,  D.C.,  on  the  first  Wednesday  of  May,  1900. 

The  seventh  revision  of  the  United  States  Pharmacopoeia  was  pub- 
lished in  September,  1893,  and  became  official  January  1,  1894.' 

EIGHTH  REVISION 

The  Eighth  Revision  differed  from  previous  revisions  in  the  fact  that 
the  business  management  was  entrusted  to  a  Board  of  Trustees  and  the 
Committee  of  Revision  was  thus  afforded  more  time  to  devote  to  the  im- 
mediate duties  of  revision.  On  July  7,  1900,  a  Charter  with  articles  of 
incorporation  was  issued  by  the  District  of  Columbia  to  the  United 
States  Pharmacopoeial  Convention,  with  a  view  of  giving  greater  stability 
to  the  organization  (see  page  xix). 

By  far  the  most  important  thing  in  connection  with  the  Pharmacopoeia 
was  the  passage  of  an  Act  by  the  Congress  of  the  United  States,  entitled 
the  Food  and  Drugs  Act,  June  30,  1906.  The  standards  adopted  under 
this  Act  were  those  of  the  United  States  Pharmacopoeia  and  the  National 
Formulary,  Up  to  the  time  of  the  passage  of  this  Act  the  standards  of 
the  United  States  Pharmacopoeia  were  not  compulsory,  except  in  a  very 
few  instances ;  in  certain  States  and  for  Governmental  use  various  States 
in  the  Union  followed  the  action  of  the  Federal  Government  and  passed 
laws  of  similar  import.  The  passage  of  this  legislation  at  once  compelled 
official  preparations  to  be  made  in  accordance  with  the  requirements  of 
the  standards  of  the  United  States  Pharmacopoeia,  and  a  far  greater 
interest  was  taken  in  these  standards  in  all  parts  of  the  country. 

In  September,  1902,  there  was  held  in  the  City  of  Brussels  an  impor- 
tant conference,  entitled  "Conference  Internationale  pour  I'Unification 
de  la  Formule  des  Medicaments  Heroiques,"  which  was  composed  of 
delegates  from  nearly  every  civilized  country.  The  purpose  of  this  body 
was  to  endeavor  to  formulate  standards  for  potent  remedies  which  would 
be  adopted  by  the  various  pharmacopoeias  of  the  world,  and  thus  there 
would  be  secured  the  principal  object  of  an  international  pharmacopoeia. 
The  recommendations  of  this  conference  were  adopted  by  the  Com- 
mittee of  Revision,  except  in  one  or  two  instances.  This  has  made 
necessary  a  number  of  changes  in  the  strength  of  important  official  prep- 
arations (see  table,  page  liii). 

The  Purity  Rubric  was  first  established  in  the  eighth  revision,  the 
object  being  explained  as  follows:    "The  necessity  for  more  accurately 


HISTORICAL  INTRODUCTION  XVll 

defining  the  limit  of  purity  permissible  in  official  chemical  substances 
has  been  apparent  for  many  years.  In  the  Sixth  Decennial  Revision 
this  question  was  met  by  inserting  more  definite  descriptions  with 
qualitative  and  quantitative  tests.  In  the  Seventh  Revision  will  be 
found  a  still  greater  elaboration  of  this  plan.  In  the  present  revision 
there  has  been  added  what  has  come  to  be  kno^vn  as  the  purity  standard, 
or  purity  'rubric,'  which  is  placed  in  large  type  immediately  before  the 
description,  and  which  defines  the  percentage  of  small  quantities  of  per- 
missible, innocuous  impurities  which  do  not  materially  affect  medicinal 
action  or  interfere  with  pharmaceutical  uses.  It  is  believed  that  this 
plan  will  enable  the  reader  to  ascertain  at  a  glance  the  standard  which 
has  been  adopted,  and  which  represents  what  the  Committee  believes  to 
be  obtainable,  and  which,  on  the  other  hand,  will  not  prove  burdensome 
or  impossible  for  the  manufacturer  to  produce  without  adding  unneces- 
sary and  excessive  cost  to  the  consumer.  The  Purity  Standard  require- 
ments, which  limit  the  quantity  of  innocuous  impurities,  are,  unless  other- 
wise specified,  to  be  understood  as  applying  to  chemical  substances 
which  are  free  from  adherent  moisture,  but  an  allowance  not  exceeding 
3  per  cent,  of  moisture  is  permitted  in  non-hygroscopic  crystallized  chem- 
ical salts.  Chemical  substances  in  the  form  of  powder  or  capillary  crys- 
tals and  all  hygroscopic  salts  are  to  be  dispensed  in  a  condition  of  sen- 
sible dryness.  As  long  as  this  condition  is  fulfilled,  the  moisture  present 
is  not  to  be  regarded  as  an  impurity. 

In  the  case  of  efflorescent  salts,  the  Purity  Standard  must  be  under- 
stood as  applying  only  to  the  uneffloresced  crystals,  and  only  such  should 
be  dispensed. 

In  some  cases  it  \vill  doubtless  be  found  that  the  manufacturer  can 
slightly  exceed  the  hmit  of  purity,  and  if  this  be  the  case,  no  objection 
can  be  made,  the  language  used  being  usually  'not  less  than  —  per  cent, 
of  pure  salt.' 

Inasmuch  as  there  has  existed  in  the  past  on  the  part  of  the  public  a 
misconception  of  the  purposes  of  a  pharmacopoeia,  and  penalties  have 
been  imposed  upon  those  who  have  sold  substances  bearing  pharma- 
copoeial  names  which  were  to  be  used  in  the  arts,  for  manufacturing, 
and  other  purposes,  and  not  as  medicines,  it  became  necessary  to  make 
the  following  declaration: 

The  standards  of  purity  and  strength  prescribed  in  the  text  of  this  Phar- 
macopoeia are  intended  to  apply  to  substances  which  are  used  solely  for 
medicinal  purposes  and  when  professedly  bought,  sold,  or  dispensed  as 

such." 
2 


XVlll  HISTORICAL  INTRODUCTION 

An  advance  was  made  in  the  eighth  revision  in  the  number  of  proxi- 
mate assays  and  the  processes  themselves  were  made  more  efficient. 
Serum  products  were  introduced  because  of  their  growing  importance. 

The  long  continued  custom  of  designating  United  States  Pharmaco- 
poeias by  the  decennial  periods  of  their  revision  was  dropped,  and  they 
were  designated  by  the  number  of  revisions;  instead  of  U.S.P.  1900, 
which  was  not  issued  until  1905,  it  was  called  simply  the  "  Eighth  Decen- 
nial Revision." 

Average  doses  were  appended  under  each  article,  which  were  not 
intended  to  be  compulsory,  but  which  were  to  act  as  a  guide  in  the  admin- 
istration of  medicines. 

The  eighth  revision  became  official  from  September  1st,  1905,  and 
some  additions  and  corrections  were  necessary,  to  June  1st,  1907,  on 
account  of  the  passage  of  the  Food  and  Drugs  Act. 

General  tests  for  heavy  metals  and  arsenic  which  would  apply  to 
many  chemical  substances  throughout  the  text  were  inserted  under  the 
head  of  "General  Tests"  in  the  Appendix.  This  saved  much  space  and 
was  greatly  appreciated. 

A  Digest  of  Comments  was  authorized  in  this  revision  and  the  work 
was  done  under  the  supervision  of  the  Public  Health  and  Marine  Hos- 
pital Service. 

A  Spanish  translation  of  the  Eighth  Revision  of  the  United  States 
Pharmacopoeia,  in  1909,  was  received  with  much  satisfaction  in  the  Span- 
ish-speaking countries. 


ARTICLES  OF  INCORPORATION 

IN  accordance  with  the  mstructions  of  the  United  States  Pharma- 
copoeial  Convention  of  May,  1900,  the  Board  of  Trustees  directed 
its  Chairman,  Mr.  W.  S.  Thompson,  of  Washington,  D.  C,  to  em- 
ploy an  attorney  who  should  take  out  articles  of  incorporation  for  the 
Convention  under  the  laws  of  the  District  of  Columbia. 

The  first  difficulty  encountered  was  in  the  fact  that  the  laws  aforesaid 
require  that  a  majority  of  the  Incorporators  be  residents  of  the  District 
of  Columbia.  This  made  it,  at  least,  impracticable  to  include  among 
these  Incorporators  the  Officers  and  Committee  of  Revision  elected  by 
the  Convention.  It  was  then  determined  to  ask  the  Committee  on 
Credentials  and  Arrangements  to  officiate  in  this  capacity,  and  the 
treasurer.  Dr.  W.  M.  Mew,  took  the  place  of  Dr.  J.  E.  Brackett,  because 
of  the  latter's  absence  from  the  country. 

These  preliminaries  having  been  arranged,  the  following  certificate  of 
incorporation  was  drawn  up,  signed,  and  recorded,  finally,  on  the 
eleventh  day  of  July,  1900: 

CERTIFICATE  OF  INCORPORATION 

This  is  to  certify  that  wc,  whose  names  are  hereunto  subscribed,  citizens  of  the 
United  States,  of  full  age,  and  a  majority  citizens  of  the  District  of  Columbia,  do 
associate  ourselves  together  pursuant  to  the  provisions  of  sections  545-552  inclusive 
of  the  Revised  Statutes  of  the  United  States  relating  to  the  District  of  Columbia  and 
of  the  act  of  Congress  to  amend  the  same,  approved  the  twenty-third  day  of  April, 
1884,  under  the  corporate  name  of  The  United  States  Pharmacopoeial  Convention. 

This  Association  is  organized  for  a  period  of  nine  hundred  and  ninety-nine  years. 

The  particular  objects  and  business  of  this  Association  are  the  encouragement  and 
promotion  of  the  science  and  art  of  medicine  and  pharmacy  by  selecting  by  research 
and  experiment  and  other  proper  methods  and  by  naming  such  materials  as  may  be 
properly  used  as  medicines  and  drugs  with  formulas  for  their  preparation;  by  estab- 
lishing one  uniform  standard  and  guide  for  the  use  of  those  engaged  in  the  practice 
of  medicine  and  pharmacy  in  the  United  States  whereby  the  identity,  strength,  and 
purity  of  all  such  medicines  and  drugs  may  be  accurately  determined,  and  for 
other  like  and  similar  purposes;  and  by  printing  and  distributing  at  suitable 
intervals  such  formulas  and  the  results  of  such  and  similar  selections,  names,  and 
determinations  among  the  members  of  this  Association,  pharmacists,  and  physicians 
generally  in  the  United  States  and  others  interested  in  pharmacy  and  medicine. 

xix 


XX  ARTICLES  OF  INCORPORATION 

The  management  and  control  of  the  affairs,  funds,  and  property  of  this  Associa- 
tion for  the  first  year  of  its  existence  shall  be  vested  in  a  Board  of  Trustees  consisting 
of  the  seven  following  persons  :* 

Albert  E.  Ebert. 
Samuel  A.  D.  Sheppard. 
William  S.  Thompson. 
Charles  E.  Dohme. 
George  W.  Sloan. 
Horatio  C.  Wood. 
Charles  Rice. 

In  testimony  whereof  we  have  hereunto  set  our  hands  and  affixed  our  seals  this 
seventh  day  of  July,  1900, 

t  William  S.  Thompson.  [seal] 

t  G.  Lloyd  Magruder.  [seal] 

t  John  T.  Winter.  [seal] 

t  Thomas  C.  Smith,  [seal] 

Murray  G.  Motter.  [seal] 

t  William  M.  Mew.  [seal] 

Frank  M.  Criswell.  [seal] 

Extracts  from  tlie  Constitution  and  By-Laws  of  the  United  States 
Pliarmacopceial  Convention. 

Constitution,  Article  II. — Membership 

"Section  1. — The  members  of  the  United  States  PharmacopcEial 
Convention,  in  addition  to  the  incorporators  and  their  associates,  shall 
be  delegates  elected  by  the  following  organizations  in  the  manner  they 
shall  respectively  provide:  Incorporated  Medical  Colleges,  and  Medical 
Schools  connected  with  Incorporated  Colleges  and  Universities;  Incor- 
porated Colleges  of  Pharmacy,  and  Pharmaceutical  Schools  connected 
with  Incorporated  Universities;  Incorporated  State  Medical  Associa- 
tions; Incorporated  State  Pharmaceutical  Associations;  the  American 
Medical  Association,  the  American  Pharmaceutical  Association,  and  the 
American  Chemical  Society;  provided  that  no  such  organization  shall 
be  entitled  to  representation  unless  it  shall  have  been  incorporated 
within,  and  shall  have  been  in  continuous  operation  in,  the  United 
States  for  at  least  five  years  before  the  time  fixed  for  the  decennial 
meeting  of  this  corporation. 

*  The  laws  of  the  District  of  Columbia  with  regard  to  corporations  require  that 
the  Board  of  Trustees,  or  Directors,  for  the  first  year  shall  be  named  in  the  Certifi- 
cate of  Incorporation. 

t  Deceased. 


ARTICLES  OF  INCORPORATION  XXI 

"Section  2. — Delegates  appointed  by  the  Surgeon-General  of  the 
United  States  Army,  the  Surgeon-General  of  the  United  States  Navy, 
and  the  Surgeon-General  of  the  United  States  Marine  Hospital  Service, 
and  by  the  organizations  not  hereinbefore  named,  which  were  admitted 
to  representation  in  the  Convention  of  1900,  shall  also  be  members  of 
the  corporation.  Each  body  and  each  branch  of  the  United  States 
Goverrmient  above  mentioned  shall  be  entitled  to  send  three  delegates 
to  the  meetings  of  this  corporation.  But  no  such  delegates  as  are  pro- 
vided for  in  this  article  shall  be  members  until  their  credentials  shall 
have  been  examined  and  acted  upon  as  provided  for  by  the  By-Laws. 
Delegates  admitted  as  members  at  any  decennial  meeting  shall  con- 
tinue to  be  members  of  the  United  States  Pharmacopoeial  Convention 
until  their  successors  shall  have  been  appointed  and  admitted  as  dele- 
gates to  the  ensuing  Convention,  and  no  longer." 

Constitution,  Article  V. — Meetings 

"The  regular  meetings  of  this  corporation  shall  be  held  once  in  ten 
years.  The  time  of  holding  the  decennial  meeting  shall  be  upon  the 
second  Tuesday  in  May,  in  the  first  year  in  each  decade  ending  in  zero, 
and  the  place  of  meeting  shall  be  in  the  City  of  Washington,  D.C.  The 
first  decennial  meeting  shall  be  held  in  the  year  1910." 

By-Laws,  Chapter  I. — Of  the  President 

"Article  VIII. — He  shall  issue,  on  or  about  the  first  of  ]\Iay  of  the 
year  immediately  preceding  that  of  the  decennial  meeting,  a  notice 
inviting  the  several  bodies,  entitled  under  the  Constitution  to  repre- 
sentation therein,  to  send  delegates  to  the  next  meeting.  He  shall 
repeat  the  notification  eight  months  later,  and  shall  request  the  medical 
and  pharmaceutical  journals  of  the  United  States  to  publish  the  call 
for  the  said  meeting." 


ABSTRACT  OF  THE  PROCEEDINGS   OF 
THE  NINTH  DECENNIAL  CONVENTION,  1910 

THE  first  decennial  meeting  of  the  United  States  Pharmacopoeial 
Convention,  Incorporated  (the  ninth  decennial  convention  for 
the  revision  of  the  Pharmacopoeia),  met  at  the  New  Willard 
Hotel,  Washington,  D.C.,  on  Tuesday,  May  10th,  1910,  at  10  o'clock 
A.M.,  and,  owing  to  the  illness  of  the  President,  Horatio  C.  Wood,  Sr., 
and  the  death  of  the  First  Vice-President,  Albert  B.  Prescott,  the 
meeting  was  called  to  order  by  the  Second  Vice-President,  Otto  A.  Wall. 

Addresses  were  delivered  by  the  Honorable  Charles  Nagel,  Secretary 
of  Commerce  and  Labor,  and  by  Senor  Don  Joaquin  Bernardo  Calvo, 
Envoy  Extraordinary  and  Mmister  Plenipotentiary  of  Costa  Rica. 
The  presidential  address  of  Dr.  H.  C.  Wood,  Sr.,  was  read  by  Dr.  Otto 
A.  Wall  and  reports  were  presented  by  the  Secretary,  Henry  M.  Whelp- 
ley;  the  Treasurer,  G.  Wythe  Cook;  the  Acting  Chairman  of  the  Board 
of  Trustees,  James  H.  Beal;  and  the  chairman  of  the  Committee  of 
Revision,  Joseph  P.  Remington. 

The  order  of  business  was  similar  to  that  followed  by  previous  Phar- 
macopoeial Conventions.  After  the  report  of  the  Committee  on  Cre- 
dentials and  Arrangements,  the  Committee  on  Nominations  organized 
and,  in  due  course,  presented  nominations  for  officers  and  the  members 
of  the  Committee  of  Revision  for  the  ensuing  decade,  who  were  duly 
elected  (see  page  xli). 

The  Convention  then  entered  into  a  discussion  on  the  General  Princi- 
ples to  be  followed  in  revising  the  Pharmacopoeia  (see  page  xxxi) ;  reports 
and  recommendations,  submitted  by  various  institutions  and  organiza- 
tions, were  referred  to  the  Committee  of  Revision  for  its  guidance;  and, 
after  the  usual  resolutions  of  thanks,  the  Convention  adjourned,  sine 
die,  at  noon  on  Thursday,  May  12. 

The  Abstract  of  Proceedings  of  the  Convention  has  been  published 
in  pamphlet  form  by  the  Board  of  Trustees  and  may  be  obtained  on 
application,  enclosing  four  cents  postage,  to  Murray  Gait  Motter,  M.D., 
Secretary  of  the  Convention,  who  may  be  addressed  at  the  Hygienic 
Laboratory,  25  and  E  Streets,  Northwest,  Washington,  D.C. 

xxiii 


XXIV  ABSTRACT  OF  THE    PROCEEDINGS   OP 


THE  MEMBERSHIP  OF  CONVENTION  OF  1910 

The  Members  of  the  U.  S.  Pharmacopoeial  Convention  of  1910  consisted  of  the 
four  incorporators  who  were  living,  the  Officers  of  the  Convention  of  1900,  the 
Board  of  Trustees,  the  Committee  of  Revision  of  1900-1910  and  the  following 
registered  delegates:* 

U.  S.  GOVERNMENT  SERVICES 

Surgeon-General's  Office,  United  States  War  Department:  Walter  D.  McCaw,  Carl 
R.  Darnall,  Frederick  F.  Russell. 

Bureau  of  Medicine  and  Surgery,  United  States  Navy  Department:  H.  G.  Beyer, 
G.  L.  Angeny,  P.  J.  Waldner. 

Bureau  of  Public  Health  and  Marine-Hospital  Service,  United  States  Treasury  De- 
partment: John  F.  Anderson,  Reid  Hunt,  Martin  I.  Wilbert. 

United  States  Department  of  Agriculture:  Rodney  H.  True,  John  R.  Mohler,  Lyman 
F.  Kebler. 

NATIONAL  ORGANIZATIONS 

American  Medical  Association   {Inc.  1897):  W.  A.  Puckner,  George  H.  Simmons. 
American  Pharmaceutical  Association  (Inc.  1888) :  Albert  B.  Lyons,  Charles  Holz- 

hauer,  Thomas  F.  Main. 
American  Chemical  Society  (Inc.  1877) :  George  D.  Rosengarten,  L.  W.  Andrews, 

Edward  Hart. 
Association  of  Official  Agricultural  Chemists:  W.  D.  Bigelow,  L.  P.  Brown,  C.  E. 

Parker. 
Association  of  State  and  National  Food  and  Dairy  Departments:  Charles  D.  Woods, 

V.  K.  Chesnut. 
National  Wholesale  Druggists'  Association:  W.  J.  Schieffelin,  C.  M.  Kline,  J.  K. 

LiUy. 
National  Dental  Association  (Inc.  1906):  M.  F.  Finley,  Joseph  Head. 

ARKANSAS 

Arkansas  Medical  Society  (Inc.  1875) :  L.  J.  Kosminsky,  William  Crutcher. 
Arkansas  Association  of  Pharmacists  (Inc.  1889) :  W.  L.  Dewoody,  Jesse  D.  Hodges. 

CALIFORNIA 

Medical  Society,  Slate  of  California  (Inc.  1870) :  A.  L.  Lengfeld. 

COLORADO 

Colorado  State  Medical  Society  (Inc.  1888):  E.  C.  Hill,  George  A.  Moleen. 
Colorado  Pharmacal  Association  (Inc.  1890):  Charles  M.  Ford,  S.  L.  Bresler. 

*This  list  is  based  upon  the  ruling  of  the  Chair,  from  which  no  appeal  was 
taken,  as  follows: 

"  The  Chair  feels  compelled  to  rule  that  anyone  elected  a  delegate  here  who  has 
not  come,  is  not  a  member  of  this  Convention,  and  cannot  be  elected  a  member  of 
any  committee  or  as  an  officer." 


THE  NINTH  DECENNIAL  CONVENTION,   1910  XXV 


CONNECTICUT 

Connecticut  State  Medical  Society  (Inc.  1834):  Samuel  M.  Garlick. 

Yale  Medical  School,  New  Haven   (Inl    "810):  Oliver   T.  Osborne,  Clarence  G. 

Spalding. 
Connecticut  Pharmaceutical  Association  {Inc.   1889):  Charles  A.  Rapelye,  Charles 

W.  \NTaittlesey. 

DELAWARE 

Delaware  Pharmaceutical  Society  {Inc.  1890):  H.  J.  Watson,  William  Poole,  J.  T. 
Challenger. 

DISTBICT  OF  COLUMBIA 

Medical  Society  of  the  District  of  Columbia  {Inc.  1819):    Murray  Gait  Motter,  John 

W.  Chappell. 
Georgetown  University,  School  of  Medicine  {Inc.  1815):  George  M.  Kober,  Wilfred 

M.  Barton. 
George  Washington  University,  Department  of  Medicine  {Inc.  1821):  Sterling  RufEn, 

B.  M.  Randolph,  Noble  P.  Barnes. 
Howard    University,  Medical  College    {Inc.  1867):  Wilham  H.  Seaman,  J.  Herve 

Purdy. 
Howard  University,  Pharmaceutical  College  {Inc.  1867):  Paul  Bartsch. 
George  Washington  University,  National  College  of  Pharmacy  {Inc.  1872):     Henry 

E.  Kalusowski,  Samuel  L.  Hilton,  Lewis  Fiemer. 


Atlanta  College  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons  {Inc.  1898):  C.  C.  Aven,  I.  W.  Cum- 
mings. 

Georgia  Pharmaceutical  Association  {Inc.  1890):  Max  Morris,  W.  S.  Elkin,  Jr. 

Atlanta  College  of  Pharmacy  {Atlanta  College  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons,  Depart- 
ment of  Pharmacy)  {Inc.  1874):  George  F.  Payne,  N.  T.  Ritter,  W.  F.  Beden- 
baugh. 

University  of  Georgia,  School  of  Pharmacy,  Athens  {Inc.  1903):  Robert  C.  Wilson, 
Atherton  Seidell,  Thad.  B.  Rice. 


Illinois  State  Medical  Society  {Inc.  1903):  N,  S.  Davis. 

Chicago  Medical  Society  {Cook  County)  {Inc.  1897):    Walter  S.  Haines. 

Northwestern  University,  Medical  School,  Chicago  {Inc.  1864):  Arthiur  R.  Edwards, 
John  H.  Long. 

University  of  Illinois,  Medical  Department,  College  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons  of 
Chicago  {Inc.  1881):  Bernard  Fant us. 

Chicago  College  of  Medicine  and  Surgery  {Inc.  1902):  Clyde  ^L  Snow. 

Illinois  Pharmaceutical  Association  {Inc.  1880):  Wilhelin  Bodemann,  W.  C.  Simp- 
son, Herman  Fry. 

University  of  Illinois,  School  of  Pharmacy  {Chicago  College  of  Pharmacy)  {Inc. 
1859):    C.  S.  N.  Hallberg,  A.  H.  Clark,  W.  B.  Day. 

Northwestern  University,  School  of  Pharmacy  {Inc.  1886):  Harry  Mann  Gordic, 
Charles  W.  Patterson. 


XXVI  ABSTRACT  OF  THE   PROCEEDINGS  OP 


INDIANA 

Indiana  Staee  Medical  Association  {Inc.  1875):  Samuel  Kennedy. 

Indiana  University,  School  of  Medicine    (Inc.  1830):  C.  Richard  Schaefer,  A.  D. 

Thorburn. 
Indiana   Pharmaceutical   Association    (Not   Inc.):   Fred   W.  Meissner,    Leo   Eliel, 

William  H.  Rudder. 
University  of  Notre  Dame,  School   of  Pharmacy,  Notre  Dame  (Inc.  1898):  J.  W. 

Sturmer,  Louis  Kelley. 
Purdue  University,  School  of  Pharmacy,  Lafayette   (Inc.  1869):  Harvey  W.  Wiley, 

Ernest  C.  Eberhardt,  Charles  E.  Vanderkleed. 
Val-paraiso  University,  School  of  Pharmacy  (Inc.  1893):  J.  Newton  Roe. 


State  University  of  Iowa,  College  of  Medicine,  Iowa  City  (Inc.  1869):  Charles  S. 

Chase,  Charles  E.  Riggs. 
Iowa  Pharmaceutical  Association  (Inc.  1888):  George  Judisch. 

University  of  Iowa,  College  of  Pharmacy,  Iowa  City  (Inc.  1885):  Wilber  J.  Teeters. 
Highland  Park  College  of  Pharmacy,  Des  Moines  (Inc.  1899):  George  A.  Menge. 


University  of  Kansas,  School  of  Medicine,  Lawrence  (Inc.   1905):  S.  J.  Crumbine. 
Kansas  Pharmaceutical  Association   (Inc.  1880):  Frank  E.  HoUiday,  Matt.  Noll, 

W.  S.  Amos. 
University  of  Kansas,  School  of  Pharmacy,  Lawrence  (Inc.  1885):  L.  E.  Sayre. 

KENTUCKY 

Kentucky  State  Medical  Association   (Inc.    1855):    J.  N.  McCormack,  "\''irgil   E. 

Simpson. 
Kentucky  Pharmaceutical  Association   (Inc.  1888):    C.  Lewis  Diehl,  L.  A.  Brown. 

LOUISIANA 

Tulane  University,  Medical  Department,  New  Orleans  (Inc.  1847):  Abraham  Louis 
Metz. 

New  Orleans  University,  Flint  Medical  College  (Inc.  1873):  W.  H.  Harrison. 

Louisiana  State  Pharmaceutical  Association  (Inc.  1884):  Philip  Asher,  F.  C.  God- 
bold,  Adam  Wirth. 

New  Orleans  College  of  Pharmacy  (Inc.  1900):  C.  D.  Sauvinet,  John  E.  Scott. 

MAINE 

Maine  Pharmaceutical  Association  (Inc.  1868):  Charles  H.  Davis. 

MARYLAND 

Medical  and  Chirurgical  Faculty  of  Maryland   (Inc.  1799):  John  D.  Blake,  Elmer 

R.  Freeman,  C.  Urban  Smith. 
University  of  Maryland,  School  of  Medicine,   Baltimore    (Inc.   1812):   Joseph  E. 

Gichner. 


THE  NINTH  DECENNIAL  CONVENTION,  1910  Xxvil 

College  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons,  Baltimore  {Inc.  1872):  John  Ruriih,  S.  J.  Fort, 
Harvey  G.  Beck. 

Baltimore  Medical  College  {Inc.  1S81):  William  Caspari,  Charles  O'Donovan. 

Johns  Hopkins  University,  Medical  Department  {Inc.  1S93):  Leonard  G.  Itowntree. 

Maryland  Medical  College  {Inc.  189S):  G.  C.  Dohme,  W.  S.  Love. 

Maryland  Pharmaceutical  Association  {Inc.  1889):  A.  R.  L.  Dohme,  Charles  Mor- 
gan, E.  F.  Kelly. 

University  of  Maryland,  Department  of  Pharmacy,  Baltimore  {Inc.  1841):  David 
M.  R.  Culbreth,  Henry  P.  Hynson,  Charles  Caspari,  Jr. 

MASSACHUSETTS 

Massachusetts  Medical  Society  {Inc.  1781):  Frank  G.  Wheatley.' 
Harvard  Medical  School:  F.  L.  Pleadwell,  J.  L.  Neilson,  C.  N.  Fiske. 
Tufts  College  Medical  School,  Boston  {Inc.  1852):  Alfred  William  Balch. 
College  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons,  Boston  {Inc.  1880):  I.  E.  Leonard. 
Massachusetts  Pharmaceutical  Association    {Inc.  1883):  Charles  F.  Nixon,  Ernest 

O.  Engstrom,  Fred  A.  Hubbard. 
Massachusetts  College  of  Pharmacy,  Boston  {Inc.  1852):  Elie  H.  LaPierre,   Irving 

P.  Gammon,  John  G.  Godding. 

MICHIGAN 

University  of  Michigan,  Department  of  Medicine  and  Surgery,  Ann  Arbor  {Inc.  1850): 

Charles  W.  Edmunds,  Worth  Hale,  J.  W.  Trask. 
Detroit  College  of  Medicine  {Inc.  1885):  Walter  J.  Wilson,  Jr.,  E.  M.  Houghton. 
Michigan  State  Pharmaceutical  Association:  Leonard  A.  Seltzer,  J.  M.  Francis. 
University  of  Michigan,  School  of  Pharmacy,  Ann  Arbor  (Inc.  1868):  J.  O.  Schlot- 

terbeck,  A.  B.  Stevens. 

MINNESOTA 

University  of  Minnesota,  College  of  Medicine  and  Surgery,  Minneapolis   {Inc.  1S8S): 

E.  D.  Brown. 
Minnesota    State   Pharmaceutical  Association    {Inc.   1883):   John   Nielson,   J,  W. 

Harrah,  A.  D.  Thompson. 
Minnesota  State  University,  College  of  Pharmacy,  Minneapolis  {Inc.  1892):  W.  A. 

Frost. 

MISSOURI 

University  of  Missouri,  School  of  Medicine,  Columbia  {Inc.  1873):   W.  O.  Emery, 

H.  L.  Shantz,  W.  H.  Schultz. 
St.  Louis  Medical  Society  {Inc.  1834):  Otto  A.  Wall. 

Washington  University,  Medical  School,  St.  Louis  {hic.  1891):  Henry  M.  Whelpley. 
Missouri  Pharmaceutical  Association  {Inc.  1889):  Charles  Gietner,  H.  M.  Pettit. 
St.  Louis  College  of  Pharmacy  {Inc.  1866):  James  M.  Good,  Charles  E.  Caspari. 

NEBRASKA 

University  of  Nebraska,  College  of  Medicine,  Lincoln  {Inc.  1875):  Rufus  Ashley 
Lynaan. 


XXVlll  ABSTRACT  OE»  THE  PROCEEDINGS  OP 

NEW  HAMPSHIRE 

New  Hampshire  Medical  Society  {Inc.  1791):  C.  W.  Bowker. 

NEW  JERSEY 

Medical  Society  of  New  Jersey  {Inc.  1864):  Henry  L.  Coit,  Alexander  Marcy,  Jr., 

Philip  Marvel. 
New  Jersey  Pharmaceutical  Association  {Inc.  1874):    George  M.  Beringer,  Herman 

J.  Lohmann,  George  H.  White. 
New  Jersey  College  of  Pharmacy,  Newark  {Inc.  1892):     Rudolph  Breves,  Adolph 

Marquier,  Philemon  E.  Hommell. 

NEW  YORK 

Medical  Society  of  the  State  of  New  York  {Inc.  1807):    William  A.  Groat,  W.  A, 

Bastedo,  Samuel  W.  S.  Toms. 
Albany  Medical  College  {Inc.  18S9):    Spencer  Lyman  Dawes. 
Medical  Society  of  the  County  of  Kings  {Inc.  1813):    Murrett  F.  DeLorme. 
Brooklyn  Medical  Society  {Inc.  1895):  Albert  H.  Brundage. 
Long  Island  College  Hospital,  Brooklyn  {Inc.  1858):  Elias  H.  Bartley. 
University  of  Buffalo,  Medical  Department    {Inc.  184-6):  Eli  H.  Long,  Edward  J. 

Kiepe. 
New  York  Academy  of  Medicine  {Inc.  1851):  Frank  Sherman  Meara. 
Columbia  College,  College  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons,  New  York  {Inc.  1807) :  S.  W. 

Lambert,  W.  R.  Williams,  C.  C.  Leib,  Jr. 
University  and  Bellevue  Hospital  Medical  College,  New   York   {Inc.  1831):  George 

B.  Wallace,  C.  F.  Claassen. 
Cornell  University,  Medical  College,  New  York  {Inc.  1865):  Robert  A.  Hatcher. 
Syracuse   University,    College  of   Medicine   {Inc.   1870):  WiUiam  Dewey  Alsever, 

Frank  P.  Knowlton,  H.  L.  Taylor. 
New  York  State  Pharmaceutical  Association  {Inc.  1879):  Joseph  Kahn,  John  Hurley, 

Joseph  Weinstein. 
Albany  College  of  Pharmacy    {Department   of  Pharmacy,   Union    University)    {Inc. 

1881):  Alfred  B.  Huested,  Harry  B.  Mason. 
Kings  County  Pharmaceutical  Society,  Brooklyn  {Inc.  1877):  Otto  Raubenheimer, 

Fred  P.  Tuthill,  K.  C.  Mahegin. 
Brooklyn  College  of  Pharmacy  {Inc.  1886):  William  C.  Anderson,  Henry  W.  Schimpf, 

A.  P.  Lohness. 
University  of  Buffalo,  Department  of  Pharmacy   {Inc.  1886):  Willis   G.  Gregory, 

Frank  E.  Lock. 
Literary  and  Scientific  Society  of  the  German  Apothecaries  of  the  City  of  New  York 

{Inc.  1867):  William  C.  Alpers,  G.  C.  Drobegg. 
New  York  College  of  Pharmacy  {Inc.  1829):  Albert  Plant,  George   C.  Diekman, 

Henry  H.  Rusby. 

NORTH  CAROLINA 

Medical  Society  of  the  State  of  North  Carolina  {Inc.  1858):  William  DeB.  MacNider. 
North  Carolina  Pharmaceutical  Association  {Inc.  1880):  W.  H.  Wearn. 
University  of  North  Carolina,  Department  of  Pharmacy,  Chapel  Hill   {Inc.   1897): 
E.  V.  Howell. 


THE  NINTH  DECENNIAL  CONVENTION,   1910  Xxix 

NORTH  DAKOTA 

North  Dakota  Pharmaceutical  Association  (Inc.  1886):  Oscar  Hallenberg. 

OHIO 

Ohio  State  Medical  Association  {Inc.  1904):  Torald  Sollmann,  Julius  Eichberg. 
University  of  Cincinnati,  Medical  Department  {Inc.  1852):     H.   Kennon  Dunham. 
Weste7~n  Reserve   University,   Medical  Department,   Cleveland   (Inc.  1884):  John  P. 

Sawyer,  Richard  Dexter,  J.  W.  Kerr. 
Ohio  State  Pharmaceutical  Association    {Inc.  1880):  Lewis  C.  Hopp,  Theodore  D. 

Wetterstroem,  George  B.  Topping. 
Cincinnati  College  of  Pharmacy  {Inc.  1850):  John  C.  Otis. 

Northern  Ohio  Druggists'  Association  {Inc.  1899):  Eugene  R.  Selzer,  Virgil  Coblentz. 
Cleveland  School  of  Pharmacy,  Western  Reserve   University,  Department  of  Pharmacy 

{Inc.  1895):  Harry  V.  Arny,  Joseph  Feil,  William  T.  Hankey. 
Ohio  State  University,  College  of  Pharmacy,  Columbus  (Inc.  1896):  George  B.  Kauff- 

man,  C.  A.  Dye,  William  McPherson. 

OKL.\HOMA 

University  of  Oklahoma,  School  of  Pharmacy  (Inc.  1890):   Homer  C.  Washburn. 

OREGON 

Oregon   Agricultural  College^  Department  of  Pharmacy   (Inc.   1898):  E.  R.  Lake, 
C.  M.  McKeUips. 

PENNSYLVANIA 

Medical  Society  of  the  State  of  Pennsylvania  (Inc.  1890):  Adolph  Koenig,  Henry 

Beates. 
Philadelphia  County  Medical  Society  (Inc.  1877):    Henry  W.  Cattell, 
College  of  Physicians  of  Philadelphia  (Inc.  1789):  H.  C.  Wood,  Jr.,  Solomon  Solis 

Cohen. 
University  of  Pennsylvania,  School  of  Medicine,   Philadelphia    (Inc.   1791):  John 

Marshall, 
Jefferson  Medical  College,  of  Philadelphia  (Inc.  1838):  H.  A.  Hare,  J.  W,  HoUand, 

E.  Q.  Thornton. 
Medico-Chirurgical  College  of  Philadelphia  (Inc.  1867):  Judson  Daland,  I.  V.  Stan- 
ley Stanislaus,  Herbert  J.  Smith. 
Temple  University,  Medical  Department,  Philadelphia   (Inc.  1888):  Horace  Binney 

Morse,  E.  B.  Rogers. 
Allegheny  County  Medical  Society,  Pittsburgh  (Inc.  1892):  Thomas  TurnbuU,  Jr., 

J.  C.  Burt. 
University  of  Pittsburgh,  Medical  School  (Inc.  1892):  Albert  Floyd  Judd. 
Pennsylvania  Pharmaceutical  Association   (Inc.  1878):  Lucius  L.  Walton,  W.  L. 

Cliffe,  C.  B.  Lowe, 
Philadelphia  College  of  Pharmacy  (Inc.  1822):  Joseph  P.  Remington,  Samuel  P. 

Sadtler,  Henry  Kraemer. 
Alumni  Association  of  the  Philadelphia  College  of  Pharinacy  (Inc.  1894):  Charles 

H.  LaWaU,  E.  Fullerton  Cook,  Joseph  W.  England. 
Temple    University,    Pharmacy   Department,    Philadelphia    (Inc.  1901):    H.  Evert 

Kendig,  John  R,  Minehart, 


ABSTRACT  OF  THE  PROCEEDINGS  OF 


University  of  Pittsburgh,  Department  of  Pharmacy  {Inc.  1878):  Julius  A.  Koch, 
James  H.  Beal,  Louis  Saalbach.  ■> 

EHODE  ISLAND 

Rhode  Island  Medical  Society  {Inc.  1812):  William  J.  McCaw,  George  M.  Bailey, 

Charles  W.  Higgins. 
Rhode   Island   Pharmaceutical  Association  {Inc.  1875):  Howard  A.  Pearce,  A.  W. 

Fenner,  Jr.,  Frank  A.  Jackson. 
Rhode  Island  College  of  Pharmacy  and  Allied  Sciences  {Inc.  1903):  James  O'Hare. 

BOrXH  CABOLINA 

South  Carolina  Medical  Association  {Inc.  1848):  C.  P.  Aimar. 

Medical  College  of  the  State  of  South  Carolina  {Inc.  1832):  A.  R.  Taft,  E.  S. 
Bumham. 

BOUTH  DAKOTA 

South  Dakota  Stale  Pharmaceutical  Association  {Inc.  1893):  David  F.  Jones,  I.  A. 
Keith,  Edward  C.  Bent. 

TE^'^ESSEE 

Tennessee  Pharmaceutical  Association  {Inc.  1904):  J.  O.  Burge. 
University  of  Tennessee,  School  of  Pharmacy  {Inc.  1898):  Charles  O.  Hill. 
VanderhiXt    University,   Department  of  Pharmacy,  Nashville    {Inc.  1879):  William 
R.  White. 

TEXAS 

University  of  Texas,  Schools  of  Medicine  and  Pharmacy  {Inc.  1887):  Edward 
Randall. 

Texas  Pharmaceutical  Association  {Inc.  1895):  J.  C.  Buckner,  E.  G^  Eberle,  Her- 
man Nester. 

Baylor  University,  Pharmacy  Department,  Dallas  {Inc.  1903):  J.  Connor  Chisholm. 

VERMONT 

University  of  Vermont,  School  of  Medicine  {Inc.):  J.  N.  Jenne. 

VIRGINIA 

Medical  Society  of  Virginia  {Inc.  1871):  John  Staige  Davis. 

University  of  Virginia,  Department  of  Medicine,  Charlottesville  {Inc.  1825):  J.  A. 
E.  Eyster,  J.  C.  Flippin. 

Medical  College  of  Virginia,  Richmond  {Inc.  1854):  Frank  M.  Reade. 

University  College  of  Medicine,  Richmond  {Inc.  1893):  Albert  Bolenbaugh,  Wort- 
ley  F.  Rudd. 

Virginia  Pharmaceutical  Association  {Inc.  1886):  C.  B.  Fleet,  Gordon  Blair. 

WASHINGTON 

Washington  State  Pharmaceutical  Association  {Inc.):  P.  Jensen. 

University  of  Washington,  School  of  Pharmacy  {Inc.  1894):  Charles  W.  Johnson. 

WISCONSIN 

State  Medical  Society  of  Wisconsin  {Inc.  1841):  A.  S.  Loevenhart. 

Wisconsin  Pfiarmaceutical  Association  {Inc.  1881):  Otto  J.  S.  Boberg,  Edward  G. 

Raeuber. 
University  of  Wisconsin,  School  of  Pharmacy  {Inc.  1883):  Edward  Kremers. 


THE  NINTH  DECENNIAL  CONVENTION,   1910  XXXi 


GENERAL  PRINCIPLES  TO  BE  FOLLOWED  FOR  THE 
NINTH  REVISION 

1.  (Scope  of  the  Pharmacopceia. — We  recommend  that  the  Committee 
of  Revision  be  authorized  to  admit  into  the  Pharmacopoeia  any  medic- 
inal substance  of  known  origin,  but  no  substance  or  combination  of 
substances  shall  be  introduced  if  the  composition  or  mode  of  manufac- 
ture thereof  be  kept  secret,  or  if  it  be  controlled  by  unlimited  pro- 
prietary or  patent  rights  and  the  list  of  substances  should  be  carefully 
selected,  with  standards  for  identity  and  purity,  as  far  as  possible. 
Substances  used  only  for  technical  purposes  should  not  be  admitted 
to  the  next  Pharmacopoeia,  and  a  statement  should  be  placed  in  the 
preface  to  the  effect  that  standards  of  purity  and  strength,  prescribed 
in  the  text  of  the  Pharmacopoeia,  are  intended  solely  to  apply  to  sub- 
stances which  are  used  for  medicinal  purposes  or  in  determining  the 
identity  and  purity  of  the  same. 

2.  Doses. — We  recommend  that  after  each  pharmacopoeial  article 
(drug,  chemical,  or  preparation)  which  is  used  or  likely  to  be  used 
internally  or  hypodermically,  the  committee  be  instructed  to  state  the 
average  approximate  (but  neither  a  minimum  nor  a  maximum)  dose 
for  adults,  and,  where  deemed  advisable,  also  for  children.  The  metric 
system  to  be  used,  and  the  approximate  equivalent  in  ordinary  weights 
or  measures  inserted  in  parentheses.  It  is  to  be  distinctly  understood 
that  neither  this  Convention  nor  the  Committee  of  Revision  created  by 
it  intends  to  have  these  doses  regarded  as  obligatory  on  the  physician 
or  as  forbidding  him  to  exceed  them  whenever  in  his  judgment  this 
seems  advisable ;  the  Committee  should  be  directed  to  make  a  dis- 
tinct declaration  to  this  effect  in  some  prominent  place  in  the  new 
Pharmacopoeia. 

3.  Nomenclature. — We  recommend  that  changes  in  the  titles  of  arti- 
cles at  present  official  be  made  only  for  the  purpose  of  insuring  greater 
accuracy,  brevity,  or  safety  in  dispensing,  and  to  eliminate  therapeuti- 
cally suggestive  titles.  In  the  case  of  newly  admitted  articles,  it  is 
recommended  that  such  titles  be  chosen  as  are  in  harmony  with  gen- 
eral usage  and  convenient  for  prescribing,  but  in  the  case  of  chemicals 
of  a  definite  composition  the  scientific  name  should  be  given  at  least  as 
a  synonym. 

There  should  also  be  inserted,  after  each  article  used  by  physicians 
in  prescriptions,  a  carefully  considered  abbreviated  name,  which  may 
be  known  as  an  official  abbreviation,  in  order  that  uniformity  may  be 


XXXll  ABSTRACT  OF  THE   PROCEEDINGS  OF 

established  throughout  the  country,  with  the  object  of  preventing 
mistakes  in  reading  and  compounding  prescriptions,  and  further,  to 
serve  as  authorized  abbreviations  in  labeling  the  store  furniture  of  the 
pharmacist. 

4.  Synonyms. — We  recommend  that  the  list  of  synonyms  should  be 
enlarged  for  the  next  revision,  and  the  synonyms  printed  in  the  text  of 
the  Pharmacopoeia,  immediately  after  the  English  name  of  the  sub- 
stance. A  statement  should  be  made  in  the  preface  of  the  Pharma- 
copceia,  that  substances  labeled  with  an  official  synonym  must  comply 
with  the  same  standards,  tests  and  requirements  as  are  demanded  for  the 
official  article  under  any  name. 

5.  Purity  and  Strength  of  Pharmacopoeial  Articles. — We  recommend 
that  the  Committee  be  instructed  to  revise  as  carefully  as  possible  the 
limits  of  purity  and  strength  of  the  pharmacopoeial  chemicals  and 
preparations  for  which  limiting  tests  are  or  may  be  given.  While  no 
concession  should  be  made  towards  a  diminution  of  medicinal  value, 
allowance  should  be  made  for  unavoidable,  innocuous  impurities  or 
variations  due  to  the  particular  source  or  mode  of  preparation,  or  to 
the  keeping  qualities  of  the  several  articles. 

The  "Purity  Rubric,"  which  limits  the  percentage  of  innocuous  im- 
purities, as  introduced  into  the  Eighth  Revision,  should  be  continued, 
and  tests  and  requirements  should  be  appended  to  each  article  carrying 
a  "Purity  Rubric." 

In  the  case  of  crude  drugs  and  natural  products,  the  limits  of  admis- 
sible impurities  should  be  placed  at  such  a  figure  as  to  exclude  any  that 
would  hot  be  accepted  by  other  countries. 

6.  International  Standards. — The  International  Conference  for  the 
Unification  of  Formulas  for  Potent  Remedies  performed  a  signal  ser- 
vice for  all  countries  by  recommending  the  various  pharmacopoeias  of  the 
world  to  adopt  certain  standards  for  potent  medicines.  It  is  recom- 
mended that  the  next  Committee  of  Revision  adopt  these  standards, 
but  it  is  believed  that  it  would  be  unwise  to  require  the  acceptance 
of  the  details  of  pharmaceutical  or  other  processes  recommended  by 
the  International  Conference. 

If  the  finished  product  conforms  to  the  International  standards  we 
believe  that  each  country  should  be  left  free  to  adopt  such  detail  and 
manipulation  as  may  seem  best.  Nothing  should  prevent,  however, 
the  adoption  of  the  recommendations  of  the  conference,  as  to  details,  if 
in  the  opinion  of  the  next  Committee  of  Revision,  by  so  doing,  the  Phar- 
macopoeia can  be  improved. 


THE  NINTH   DECENNIAL  CONVENTION,   1910  JCXxiU 

7.  General  Formulce. — It  is  recommended  that  general  formulae  be 
introduced,  as  far  as  the  particular  nature  of  the  several  drugs  will 
permit,  for  fluidextracts,  tinctures  and  such  other  preparations  as  are 
made  by  identical  processes,  and  that  the  general  formula  to  be  followed 
in  each  case  be  merely  indicated  by  reference. 

8.  Appending  a  List  of  Preparations  in  Which  an  Official  Article 
is  Used. — It  is  recommended  that,  especially  for  the  convenience  of 
practicing  physicians,  there  should  be  appended  after  each  article  in 
the  text  a  list  of  the  official  preparations  in  which  it  is  used. 

A  few  exceptions  may  be  made  to  this  in  such  cases  as  water,  alcohol, 
glycerin,  sugar,  etc. 

9.  Alcoholic  Percentage  in  Official  Preparations. — It  is  recommended 
that  a  range  of  volume  content,  of  absolute  alcohol,  be  stated  in  the 
Pharmacopoeia,  for  each  preparation  containing  alcohol. 

10.  Assay  Processes. — We  recommend  that  the  Committee  be  in- 
structed to  introduce  assay  processes  for  as  many  of  the  potent  drugs 
and  preparations  made  therefrom  as  may  be  found  practicable,  pro- 
vided that  the  processes  of  assay  are  reasonably  simple  (both  as  to 
methods  and  apparatus  required)  and  lead  to  fairly  uniform  results  in 
different  hands.  As  regards  the  products  of  such  assays,  tests  of 
identity  and  purity  should  be  added  wherever  feasible. 

It  is  recommended  that  biological  tests  or  assays,  when  accurate  and 
reliable,  may  be  admitted. 

11.  Serums  and  Other  Biological  Products. — It  is  recommended  that 
serums  and  other  biological  products,  of  approved  usefulness,  if 
standardized  by  the  Goverimient  or  one  of  the  departments,  may  be 
admitted  to  the  next  Revision  of  the  Pharmacopoeia. 

12.  Weights  and  Measures. — It  is  recommended  that  the  Committee 
be  instructed  to  retain  the  metric  system  of  weights  and  measures  as 
adopted  in  the  Eighth  Decennial  Revision. 

13.  Supplement. — It  is  recommended  that  the  Committee  of  Re- 
vision be  authorized  to  prepare  a  supplement  to  the  Pharmacopoeia  at 
any  time  they  may  deem  such  action  desirable. 

14.  Publicity. — It  is  recommended  that  the  General  Committee  of 
Revision  make  public,  for  comment  and  criticism,  an  abstract  of  new 
descriptions  and  standards  and  of  changes  in  descriptions  and  standards 
proposed,  before  final  adoption. 

15.  Atomic  Weights. — It  is  recommended  that  the  system  of  atomic 
weights,  authorized  by  the  International  Committee  (0  =  16),  be 
adopted  for  the  next  Revision. 

3 


XXXIV  ABSTRACT  OF  THE    PROCEEDINGS  OF   THE   CONVENTION 

16.  Physical  Constants. — It  is  recommended  that  official  methods  for 
taking  physical  constants  be  inserted  in  the  "Introductory  Notices," 
and  these  shall  apply  to  all  articles  in  which  phj'sical  constants  are 
officially  used,  unless  otherwise  specifically  excepted. 

17.  Standard  Temperature. — It  is  recommended  that  the  standard 
temperature  of  25°  C.  (77°  F.)  be  retained,  as  used  in  the  present  Re- 
vision (except  in  the  case  of  alcohol),  and  that  a  table  be  inserted  in 
the  appendix  for  corresponding  figures  at  15°  C.  (59°  F.). 

18.  Compound  Preparations. — It  is  recommended  that  the  intro- 
duction of  new  compound  preparations  be  discouraged  as  far  as 
possible. 

19.  Pharmacognostical  Descriptions. — It  is  recommended  that,  with 
the  description  of  a  crude  drug,  there  be  included  brief  pharmacog- 
nostical descriptions,  both  macroscopic  and  microscopic  where  prac- 
ticable, and  there  should  be  added  a  statement  of  the  appearance  of 
the  structural  elements  in  the  powder,  when  examined  microscopically, 
as  a  means  of  detecting  adulteration. 

20.  Powdered  Drugs. — It  is  recommended  that,  in  the  next  Pharma- 
copoeia, powdered  drugs  be  required  to  represent  the  entire  drug  unless 
specificallj'  stated  otherwise.  Where  the  drug  can  be  powdered  with- 
out residue  this  should  be  required;  in  other  cases  the  amount  of 
allowable  tailings,  gruffs,  or  residue  should  be  determined  and  inserted 
in  the  text. 

21.  Diagnostical  Reagents. — It  is  recommended  that  there  be  included 
in  the  next  Pharmacopoeia  such  reagents,  with  standards  for  strength  and 
purity,  as  are  needed  for  the  proper  execution  of  tests  that  are  valu- 
able and  important  in  the  making  of  a  correct  diagnosis. 

22.  Date  When  the  Next  Pharmacopoeia  Becomes  Official. — It  is 
recommended  that  the  Committee  of  Revision  print  upon  the  title 
page  of  the  next  Pharmacopoeia  a  definite  date,  reasonably  distant  from 
the  actual  date  of  publication,  announcing  when  the  new  Pharmacopoeia 
is  intended  to  go  into  effect  and  to  supersede  the  preceding  one. 

23.  Precedents. — In  all  matters  not  especially  provided  for,  in  these 
"General  Principles"  the  rules  established  for  previous  revisions,  if  there 
are  any,  should  generally  be  followed. 

24.  Solvbilities. — It  is  recommended  that  the  degree  of  solubility 
of  drugs  in  various  solvents  be  given  as  extensively  as  possible. 


I 


PREFACE 

THE  Ninth  Revision  of  the  I'nited  States  Pharmacopoeia  contains 
a  number  of  new  features  and  it  is  the  purpose  to  include  in 
this  Preface  a  statement  of  the  changes  which  have  been  made 
necessary*  bj'-  the  greatly  enlarged  functions  of  the  bcok.  Under  the 
head  of  "Introductory  Notices,"  special  subjects  will  be  found  in  detail. 

The  Committee  of  Revision  is  an  integral  part  of  a  chartered  organi- 
zation, the  United  States  Pharmacopceial  Convention.  The  division 
of  the  work  which  was  made  in  1900  has  been  continued  in  this 
revision.  The  Committee  of  Revision  was  relieved  of  attending  to 
the  business  management  of  a  general  character  by  a  Board  of 
Trustees,  and  the  Committee  was  thus  given  more  time  to  devote 
to  the  actual  work  of  revision  with  its  voluminous  detail. 

Plan  of  Revision. — The  plan  of  this  revision  has  been  largely  that 
of  the  previous  Pharmacopoeia.  The  larger  part  of  the  work  was  con- 
ducted through  communications  by  mail.  A  number  of  conferences  were 
also  held  among  the  members  of  the  Committee  and  Sub-committees, 
meeting  at  different  points  in  the  United  States.  Hearings  were  granted 
to  groups  of  men  having  special  information  concerning  the  manu- 
facture of  various  official  products.  These  conferences  have  been  of 
great  value  in  fixing  the  standards.  The  plan  of  the  previous  revision 
was  improved  by  a  more  systematic  division  of  labor.  The  Committee 
was  doubled  in  number  and  now  consists  of  fifty  members  with  the 
President  of  the  Convention  ex-officio.  An  Executive  Committee 
consisting  of  fifteen  members  was  elected  to  have  immediate  charge  of 
the  work  of  revision.  The  subjects  were  classified  and  each  member 
of  the  Executive  Committee  was  made  the  Chairman  of  a  Sub-com- 
mittee; the  members  of  the  General  Committee  being  assigned  to 
service  on  one  or  more  Sub-committees.  Upon  general  subjects  and 
in  some  cases  where  the  Executive  Committee  or  the  Chairman  desired 
a  full  vote,  the  General  Committee  decided  the  question. 

Scope. — The  inclusion  of  the  National  Formulary  in  the  Food  and 
Drugs  Act  as  a  standard  has  permitted  the  deletion  of  a  number  of 
compound  preparations  from  the  Pharmacopceia.     The  consensus  of 

KXXV 


XXXVl  PREFACE 

opinion  of  the  Committee  was  in  effect  to  provide  standards  for  veg- 
etable drugs,  chemical  substances,  and  such  pharmaceutical  prepara- 
tions as  were  simple  in  their  character,  and  most  largely  used.  A  few 
compound  preparations,  however,  were  retained  because  of  their  large 
use;  an  increase  has  been  made  in  the  number  of  standardized 
serums  and  animal  products.  A  number  of  synthetic  remedies  have 
been  added  to  the  list  which  the  Sub-committee  on  Scope  had  recom- 
mended for  admission,  permission  having  been  granted  by  the  manu- 
facturer, firm  or  corporation  to  include  such  substances;  unfortunately 
the  European  War  has  interfered  with  the  receipt  of  some  answers 
from  foreign  countries.  In  most  cases  where  answers  were  received, 
the  replies  were  in  the  negative. 

The  class  of  preparations  known  as  "Wines"  has  not  been  included 
in  this  revision.  Wine  as  a  menstruum  or  solvent  can  with  advantage 
be  replaced  by  alcohol  of  various  strengths,  and  the  uncertainties, 
due  to  the  variability  in  quality  and  alcoholic  content  of  the  wines 
of  commerce,  are  avoided. 

Part  II. — In  the  supplementary  matter  usually  placed  at  the  end  of 
the  text  a  number  of  changes  will  be  noticed.  This  part  of  the  book 
has  been  designated  as  Part  II  instead  of  Appendix  as  in  former 
editions;  a  table  of  contents  precedes  it,  and  a  more  systematic 
arrangement  of  the  subjects  has  been  adopted.  Much  revision  was 
found  necessary  in  this  part  of  the  work,  and  the  list  of  reagents  has 
been  enlarged.  While  a  knowledge  of  chemical  analysis  is  presupposed, 
the  Committee  has  deemed  it  not  out  of  place  to  add  explanatory  re- 
marks or  instruction  in  the  details  of  manipulations  in  Part  II. 

Publicity. — For  the  Ninth  Revision  an  entire  change  was  recom- 
mended by  the  Convention,  this  was,  to  publish  in  advance  of  the 
issue  of  the  book  the  proposed  new  descriptions  and  standards  and 
changes  in  descriptions  and  standards  with  the  object  of  informing 
those  interested  in  the  Pharmacopoeia  of  the  proposed  changes,  so 
that  comments  and  criticisms  might  be  offered.  This  plan  has  the 
advantage  of  ascertaining  the  views  of  the  parties  directly  concerned 
and,  although  involving  much  labor,  has  been  carried  out;  it  necessarily 
caused  some  delay  in  the  issue  of  the  book.  The  Journal  of  the 
American  Pharmaceutical  Association  undertook-  the  publication  of 
these  detailed  changes  and  other  journals  were  given  permission  to 
copy  the  list  of  changes. 

Food  and  Drugs  Act.— The  National  Food  and  Drugs  Act,  which  was 
passed  by  Congress  on  June  30th,  1906,  was  followed  by  similar  legis- 


PREFACE  XXXVll 

lation  in  the  various  States  of  the  Union.  These  laws  make  the  United 
States  Pharmacopoeia  and  the  National  Formulary  the  standards  for 
drugs.    The  National  Act  states: 

"The  term  'drug'  as  used  in  this  Act,  shall  include  all  medicines  and 
preparations  recognized  in  the  United  States  Pharmacopoeia  or  National 
Formulary  for  internal  or  external  use,  and  any  substance  or  mixture 
of  substances  intended  to  be  used  for  the  cure,  mitigation,  or  prevention 
of  disease  of  either  man  or  other  animals." 

This  legislation  has  been  the  means  from  which  a  great  improvement 
in  the  quality  of  medicines  has  resulted.  In  former  revisions  the  Com- 
mittee was  embarrassed  by  their  inability  to  obtain  information  from 
many  sources,  particularly  that  which  manufacturers  were  not  dis- 
posed to  furnish;  but  with  the  passage  of  the  Food  and  Drugs  Act 
a  great  change  occurred  in  the  attitude  of  many  manufacturers  and 
information  was  tendered  willingly. 

Language  of  the  Chemical  Tests. — A  change  has  been  made  in  the 
method  of  expressing  the  chemical  tests.  The  imperative  mood  was 
not  used  in  former  revisions,  but  since  the  Pharmacopoeia  is  now  a  legal 
standard,  the  conditional  form  of  previous  Pharmacopoeias,  in  which 
nearly  every  test  began,  "If  —  Gm.  be  dissolved, "  has  been  changed  to 
the  imperative  "Dissolve  —  Gm.,  etc." 

International  Protocol  (P.  I.). — These  standards  were  referred  to  in 
the  preface  to  the  Eighth  Revision  (see  page  xvi);  for  a  comparative 
table  (see  page  liv). 

Atomic  Weights. — The  atomic  weights  adopted  in  this  revision 
are  based  upon  oxygen  taken  as  16  (0  =  16)  and  are  in  accordance 
with  the  report  of  the  International  Committee  on  Atomic  Weights 
for  1915.  The  report  of  the  International  Committee  for  1916  was 
received  too  late  for  inclusion,  as  the  Pharmacopoeia  was  already 
in  type. 

General  Tests. — In  the  chemical  tests  an  extension  has  been  made  of 
the  plan  employed  in  the  previous  Pharmacopoeia  where  general  tests 
were  adopted  for  Arsenic  and  Heavy  Metals.  The  additions  will  be 
found  in  Part  II.  The  adoption  of  this  plan  saves  space  by  avoiding 
frequent  repetition  of  detail  in  the  text  of  Part  I. 

General  Formulas. — This  term  is  used  to  define  a  plan  to  save  space 
and  avoid  repetition  by  printing  a  typical  formula  for  galenical  prep- 
arations. It  will  be  seen  that  there  are  four  type  processes  for  fluid- 
extracts  designated  by  the  letters.  A,  B,  C,  and  D;  two  type  processes 
are  provided  for  tinctures,  P  and  M,  and  also  a  type  process  for  medi- 


XXXVUl  PREFACE 

cated  waters.  The  Convention  recommended  the  introduction  of  this 
plan. 

Mils  vs.  Cc. — The  term  cubic  centimeter  has  been  replaced  by  the 
word  mil.  The  United  States  Bureau  of  Standards  declared  that  the 
term  cubic  centimeter  was  a  misnomer,  there  being  a  slight  difference 
between  the  thousandth  part  of  a  liter  and  the  cubic  centimeter,  as  one 
liter  was  determined  to  be  equivalent  to  1.000027  cubic  decimeters. 
The  Committee  of  Revision  decided  that  the  time  had  come  to  adopt 
the  word  mil,  the  first  three  letters  of  the  whole  word  milliliter.  In 
addition,  the  change  promotes  international  uniformity  in  the  two 
Pharmacopoeias  published  in  the  English  language. 

Nomenclature. — The  chemical  and  botanical  nomenclature  is  sub- 
stantially the  same  as  that  adopted  for  the  Eighth  Revision.  In 
the  case  of  new  articles  the  terminology  and  latinization  is  in  accord 
with  this  plan.  Some  botanical  changes  have  been  made  in  the 
light  of  further  knowledge  of  the  subject  and  in  most  cases  Natiir- 
liche  Pflanzenfamilien  (Engler  and  Prantl)  has  been  followed  as  the 
authority.  A  new  feature,  that  of  inserting  abbreviations  of  official 
titles,  has  been  introduced.  It  was  believed  that  these  will  be  of  ser- 
vice to  physicians  in  writing  prescriptions  and  to  pharmacists  in  label- 
ing bottles  for  their  store  furniture.  In  the  interest  of  international 
uniformity,  the  Chairman  visited  Dr.  Nestor  Tirard,  Editor  of  the 
British  Pharmacopoeia,  and  the  Commission  approved  the  sugges- 
tion to  provide  abbreviations.  While  there  are  a  few  points  of 
difference,  the  plan  of  having  official  abbreviations  for  English-speak- 
ing nations  has  been  started.  Uniformity  in  usage  will  minimize  the 
danger  of  errors  in  dispensing  and  compounding  prescriptions  (see 
page  xlvii). 

Synomjms  will  be  found  following  the  titles  and  printed  in  small  type. 
The  Convention  passed  the  following  resolution  which  was  adopted  by 
the  Committee  of  Revision:  "Substances  labeled  with  an  official 
synonym  must  comply  with  the  standards,  tests,  and  requirements 
demanded  for  the  official  article."  In  a  fcAV  cases  synonyms  are  on- 
closed  in  quotation  marks;  these  names,  while  not  scientifically  cor- 
rect, are  so  largely  used  in  commerce  that  it  seemed  wise  to  include 
them.  It  is  understood  that  a  synonym  appearing  under  the  title 
of  a  drug  applies  with  equal  force  to  any  official  preparation  made  from 
that  drug. 

Standard  Temperature. — The  standard  temperature  of  2.5°  C.  has 
been  retained  in  this  revision  as  that  most  suitable  to  the  climate 


PREFACE  XXXIX 

of  the  United  States.  Exceptions  were  made  in  the  temperature  for 
alcohol  in  order  to  correspond  with  the  Government  regulations  and  in 
that  for  determining  refractive  indices. 

Structural  Formulas. — For  chemical  substances  several  methods  for 
expressing  symbolic  formulas  have  been  adopted.  Throughout  the  text 
empirical  formulas  are  employed  as  a  rule,  structural  characteristics 
being  also  indicated  where  it  seems  desirable.  In  Part  II  the  empirical 
formula  is  usually  given;  in  acids,  the  replaceable  hydrogen  stands 
first  in  the  formula. 

Lists  of  Official  Preparations. — The  Convention  recommended, "  That, 
especially  for  the  convenience  of  practicing  physicians,  there  should 
be  appended  after  each  article  in  the  text  a  list  of  the  official  prepa- 
rations in  which  it  is  used."  This  plan  has  been  followed,  but  in 
the  case  of  compound  preparations,  flavoring  ingredients,  correctives, 
solvents  like  alcohol,  glycerin,  and  syrup  have  been  omitted,  as  they 
would  occupy  a  large  amount  of  space  and  be  of  slight  value  to 
the  physician. 

Sterilization. — A  chapter  on  sterilization  has  been  introduced  with 
the  view  of  encouraging  the  production  of  preparations  which  are  free 
from  micro-organisms. 

Diagnostical  Reagents. — In  recent  years  diagnosis  through  the  use  of 
chemical  reagents  and  clinical  tests  with  or  without  the  use  of  the  micro- 
scope has  become  an  important  factor  in  determining  the  presence  or 
nature  of  disease  and  in  this  Pharmacopoeia  a  chapter  on  Diagnostical 
Reagents  and  Tests  has  been  appended. 

Biological  Assays. — Certain  valuable  and  largely  used  drugs  have  so 
far  defied  the  efforts  of  analytical  chemists  to  provide  reliable  chemical 
tests  which  could  be  used  as  standards.  The  Committee  of  Revision 
decided  to  introduce  biological  tests,  which  have  been  in  use  for  many 
years,  as  providing  the  best  available  method  for  the  assay  of  certain 
drugs.  A  chapter  on  biological  assays  will  be  found  in  Part  II.  The 
biological  assay  for  Pituitary  Solution  and  Cannabis  and  its  prepara- 
tions is  a  requii-ement. 

Powdered  Drugs. — The  Convention  recommended  the  insertion  of 
microscopical  descriptions  of  powdered  drugs  mainly  for  the  purpose  of 
detecting  adulteration.  These  will  be  found  in  the  text  under  the  drug 
titles.  While  powdered  drugs,  wherever  possible,  should  represent 
the  entire  drug,  it  has  not  been  found  practicable  to  specify  in  each  case 
a  hmit  of  residue  or  so-called  gruffs  or  tailings,  which  remain  when 
drugs  are  ground  or  powdered. 


Xl  PREFACE 


Alcoholic  Percentage. — The  Convention  recommended  that  a  range 
of  volume  content  of  absolute  alcohol  be  stated  in  the  Pharmacopoeia 
for  each  preparation  containing  alcohol.  It  was  found  impracticable  to 
follow  this  recommendation  in  its  entirety;  the  figures  for  alcoholic 
content  of  tinctures,  elixirs  and  other  preparations  will  be  found  in 
Part  II. 

Electrolj^ic  Determinations. — Two  metals,  Mercury  and  Zinc,  with 
their  salts  are  assayed  by  electrolysis.  This  is  a  departure  from  methods 
used  in  previous  Pharmacopoeias.  A  chemical  assay  is  also  provided 
and  the  electrolytic  method  is  given  as  an  alternative.  A  chapter  on 
this  subject  will  be  found  in  Part  II. 

Refractive  Index. — Refractive  indices  have  been  added  in  this  revision. 
This  test  is  based  on  the  deflection  of  a  ray  of  light  which  passes  from  one 
transparent  substance  to  another.  This  constant  has  proved  a  val- 
uable addition  in  testing  the  purity  of  certain  substances.  A  chapter 
entitled  "  Refractive  Index  "  will  be  found  in  Part  II. 

Admissions  and  Deletions.- — The  number  of  articles,  reagents,  and 
assays  in  the  present  Pharmacopoeia  is  1436;  there  were  1297  in  the 
previous  Pharmacopoeia.  In  the  present  book  there  are  782  articles  in 
the  text;  277  test  solutions  and  volumetric  solutions;  315  volumetric, 
gravimetric,  and  other  assays  and  62  diagnostical  reagents.  In  the 
U.  S.  P.  VIII  there  were  958  articles  in  the  text,  155  test  solutions  and 
volumetric  solutions,  149  volumetric  assays,  and  35  gravimetric  assays. 

Of  those  articles  official  in  the  text  of  the  U.S.P.  VIII,  243  have 
been  dismissed  while  67  new  ones  have  been  introduced  into  the 
U.S.P.  IX  (see  pages  lix  to  Ixiii). 

Coupon. — There  will  be  found  on  the  back  of  the  title-page,  as  in  the 
previous  Pharmacopoeia,  a  coupon  which  bears  a  serial  number  and  a 
letter  and  the  following  words:  "Pharmacopoeia  of  the  United  States 
of  America,  Ninth  Revision,  Official  Copy,  Copyright." 

Official  Date. — In  accordance  with  the  instructions  of  the  Convention, 
a  date  has  been  fixed  on  which  the  present  work  is  to  supersede  the 
Eighth  Revision  of  the  United  States  Pharmacopoeia,  and  to  go  into 
effect.    This  date  is  September  1,  1916. 

Assistance. — The  Committee  is  greatly  indebted  to  many  gentlemen, 
who  were  not  members,  for  most  valuable  assistance  rendered  either  by 
undertaking  experimental  researches,  sometimes  very  protracted  and 
laborious,  on  certain  subjects,  or  by  placing  material  at  its  disposal,  or 
by  scrutinizing  the  proof  sheets.  Some  have  rendered  aid  from  the  be- 
ginning to  the  end  of  the  revision.     Especial  assistance  has  been  received 


PREFACE  xli 

from  the  United  States  Public  Health  Service,  through  the  Hygienic 
Laboratory,  and  its  Digest  of  Comments;  the  U.  S.  Bureau  of  Stand- 
ards, and  the  United  States  Department  of  Agriculture,  through  its 
Bureau  of  Chemistry;  the  American  Medical  Association  Section 
Reports  and  New  and  Nonojffiicial  Remedies;  American  Pharmaceutical 
Association  and  its  branches;  American  Chemical  Society;  American 
Therapeutic  Society;  State  Pharmaceutical  Associations  and  other 
Associations.  Reports  from  the  following  were  also  sent  to  the  Conven- 
tion: New  York  Branch  of  the  American  Pharmaceutical  Association, 
Washington,  D.  C,  Branch  of  the  American  Pharmaceutical  Associa- 
tion, Iowa  Veterinary  Association,  Kings  County  Pharmaceutical 
Society,  Medical  Society  of  the  State  of  New  York,  New  Jersey  College 
of  Pharmacy,  New  Jersey  Pharmaceutical  Association,  New  York  State 
Pharmaceutical  Association,  Philadelphia  College  of  Pharmacy  and  the 
University  of  Michigan,  School  of  Pharmacy;  assistance  has  been  ten- 
dered through  reports,  hearings,  and  communications  and  by  pharma- 
cists, chemists,  and  manufacturers  (see  page  xliv).  The  editor  extends 
his  personal  thanks  to  E.  Fullerton  Cook,  B.  A.  Heims,  and  Joseph 
Rosin  for  continuous  service,  especially  in  correcting  proof  sheets  and 
preparing  copy. 

OFFICERS  OF  THE  CONVENTION 

Harvey  W.  Wiley,  M.D.,  Washington,  D.  C,  President. 
N.  S.  Davis,  M.D,,  Chicago,  111.,  1st  Vice-President. 
Chas.  Caspari,  Jr.,  Phar.D.,  Baltimore,  Md.,  Snd  Vice-President. 
O.  T.  Osborne,  M.D.,  New  Haven,  Conn.,  Srd  Vice-President. 
*Leo  Eliel,  South  Bend,  Ind.,  4th  Vice-President. 
W.  A.  Bastedo,  M.D.,  New  York,  5th  Vice-President. 
M,  G.  Motter,  M.D.,  Washington,  D.  C,  Secretary. 
Noble  P.  Barnes,  M.D.,  Washington,  D.  C,  Assistant  Secretary. 
S.  L.  Hilton,  Phar.D,,  Washington,  D.  C,  Treasurer. 

BOARD  OF  TRUSTEES 
J.  H.  Beal,  Sc.D.,  Urbana,  111.,  Chairman. 

F.  W.  Meissner,  Ph.G.,  LaPorte,  Ind. 
Wm.  Jay  Schieffelin,  Ph.D.,  New  York. 

G.  H.  Simmons,  M.D.,  Chicago,  111. 

H.  M.  Whelpley,  M.D.,  St.  Louis,  Mo.,  Secretary. 
Harvey  W.  Wiley,  M.D.,  Washington,  D.  C,  Ex-officio. 
Joseph  P.  Remington,  Ph,M.,  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  Ex-officio. 

*  Deceased, 


xlii 


PREFACE 


COMMITTEE  OF  REVISION 

Joseph  P.  Remington,  Ph.M.,  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  Chairman. 
C.  Lewis  Diehl,  Ph.M.,  Louisville,  Ky.,  First  Vice-Chair  man. 
H.  C.  Wood,  Jr.,  M.D.,  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  Second  V ice-Chairman. 
Charles  H.  La  Wall,  Ph.M.,  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  Secretary. 
W.  C.  Alpers,  Sc.D.,  Cleveland,  Ohio. 
J.  F.  Anderson,  ]\LD.,  New  Brunswick,  N.  J. 
H.  V.  Arny,  Ph.D.,  New  York. 
E.  H.  Bartley,  M.D.,  Brooklyn,  N.  Y. 
George  M.  Beringer,  Ph.M.,  Camden,  N.  J. 
Wilhelm  Bodemann,  Chicago,  111. 
Charles  Caspari,  Jr.,  Phar.D.,  Baltimore,  Md. 
C.  E.  Caspari,  Ph.D.,  St.  Louis,  Mo. 
Albert  H.  Clark,  B.  S.,  Chicago,  111. 
Virgil  Coblentz,  Ph.D.,  Brooklyn,  N.  Y. 
S.  SoLis  Cohen,  M.D.,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 
N.  S.  Davis,  M.D.,  Chicago,  111. 
Geo.  C.  Diekman,  M.D.,  New  York. 
A.  R.  L.  Dohme,  Ph.D.,  Baltimore,  Md. 
E.  G.  Eberle,  Ph.G.,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 
C.  W.  Edmunds,  M.D.,  Ann  Arbor,  Mich. 
J.  W.  England,  Ph.M.,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 
J.  M.  Francis,  M.A.,  Detroit,  Mich. 
James  M.  Good,  Ph.M.,  St.  Louis,  Mo. 
H.  M.  GoRDiN,  Ph.D.,  Chicago,  111. 
W^iLLis  G.  Gregory,  M.D.,  Buffalo,  N.  Y. 
Walter  S.  Haines,  M.D.,  Chicago,  111. 
*Carl  S.  N.  Hallberg,  Phm.D.,  Chicago,  111. 
R.  A.  Hatcher,  M.D.,  New  York. 
Lewis  C.  Hopp,  Ph.G.,  Cleveland,  Ohio. 
Reid  Hunt,  M.D.,  Boston,  Mass. 
L.  F.  Kebler,  M.D.,  Washington,  D.  C. 
J.  A.  Koch,  Ph.D.,  Pittsburg,  Pa. 
Henry  Kraemer,  Ph.D.,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 
J.  H.  Long,  Sc.D.,  Chicago,  111. 
A.  B.  Lyons,  M.D.,  Detroit,  Mich. 
Philip  Marvel,  M.D.,  Atlantic  City,  N.  J. 
C.  F.  Nixon,  Ph.G.,  Leominster,  Mass. 

*  Deceit  sod- 


PREFACE  Xliii 

0.  T.  Osborne,  M.D.,  New  Haven,  Conn. 
*Albert  Plaut,  New  York. 
W.  A.  PucKNER,  Chicago,  III. 
Otto  Raubenheimer,  Phar.D.,  Brooklyn,  N.  Y. 
G.  D.  RosENGARTEN,  Ph.D.,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 
H.  H.  RusBY,  M.D.,  Newark,  N.  J. 
Samuel  P.  Sadtler,  Ph.D.,  Philadelphia.,  Pa. 
Lucius  E.  Sayre,  Ph.IM.,  Lawrence,  Kan. 
J.  O.  ScHLOTTERBECK,  Ph.D.,  Aim  Arbor,  Mich. 
Torald  Sollmann,  M.D.,  Cleveland,  O. 
A.  B.  Stevens,  Ph.D.,  Ann  Arbor,  Mich. 
Rodney  H.  True,  Ph.D.,  Washington,  D.  C. 
C.  E.  Vanderkleed,  Phar.D.,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 
M.  I.  WiLBERT,  Ph.M.,  Washington,  D.  C. 
Harvey  W.  Wiley,  Ph.D.,  M.D.,  Washington,  D.  C,  Ex-officio. 

EXECUTIVE  COMMITTEE 
Joseph  P.  Remington,  Chairman. 

Number  Subject 

L  S.  SoLis  Cohen,  M.D.,  Chairman Scope 

2.  Torald  Sollmann,  M.D.,  Chairman..  . Therapeutics,  Pharmacody- 

namics and  Posology 

3.  J.  F.  Anderson,  M.D.,  Chairman Biological  Products,  Diag- 

nostical  Tests 

4.  Henry  Kraemer,  Ph.D.,  Chairman.  .  .  Botany  and  Pharmacognosy 

5.  C.  H.  La  Wall,  Ph.M.,  Chairman General  and  Inorganic 

Chemistry 

6.  G.  D.  RosENGARTEN,  Ph.D.,  C/iaiman .  Organic  Chemistry 

7.  A.  B.  Stevens,  Ph.D.,  Chairman Proximate  Assays 

8.  Harvey  W.  Wiley,  M.D.,  Chairman.  .Volatile  Oils 

9.  G.  M.  Beringer,  Ph.M.,  Chairman.  .  .  .Fluid   and  SoUd  Extracts, 

Tinctures 
10.  C.  Lewis  Diehl,  Ph.M.,  Chairman.  . .  .Aromatic   Waters,    Spirits, 

Liquors 
IL  W.  C.  Alpers,  Sc.D.,  Chairman Syrups  and  Elixirs 

12.  Otto  Raubenheimer,  Phar.D.,  Chair- 

man   Cerates  and  Ointments 

13.  WiLHELM  BoDEMANN,  Chairman Miscellaneous  Galenicals 

14.  A.  B.  Lyons,  M.D.,  Chairman Tables,  Weights,  ]\Ieasures 

15.  Charles  Caspari,  Jr.,  Phar.D.,  Chair- 

man  Nomenclature 

Note. — Each  member  of  the  Executive  Committee  was  Chairman  of 
a  Sub-committee  (see  above  list). 

*  Deceased. 


LIST  OF  THOSE  WHO  ARE  NOT  MEMBERS  OF  THE  COMMITTEE  BUT 

WHO  HAVE  BEEN  OF  ESPECIAL  ASSISTANCE  DURING 

THE  WORK  OF  REVISION 


Carl  L.  Alsberg,  Washington,  D.  C. 
George  F.  Atkinson,  Ithaca,  N.  Y. 
Daniel  Base,  Baltimore,  Md. 
M.  Becker,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 
Charles  E.  Bessy,  Lincoln,  Neb. 
L.  Henry  Bernegau,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 

C.  S.  Brinton,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 
N.  L.  Britton,  New  York. 

E.  D.  Brown,  MinneapoUs,  Minn. 

E.  M.  Chace,  Washington,^D.  C. 
John  M.  Coulter,  Chicago,  111. 

D.  M.  R.  Culbreth,  Baltimore,  Md. 
William  B.  Day,  Chicago,  111. 
Francis  D.  Dodge,  New  York. 

H.  A.  B.  Dunning,  Baltimore,  Md. 

F.  R.  Eldred,  Indianapohs,  Ind. 
Hermann  Engelhardt,  Baltimore,  Md. 
P.  F.  Fackenthall,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 
W.  G.  Farlow,  Cambridge,  Mass. 
Oliver  A.  Farwell,  Detroit,  Mich. 

E.  C.  Franklin,  Washington,  D.  C. 
William  Frear,  State  College,  Pa. 
Harry  B.  French,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 
E.  N.  Gathercoal,  Chicago,  111. 

L.  D.  Havenhill,  LawTcnce,  Kan. 
S.  L.  Hilton,  Washington,  D.  C. 
Anton  Hogstad,  Jr.,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 
E.  M.  Holmes,  London,  Eng. 
W.  W.  Home,  Chapel  Hill,  N.  C. 
E.  M.  Houghton,  Detroit,  Mich. 
E.  V.  Howell,  Chapel  Hill,  N.  C. 
Clemens  Kleber,  Clifton,  N.  J. 
C.  Mahlon  Kline,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 
James  P.  Leake,  Washington,  D.  C. 
Henry  Leffmann,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 
John  Uri  Lloyd,  Cincinnati,  Ohio. 
Armin  K.  Lobeck,  Haworth,  N.  J. 
George  W.  McCoy,  Washington,  D.  C. 
W.  W.  McNeary,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 
xliv 


E.  Mallinckrodt,  St.  Louis,  Mo. 
William  ^L\nsfield,  New  York. 
George  H.  Meeker,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 
George  A.  Menge,  Washington,  D.  C. 
Fred  A.  Miller,  Indianapolis,  Ind. 
Frank  X.  Moerk,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 
John  Moser,  Baltimore,  Md. 
Murray  Galt  Moti'er, 

Washington,  D.  C. 
Sister  Bertha  Mueller,  Philadelphia. 
B.  L.  Murray,  Rahway,  N.  J. 
Edwin  L.  Newcomb,  Minneapolis,  Minn. 
William  A.  Pearson,  Philadelphia,  Pa 
Paul  S.  Pittinger,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 
John  R.  Rippetoe,  New  York. 
B.  L.  Robinson,  Cambridge,  Mass. 
George  B.  Roth,  Washington,  D.  C. 
Albert  Schneider,  San  Francisco,  Cal. 
Wilbur  L.  Scoville,  Detroit,  Mich. 
Atherton  Seidell,  Washington,  D.  C. 
Harry  E.  Sindall,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 
Carl  E.  Smith,  New  York  City. 
Clyde  M.  Snow,  Chicago,  111. 
Maud  Sollenberger,  Asburj'  Park,N.  J. 

F.  E.  Stewart,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 
J.  L.  Stingel,  Twinsburg,  Ohio. 
Warner  W.  Stockberger, 

Washington,  D.  C. 
Witmer  Stone,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 
John  K.  Thum,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 
.\.  M.  Todd,  Kalamazoo,  Mich. 
William  Trelease,  Urbana,  111. 
Wallace  S.  Truesdell, 

Philadelphia,  Pa. 
Joseph  L.  Turner,  Brooklyn,  N.  Y. 
Arno  Viehover,  Washington,  D.  C. 
Florence  Yaple,  Philadelphia,  Pa. 
Heber  W.  Youngken,  Philadelphia,  Pa 


INTRODUCTORY  NOTICES 

UNDER  this  head  it  has  been  customary  to  include  statements 
of  a  general  character  and  intended  to  apply  to  classes  of 
preparations,  but  in  this  revision  the  effort  is  made  to  confine 
the  subjects  in  the  Preface  to  a  short  explanation  of  changes  of  a  general 
character  which  have  been  made,  while  in  the  Introductory  Notices 
details  of  a  specific  character  are  taken  up. 

Title  of  Book. — The  use  of  Roman  numerals  to  designate  successive 
revisions  of  the  Pharmacopoeia,  which  was  introduced  in  the  Eighth 
Revision,  has  been  continued,  hence  the  present  book  will  be  known  as 
the  "Ninth  Revision"  and  its  abbreviated  form  is  "U.  S.  P.  IX." 

Official. — The  word  "official"  used  in  this  edition  of  the  Pharma- 
copceia  is  considered  to  be  synonymous  with  "  pharmacopceial "  and  is 
applied  to  any  substance  or  preparation  recognized  by  the  Pharmaco- 
poeia. When  substances  conform  to  the  tests,  assays  and  requirements 
given  in  the  text  of  the  Pharmacopoeia,  they  are  to  be  considered  as 
official.  Such  tests  and  assays  are  considered  sufficient  for  substances 
used  as  medicines. 

Medicinal  Substances  Must  Conform  to  U.S.P. — Owing  to  miscon- 
ceptions on  the  part  of  those  unfamiliar  with  pharmacopoeias,  it  is 
necessary  to  make  the  following  statement. 

Standards  of  purity  and  strength,  prescribed  in  the  text  of  this  Pharma- 
copoeia, are  intended  solely  to  apply  to  substances  which  are  used  for  medici- 
nal purposes  or  in  determining  the  identity  or  purity  of  such  substances. 

Some  misunderstanding  has  also  prevailed  in  the  past  with  regard 
to  the  strength  or  purity  of  articles  directed  to  be  used  in  formulas  or 
in  testing.  The  words  "alcohol,"  "syrup,"  "glycerin,"  or  any  other 
official  title  when  used  in  this  text  and  not  otherwise  specified  is  under- 
,  stood  to  mean  the  official  article.  In  the  case  of  alcohol,  it  is  official 
alcohol  of  94.9  per  cent.,  by  volume,  that  is  intended  and  not  absolute  or 
dehydrated  alcohol.  "Syrup"  when  not  otherwise  specified  is  intended 
to  mean  syrup  of  the  official  strength  and  quality.  Official  prepara- 
tions are  to  be  made  from  drugs  that  conform  to  the  official  definitions, 
tests,  and  descriptions. 

Products  and  Preparations  Made  on  a  Large  Scale. — In  the  manu- 
facture of  products  and  preparations  on  the  large  scale,  deviation  from 

xlv 


xlvi  INTUODUCTORY    NOTICES 

the  official  processes  may  be  necessary,  l)ut  the  products  must  conform 
to  the  official  requirements  as  determined  by  the  tests  of  the  U.  S. 
Pharmacopoeia,  IX,  and  the  finished  preparations  must  be  identical 
with  those  made  by  the  official  processes. 

Purity  Rubric. — In  the  Eighth  Revision  of  this  Pharmacopoeia,  the 
"purity  rubric"  was  introduced  for  the  first  time.  It  is  well  known  that 
absolute  purity  in  many  of  the  commercial  chemical  substances  is 
unattainable,  unnecessary,  or  practically  undesirable  on  account  of 
greatly  increased  expense.  The  analytical  chemist  must,  of  course, 
use  chemicals  for  volumetric  solutions  and  reagents  of  the  highest 
possible  purity,  but  such  standards  are  not  required  in  medicine  or 
pharmacy,  provided  poisonous  or  dangerous  substances  are  rigidly  ex- 
cluded. Minute  quantities  of  innocuous  products  will  not  perceptibly 
affect  the  dosage  or  medicinal  activity  of  a  remedy.  The  figures  given 
in  the  purity  rubrics  represent  requirements  that  can  be  reasonably 
demanded  in  each  instance. 

In  some  cases  it  will  doubtless  be  found  that  the  manufacturer  can 
slightly  exceed  the  standard  of  purity,  and  if  this  be  the  case  no  objection 
can  be  made,  the  language  used  being  usually  "  not  less  than  ..." 
Instead  of  using  the  words  "absolute"  or  "pure"  as  in  the  Eighth 
Revision,  the  chemical  formula  of  the  substance,  in  symbols,  is  now 
given. 

In  the  case  of  certain  efflorescent  chemicals,  a  range  has  been  adopted 
which  will  permit  a  limit  of  efflorescence.  It  is  to  be  understood  that 
the  strength  of  drugs  or  preparations  for  which  assay  processes  are 
provided  is  to  be  determined  by  the  official  assay  process  and  not  by 
any  other  process. 

It  has  been  deemed  advisable  in  some  parts  of  the  Pharmacopoeia 
for  greater  convenience  to  round  off  decimal  figures  which  are  only 
given  for  information,  as  these  would  otherwise  require  the  extension 
of  decimals  to  an  inconvenient  length.  For  this  reason  in  the  articles 
on  chemical  substances  there  may  be  a  slight  difference  between  the 
requirement  of  the  rubric  and  the  statement  at  the  end  of  the  volu- 
metric assay,  but  the  figures  given  in  the  rubric  in  each  case  define  the 
standards  adopted  for  the  article. 

Time  Limitations  and  Tolerances. — In  some  cases  the  allowable  per- 
centage of  moisture  in  chemicals  is  specified  in  the  text  under  the  article. 
When  not  specified,  5  per  cent,  of  moisture  is  permitted  provided  the 
chemical  is  dispensed  in  a  condition  of  sensil)le  dryness. 

In  the  case  of  chemical  tests  for  innocuous  impurities  in  this  Pbarma- 


INTRODUCTORY   NOTICES  xlvii 


copoeia  (chlorides,  sulphates,  and  others),  it  is  understood  that  five 
minutes  shall  be  the  time  allowed  for  the  reaction  to  be  observed  except 
in  the  cases  where  the  time  is  specified  in  the  test. 

In  the  test  for  carbonizable  impurities,  where  sulphuric  acid  is  used, 
it  is  understood  that  the  time  for  observation  is  limited  to  fifteen  minutes 
unless  otherwise  specified  in  the  text. 

Vegetable  Drugs. — In  the  case  of  vegetable  drugs,  the  standards  pro- 
vided in  the  text  apply  also  to  the  powdered  or  ground  drug.  For  the 
preservation  of  vegetable  or  animal  substances  from  the  ravages  of 
insects,  it  is  directed  in  special  cases  that  they  be  preserved  in  tightly- 
closed  containers  and  a  few  drops  of  chloroform  or  carbon  tetrachloride 
added.  It  is  not  intended  that  this  precaution  should  be  used  for 
drugs  imported  in  bales  or  large  original  containers.  This  precau- 
tion is  intended  to  aid  in  the  preservation  of  drugs  in  the  stock  of 
a  pharmacist. 

Abbreviations. — To  avoid  the  possibility  of  error  in  interpreting 
abbreviations,  official  abbreviations  were  introduced,  using  the  ordinary 
abbreviations  and  specifying  the  exceptions,  thus:  The  abbreviation 
"Sulph."  is  used  for  "Sulphate."  Sulphur,  sulphite  and  sulphide  are 
not  abbreviated.  In  the  same  way  "Chlor.,"  unless  otherwise  specified, 
means  "Chloride";  for  "chlorate"  the  word  "chloras"  is  used  (see  page 
xxxviii). 

Tables. — The  feature  in  the  last  revision  of  inserting  tables  in  the 
Appendix  (now  Part  II)  has  been  continued  and  several  additions  have 
been  made.  The  specific  gravity  tables  have  been  based  on  data  from 
the  latest  and  most  authoritative  sources.  In  the  tables  for  alcohol  and 
sulphuric  acid  the  figures  given  by  the  United  States  Bureau  of  Stand- 
ards have  been  followed  with  only  such  changes  as  were  necessary  to 
reduce  them  to  Pharmacopceial  basis. 

Melting  Points,  Boiling  Points,  Congealing  Points. — The  figures  given 
for  melting  points,  boiling  points,  and  congealing  points  as  factors  in 
determining  identity  or  purity  have  been  determined  according  to 
methods  which  are  to  be  found  in  detail  in  Part  II.  It  is  understood 
that  where  any  of  these  factors  are  given  with  a  range  instead  of  a 
single  figure  that  these  are  to  be  regarded  as  inclusive,  thus :  in  the  case 
of  Acetanilid,  "It  melts  between  112°  and  114°  C,"  means  that  if  it 
begins  to  melt  at  112°  or  114°  C.  or  within  these  limits,  it  is  official  so 
far  as  the  melting  point  is  concerned. 

Solubilities. — Solubility  figures  are  inserted  in  the  text  as  information 
to  serve  as  a  convenient  aid  in  determining  identity  and  purity  approxi- 


Xlviii  INTRODUCTORY  NOTICES 

mately  and  are  not  intended  to  be  construed  as  legal  requirements,  except 
in  the  case  of  volatile  oils  where  solubilities  in  alcohol  of  different 
strengths  are  used  as  tests  for  purity.  The  subject  of  solubilities  will 
be  found  under  a  special  chapter  in  Part  II. 

In  testing  for  solubility,  slight  mechanical  impurities,  such  as  frag- 
ments of  filter  paper,  fiber,  dust  particles,  permitted  by  other  tests  for 
the  same  substance  but  which  slightly  interfere  with  the  transparency  of 
the  solution,  are  not  to  be  construed  as  vitiating  the  test  for  solubility. 

Non-weighable. — The  term  "  non-weighable"  in  the  text  in  the  state- 
ment of  ash  is  intended  to  mean  a  quantity  which  is  not  more  than 
0.0005  Gm. 

Chemical  Tests. — A  change  has  been  made  in  the  method  of  stating 
the  quantities  to  be  taken  for  some  tests  and  assays  to  conform  with 
the  general  custom  among  chemists  and  to  save  time.  A  convenient 
quantity  is  taken,  the  word  "about"  being  used  to  show  that  this  need 
not  be  a  definite  quantity;  this  approximate  quantity  is  then  accurately 
weighed,  and  the  result  of  the  test  or  assay  based  upon  the  accm-ate 
weight.  In  those  cases  where  the  substances  are  corrosive,  volatile, 
efflorescent  or  hygroscopic,  this  plan  will  be  found  especially  useful. 

Such  phrases  as  "(1  in  10)"  or  "(1  in  20)"  are  understood  to  mean 
that  1  part  of  a  liquid  is  to  be  diluted  with,  or  a  solid  dissolved  in,  suffi- 
cient of  the  solvent  to  make  10  or  20  parts  by  volume.  Under  copper 
sulphate,  the  identity  test  to  show  the  presence  of  sulphate  reads: 
"Barium  chloride  T.S.  produces  a  white  precipitate,  insoluble  in  hydro- 
chloric acid,  in  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  10)";  here  1  Gm. 
of  copper  sulphate  would  be  dissolved  in  sufficient  distilled  water  to 
make  the  solution  measure  10  mils. 

"  Absence  of  "  and  "  Limit  of." — The  terms  "absence  of  "  and  "limit 
of"  following  the  tests  indicating  impurities  are  no  longer  used  in  the 
Pharmacopoeia,  Ninth  Revision,  as  a  rule;  but  a  few  exceptions  may  be 
found.  Such  words  as  (chloride),  (sulphate),  and  (free  alkali),  in  italics 
and  parentheses,  which  follow  tests,  are  merely  intended  to  give  infor- 
mation as  to  the  object  of  the  test,  the  words  of  the  test  itself 
indicating  that  the  substance  is  not  present  in  an  amount  which  would  be 
objectionable  for  medicinal  use,  or  in  other  cases  that  it  is  to  be  absent. 

Posology. — The  insertion  of  doses  has  been  continued  in  the  Ninth 
Revision  in  accordance  with  the  recommendation  of  the  Convention. 
As  in  previous  revisions,  it  is  necessary  to  remind  the  users  of  this  Phar- 
macopoeia that  "it  is  to  be  distinctly  understood  that  neither  the 
Convention  nor  the  Committee  of  Revision  created  by  it,  intends  to 


INTRODUCTORY   NOTICES  xlix 

have  these  doses  regarded  as  obligatory  on  the  physician  or  as  forbidding 
him  to  exceed  them  whenever  in  his  judgment  this  seems  advisable." 

The  doses  are  given  in  both  the  metric  and  apothecaries  systems. 
The  figures  are  not  interchangeable  nor  are  they  to  be  considered  as 
equivalents.  Rounded  figures  are  used  in  order  to  assist  the  memoriz- 
ing of  the  figures  by  physicians  and  pharmacists.  The  words  "average 
dose  "  are  used  throughout  the  text,  and  the  doses  are  intended  for  adults. 

Deterioration. — Deteriorations  are  inevitable  in  many  official  prepara- 
tions which  when  first  made  comply  with  the  tests  and  requirements. 
Limits  are  provided  through  the  text  in  most  instances  for  substances 
prone  to  deteriorate,  through  the  establishment  of  maximum  and  mini- 
mum figures  in  the  rubrics. 

Temperatures 

Statements  of  temperature  are  given  in  this  Pharmacopoeia  in  degrees 
of  the  centigrade  hydrogen  thermometer,  the  equivalent  Fahrenheit 
temperature  being  given  in  the  Tables  (see  Part  II). 

The  standard  temperature  for  solubilities,  specific  gravities,  polari- 
metric  determinations,  and  for  the  preparation  of  volumetric  solutions 
is  25°  C.  (see  Volumetric  Solutions,  Part  II).  For  alcohol  the  former 
standard  temperature  of  60°  F.  (15.67°  C.)  has  been  retained,  since 
the  laws  and  regulations  of  the  Internal  Revenue  Department  of  the 
United  States,  relating  to  alcohol  and  alcoholic  liquids,  are  still  based 
on  this  degree  of  temperature.  For  refractive  indices  and  certain 
saccharimeters  the  temperature  is  20°  C.  to  conform  to  the  temperature 
adopted  by  the  Bureau  of  Standards  of  the  United  States. 

By  the  term  "gentle  heat"  is  meant  any  temperature  between  30°  C; 
and  40°  C. 

In  official  formulas,  "cold  water"  is  intended  to  have  a  temperature 
of  15°  to  25°  C;  "luke  warm  water,"  35°  to  40°  C;  "warm  water," 
60°  to  70°  C;  "hot  water,"  85°  to  95°  C.  When  the  Pharmacopoeia 
directs  the  use  of  a  water  bath  it  intends  a  temperature  of  about  100°  C. 
In  elevated  localities,  where  the  boiling  point  of  liquid  is  lower  than 
that  at  the  level  of  the  sea,  the  water  bath  temperature  would  be 
less  than  100°  C. 

Weights  and  Measures 

Metric  Weights  and  Measures. — The  Metric  system  of  Weights  and 
Measures  is  the  only  one  recognized  in  the  formulas  of  this  Pharmaco- 
poeia.   All  standard  weights  and  measures  in  this  country  are  derived 


1  INTRODUCTORY   NOTICES 

from  or  based  upon  the  United  States  National  Prototype  Standards 
of  the  Meter  and  the  Kilogramme,  made  of  platinum-iridium,  in  the 
custody  of  the  National  Bureau  of  Standards  at  Washington.  The  liter 
is  a  unit  of  capacity  equivalent  to  the  volume  occupied  by  the  mass  of 
1  kilogramme  of  pure  water  at  its  maximum  density  (at  a  temperature 
of  4°  C,  practically)  and  under  the  standard  atmospheric  pressure 
(760  mm.).  It  is  equivalent  in  volume  to  1.000027  cubic  decimeters. 
The  units  of  the  metric  system  are  designated  by  abbreviations  as 
follows: 

M.  =  meter  Kg.  =  kilogramme 

dm.  =  decimeter         Gm.  =  gramme 
cm.  =  centimeter  dg.  =  decigramme 

mm.  =  millimeter  eg.  =  centigramme 

mg.  =  milligramme 
1.  =  liter 
dl.  =  deciliter 
ml.  =  miUiliter  or  mil  (formerly  cubic  centimeter  or  Cc.) 

In  measuring  liquids  cylindrical  graduates  are  preferred  where  extreme 
accuracy  is  required  but  conical  graduated  measures  are  in  universal 
use  for  less  exacting  purposes.  These,  if  accurately  graduated,  are 
deemed  suitable  for  the  use  of  the  pharmacist  in  compounding  or  dis- 
pensing medicines.  The  lower  surface  of  the  meniscus  is  the  point  from 
which  the  reading  is  to  be  taken. 

Apothecaries  Weights  and  Measures. — Physicians  in  prescribing,  and 
pharmacists  in  dispensing  medicines  commonly  employ  the  time-honored 
■apothecaries  weights  and  measures  which  were  in  use  in  England  prior 
to  1825,  the  weights  being  originally  derived  from  the  old  English 
Troy  weight,  the  fluid  measures  from  the  old  wine  gallon.  The  units 
of  this  system  are  designated  in  prescribing  by  signs  or  abbreviations 
as  follows: 

§  =  apothecaries  ounce  =  8  drachms       =  480  grains 

5  =  drachm  =  3  scruples       =  60  grains 

3  =  scruple  =  20  grains 
gr.  =  grain 

0  =  pint  =  16  fluidounces 

f5=fluidounce  =  8  fluidrachms  =  480  minims 

f  3  =  fluidrachm  =  60  minims 

1^,=  minim 


INTRODUCTORY   NOTICES  U 

In  writing  prescriptions  in  the  apothecaries  system,  Roman,  not 
Arabic,  numerals  are  employed,  and  these  are  always  placed  after  the 
symbol  or  abbreviation,  thus:    f5ii;  gr.xv. 

In  the  ease  of  metric  abbreviations,  the  numerals  precede  the 
abbreviation,  and  are  always  written  in  Arabic  characters,  thus: 
5  Gm.;  2  mils.  Care  is  taken  to  distinguish  the  abbreviation  for 
gramme  (Gm.)  from  that  for  grain  (gr.)  by  writing  the  former  with  a 
capital,  the  latter  A\ath  a  small  initial. 

Equivalents  of  Metric  and  Apothecaries  Weights  and  Measures. 

1  Meter  is  (Hiual  to  39.3700  inches  (statute  of  July  28,  1866). 
1  Pound  (avoirdupois),  7000  grains,  is  e(iual  to  453.5924277  grammes. 
1   Liquid   Gallon   is  equal  to  the  volume    of  231   cubic  inches  or 
3785.3323  milliliters. 

Approximate  Measures. 

Physicians  have  hitherto  very  commonly  prescribed  liquid  medicines 
in  teaspoonful,  dessertspoonful  or  tablespoonful  doses.  Inasmuch  as 
spoons  vary  greatly  in  capacity,  and  from  their  form  are  unfit  for  use  in 
the  dosage  of  medicine,  it  is  desirable  that  the  more  scientific  practice 
should  be  always  adopted,  of  prescribing  doses  in  mils,  fiuidrachms  or 
minims,  to  be  measured  with  a  suitable  medicine  measure.  The  follow- 
ing are  the  values  conventionally  attached  to  the  several  approximate 
measures  above  mentioned: 

Metric 
A  teaspoonful        =  4  mils 
A  dessertspoonful  =  8  mils 
A  tablespoonful     =15  mils 

Apothecaries  System 
A  teaspoonful        =   1  fluidrachm 
A  dessertspoonful  =  2  fiuidrachms 
A  tablespoonful     =  3^  fluidounce 


I 


lii  INTRODUCTORY   NOTICES 


Relations  Between  the  Various  Units  of  Weights  and  Measures 

1  meter  =  39.3700  inches 

1  yard  =  0.9144018  meter 

1  square  yard  =  0.8361307  square  meter 

1  cubic  inch  =  16.38672  mils 

1  liter  =  0.264178  liquid  gallon 

1  fluidounce  =  29.5729  mils 

1  kilogramme  =  2.204622  pounds,  avoirdupois 

1  gramme  =  15.432356  grains 

1  avoirdupois  ounce  (437.5  grains)  =28.349527  grammes 

1  apothecaries  ounce  =  31.103481  grammes 

1  grain  =  64.798918  milligrammes 

Weight  and  Volume  Relations 

At  maximum  density  in  vacuo: 

1  liter  of  water  weighs  1  kilogramme. 

1  gallon  of  water  weighs  58416.6  grains.* 

1  fluidounce  of  water  weighs  29.5729  grammes,  or  1.043154  avoir- 
dupois ounces,  or  456.3797  grains. 

1  minim  of  water  weighs  61.61025  milligrammes,  or  0.950791 
grains. 

1  grain  of  water  measures  0.0647989  mil,  or  1.0517555  minims. 

Specific  Gravity 

Except  where  otherwise  stated,  the  specific  gravity  basis  of  this 
Pharmacopoeia  is  25°~c.  (apparent),  i.e.,  the  ratio  of  the  apparent 
weight  of  a  substance  in  air  at  25°  C.  to  that  of  an  equal  volume  of 
pure  water  at  the  same  temperature. 

*  1  Gallon  of  water  weighs,  in  air,  at  25°  C,  under  normal  conditions  of  humidity 
and  atmospheric  pressure,  about  58185  grains;  a  pint  7273.1  grains;  a  fluidounce 
454.6  grains;  and  a  minim  0.947  grain. 


International  Protocol   (P.  I.) 


Compared   with   Drugs  and   Preparations  of  U.S.P,  IX 


International  Protocol  (P.  I.) 

Acid  Hydrocyanic,  Diluted 
Acidum  hydrocyanicura  dilu- 
tum: 

Title Aciaum  hydrocj^anicum 

dilutum 

Requirement Strength:  2  per  cent,  of 

HCN 


U.S.P.  IX 


Acidum  Hydrocyanicum  Dilu- 
tum. 

Strength:  1.9  to  2.1  per  cent, 
of  HCN  with  not  more  than 
0.1  per  cent,  of  HCl. 


Aconite 

Aconitum  Napellus  (L.) : 

Title Aconiti  tuber  seu  Tuber   Aconitum. 

Afoniti 
Requirement Tuberof thecurrentyear 


Assayed:  0.5  per  cent,  ether- 
soluble  alkaloids.  See  also 
biological  test.  (Tuber  of 
current  year  not  required.) 


Tinctura  aconiti: 
Title Aconiti      tinctura     seu   Tinctura  Aconiti. 

Tinctura  Aconiti 

Strength 10  per  cent 

Menstruum Alcohol,  70  per  cent.  .  .  . 

Requirement 0.05   per  cent,   of   total 

alkaloids 


100  mils  from  10  Gm.  (approx.j. 

Alf^ohol,  70  per  cent.* 

100  mils  contains  0.045  to  0.055 
Gm.  ether-soluble  alkaloids 
(see  also  biological  test). 


Belladonna 
Atropa  Belladonna  (L.) : 


Title Beiladonnae   folium   seu    Belladonnae  Folia. 

Folium  Belladonnte 
Requirement Use  only  the  dried  leaf. 


Tinctura  belladonnae: 

Title Belladonna;  tinctura  seu 

Tinctura  Belladonnte 

Strength 10  per  cent 

Menstruum Alcohol,  70  per  cent. .  .  . 

Requirement 

Extractum  belladonnge* 

Title Belladonnse     extractum 

seu  Extractum  Bella- 
donnse 

Menstruum Alcohol,  70  per  cent. . . . 


Requirement . 


Solid  extract  (containing 
about  10  per  cent,  of 
water) 


Assayed:  0.3  per  cent,  total 
alkaloids.  Dried  leaves  and 
tops. 

Tinctura     Belladonnae     Foli- 

orum. 
100  mils  from  10Gm.(approx.). 
Alcohol,  50  per  cent. 
100  mils  contains  0.027  to  0.033 

Gm.  alkaloids. 

Extractum  Belladonnse  Foli- 
orum. 

Pilular:   75  per  cent,  alcohol. 

Powdered:     95     per    cent. 

alcohol. 
Assayed:  1.18  to  1.32  per  cent. 

alkaloids. 


*The  figures  for  the  comparative  strength  in  this  table  and  alcoholic  percentages  are 
to  be  understood  as  approximate,  the  exact  figures  for  each  preparation  will  be  found 
in  the  text  under  the  head  of  each  article. 

liu 


liv  IXTERXATIONAL   PROTOCOL 

International  Protocol  U.S. P.  IX 

Bitter  Almond  Water 
Aqua  amygdalae  amarae : 

Title Amygdalae  amarse  aqua    Aqua  Amygdalae  Amarae. 

seu   Aqua   Amygdalae 
amarae 

Requirement Strength:  0.1  per  cent,  of   Contains  a  mere  trace  of  liydro- 

HCN  cyanic  acid. 

Cherry  Laurel  Water 
Aqua  laurocerasi: 

Title Laurocerasi     aqua     .«!eu    Not  ofTicial. 

Aqua  Laurocerasi 

Requirement Strength:  0.1  per  cent,  of 

HCN. 

Cocaine  Hydrochloride 
Cocainae  hydrochloridum : 

Title Cocainum    hydrochlori-    Cocainae  Hydrochloridum. 

cum 
Requirement The  anhydrous  salt ....    Same    as    International    Pro- 
tocol:   melts  between    183° 
and  191°  C. 
Colchicxun 
Colchicimi  autumnale  (L.): 

Title Colchici  semen  seu  Se-   Colchici  Cormus  and  Colchici 

men  Colchici  Semen  are  both  official. 

Requirement Use  only  the  seed. 

Tinctura  colchici: 

Title Colchici     tinctura     seu    Tinctura  Colchici  Seminis. 

Tinctura  Colchici 

Strength 10  per  cent lOOmilsfrom  lOGm.  (approx.). 

Menstruum Alcohol,  70  per  cent..  .  .    Alcohol,  60  per  cent. 

Reciuirement Assayed:     100    mils    contains 

0.036  to  0.044  Gm.  colchi- 
cine. 
Digitalis 
Digitalis    purpurea  (L.): 

Title Digitalis  folium  seu  Fo-     Digitalis. 

lium  Digitalis 

Requirement The  leaf  of  the  second    Assayed  biologicall}-.    Leaf  of 

year  second  year  not  required. 

Tinctura  digitalis: 

Title Digitalis     tinctura     seu   Tinctura  Digitalis. 

Tinctura  Digitalis 

Strength 10  per  cent lOOmilsfrom  10 Gm. (approx.). 

Menstruum Alcohol,  70  per  cent. .  .  .    Alcohol,  75  per  cent. 

Requirement May  be  assayed  biologically. 

Ergot 

Sclerotium  clavicepitis  pur- 
pureas (Tul.)  seu  clavi- 
cepiti  purpureae  (Tul.) 
sclerotium : 

Title Secale     cornutura     seu   Ergota. 

Ergotum  Secale 

Requirement Not  to  be  more  than  one    Must  be  dried  before  storing. 

year  old  and  to  be  kept 
whole 


INTERNATIONAL   PROTOCOL 


Iv 


International  Protocol 


U.S.P. IX 


Ergot 
Extractum  ergotae: 

Title Secaliscornutiextractum   Extractum  Ergotae. 

seu  Extractum  Secalis 


Cornuti;     Ergoti    ex- 
tractum   seu   Extrac- 
tum Ergoti 
Menstruum    and    require-    Prepare  an  aqueous  ex- 
ments  tract  and  treat  with 

60  per  cent,  alcohol 


Alcohol  85,  water  15,  HCl  1. 
Purified  benzin  used  to  ex- 
tract fixed  oil. 


Fluidextractum  ergotae : 

Title Secalis  cornuti  ex- 
tractum fluidum,  seu 
Extractum  fluidum 
Secalis  cornuti;  Ergoti 
extractum  fluidum  seu 
Extractum  fluidum 
Ergoti 

Strength 100  per  cent 

Menstruum Diluted    alcohol, 

cent.  HCl. 

Requirement 


Fluidextractum  Ergotae. 


100  mils  from  lOOGm.  (approx.) . 
with    2  per 


Hyoscyamus 
Hyoscyamus  niger  (L.) ; 
Title 


Requirement . 


Tinctura  hj-oscyami: 
Title 


Strength .... 
Menstruum  . 
Requirement 


Extractum  hyoscyami: 
Title 


Menstruum .  . 
Requirement . 


Ipecac 

Uragoga  ipecacuanhae  (Baill.) : 
Title 

Requirement 


Hyoscyami    folium    seu    Hyoscyamus. 

FoUum  Hyoscyami 
Use  only  the  leaf Assayed:  not  less  than  0.065  per 

cent,  of   alkaloids.     Leaves 

and  tops  used. 

Hyoscyami  tinctura  seu    Tinctura  Hyoscyami. 
Tinctura  Hyoscyami 

10  per  cent 100  mils  from  10  Gm. (approx.). 

Alcohol,  70  per  cent.. .  .    Alcohol,  50  per  cent. 

Assayed:     100    mils    contains 

0.0055  to  0.0075  Gm.  of  myd- 
riatic alkaloids. 

Hyoscyami      extractum    Extractum  Hyoscyami. 
seu  Extractum  Hyo- 
scyami 

Alcohol,  70  per  cent. .  . .    Made  with  75  per  cent,   alco- 
hol. 

Solid  extract  (containing   Assayed:  0.22  to  0.28  per  cent, 
about  10  per  cent,  of       of  alkaloids, 
water) 


Ipecacuanhae  radix  seu  Ipecacuanha.    (Rio   or   Carta- 

Radix  Ipecacuanhae  gena.) 
Only  the  root  bark  to  be 

used.    The  powder  to  The  whole  drug  to  contain  1.75 

have     an     alkaloidal  per   cent,     of    ether-soluble 

strength    of    2.0    per  alkaloids. 

cent. 


Ivi 


Ipecac 

Tinctura  ipecacuanhae : 
Title 


INTERNATIONAL   PROTOCOL 


International  Protocol 


U.S.P.IX 


Strength 

Menstruum .  . 
Requirement . 


Ipecacuanhae      tinctura    Not  official, 
sou    Tinctura    Ipeca- 
cuanhae 

10  per  cent. 

Alcohol,  70  per  cent. 


Syrupus  ipecacuanhae ; 
Title 


Strength. 


Mercurial  Ointment 

Unguentum  hydrargyri: 


Title , 


Strength. 


Nux  Vomica 

Strychnos  nux  vomica  (L.)t 
Title 


Requirement 


Tinctura  nucis  vomica;: 
Title 


Strength .... 
Menstruum  . 
Requirement 


Ipecacuanhae  sirupus  seu  SjTupus  Ipecacuanhae. 

Sirupus  Ipecacuanhae 

10  per  cent,  of  the  tine-  Seven  times  stronger  than  the 

ture  International  Protocol. 


Hydrargyri   imguentum   Unguentum  Hydrargyri. 
seu   Unguentum   Hy- 
drargyri 
30  per  cent 50  per  cent.  (Unguentum  Hy- 
drargyri Dilutum.      U.S. P. 
contains  about  30  per  cent, 
of  mercury.) 


Strychni  semen  seu  Se-   Nux  Vomica. 

men  Strj'chni  seu  Nux 

vomica 
2.5  per  cent,  total  alka-   Assayed:  2.5  per  cent,  of  the 

loids  alkaloids. 

Strychni     tinctura    se>i    Tinctura  Nucis  Vomicae. 
Tinctura       Strychni; 
Nucis    vomicae    tinc- 
tura seu  Tinctura  Nu- 
cis vomicae 

10  per  cent 100  mils  from  10  Gm.  (approx.). 

Alcohol,  70  per  cent. .  .    Alcohol,  75  per  cent. 

0.25  per  cent,  total  alka-   Assayed:     100    mils    contains 
loids  0.237  to  0.263  Gm.  of  the 

alkaloids. 


I 


Extractum  nucis  vomica?: 
Title 


Menstruum  . 
Requirement 

Opium 
Opium : 
Title 


Strychni  extractum  .seu 
Extractum  Strychni ; 
Nucis  vomicae  extrac- 
tum seu  Extractum 
Nucis  vomic;c 

Alcohol,  70  per  cent. .  .  . 

16  per  cent,  total  alka- 
loids 


Extractum  Nucis  Vomicae. 


Powdered  extract  made  with 

75  per  cent,  alcohol. 
Assayed:  15.2  to  16.8  percent. 

of  the  alkaloids. 


Requirement . 


Opii   pulvis   seu    Pulvis   Opii  Pulvis 

Opii 
Powder  to  be  dried  at 

60°  C;  morphine  10 

per  cent. 


Assayed:  Powdered  Opium  10 
to  10.5  per  cent,  anhydrous 
morphine. 


INTERNATIONAL  PROTOCOL  Ivil 

Opium  International  Protocol  U.S. P.  IX 

Extractum  opii: 

Title Opii  extractum  seu  Ex-   Extractum  Opii. 

tractum  Opii 

Requirement Morphine  20  per  cent .  .    Assayed:  19.5  to 20.5  per  cent. 

anhydrous  morphine. 
Tinctura  opii: 

Title Opii  tinctura  seu  Tine-   Tinctura  Opii. 

tura  Opii 

Strength 10  per  cent 100  mils  from  10  Gm.  (approx.). 

Menstruum • Alcohol,  70  per  cent. .  .  .    Alcohol,  50  per  cent. 

Requirement Morphine  1  per  cent.. .  .    100  mils  contains  0.95  to  1.05 

Gm.  anhydrous  morphine. 
Tinctura  opii  crocata: 

Title Opii  tinctura  crocata  seu    Not  official. 

Tinctura  Opii  crocata 
seu  Laudanum  Sydeu- 
hami 

Strength 10  per  cent,  opiimi. 

Menstruum  » 

Requirement Morphine  1  per  cent . 

Pulvis  ipecacuanhas  et  opii : 

Title Opii  et  Ipecacuanhse  pul-   Pulvis  Ipecacuanhse  et  Opii. 

vis     compositus     seu  . 

Pulvis  Doveri 

Requirement To  contain  10  per  cent.    Ipecac    10,    powdered   opium 

of  powdered  opium  10,  sugar  of  milk  80. 

Tinctura  opii  camphorata: 

Title Opii    tinctura    benzoica   Tinctura  Opii  Camphorata. 

seu  Tinctura  Opii  ben- 
zoica 

Requirement Morphine,  0.05  per  cent.    100    mils    contains    0.4    Gm. 

powdered  opium. 
Phenol  Water 
Aqua  phenolata: 

Title Phenoli  solutio  seu  Aqua      Not  official. 

phenolata 

Requirement Strength :  2  per  cent. 

Sodium  Arsenate 
Sodii  arsenas: 

Title Arsenas  sodii  seu  Sodii   Sodii  Arsenas. 

arsenas;  Arsejiicicum 
natrimn  seu  Natrium 
arsenicicum 

Requirement The  crystallized  salt  con-    Contains   58.98   to    61.92  per 

taining  36.85  per  cent.        cent.      anhydrous      sodium 
of  arsenic  acid  arsenate. 

Solution  of  Potassium  Arsenite 
Liquor  potassii  arsenitis : 

Title Arsenicalis  liquor  Fowl-   Liquor  Potassii  Arsenitis. 

eri  seu  Liquor  arseni- 
cahs  Fowleri  seu  Kalii 
arsenicosi  liquor 

Requirement Strength     in     arsenious   Contains    potassium     arsenite 

acid,  1  per  cent.  corresponding  in  amount  to 

not  less  than  0.975  nor  more 
than  1.025  per  cent,  of 
arsenic  trioxide. 


Iviii  INTERNATIONAL   PROTOCOL 

International  Protocol  U.S. P.  IX 

SjTup  of  Ferrous  Iodide 

SjTupus  ferri  iodidi: 

Title Ferri  iodidi  sirupus  seu   Syrupus  Ferri  Iodidi. 

Sirupus  iodati  ferrosi 
seuSirupus  ferri  iodati 

Requirement Strength    in    anhydrous    Contains  4.75  to  5.25  per  cent. 

ferrous    iodide    5    per        of  ferrous  iodide, 
cent. 

Tincture  of  Cantharides 
Tinct  ura  cantharidis : 

Title Cantharidis  tinctura  seu   Tinctura  Cantharidis. 

Tinctura   Cantharidis 

Strength 10   per  cent 100  mils  from  10  Gm.  (approx.). 

Menstruum Alcohol,  70  per  cent. .  . .    Alcohol,  95  per  cent. 

Requirement 

Tincture  of  Iodine 
Tinctura  iodi: 

Title Iodi  tinctura  seu  Tine-    Tinctura  Iodi. 

tura  iodi 

Strength 10  per  cent Iodine  7  Gm.,  potassium  iodide 

5  Gm.  in  100  mils. 

Menstruum Alcohol,  95  per  cent. .  .  .    Alcohol,  90  per  cent. 

Requirement 

Tincture  of  Lobelia 

Tinctura  lobeliae: 

Title Lobehae     tinctura     seu   Tinctura  Lobelise. 

Tinctura  Lobeliie 

Strength 10  per  cent 100  mils  from  10  Gm.  (approx.). 

Menstruum Alcohol,  70  per  cent.  . .    Alcohol,  50  per  cent. 

Requirement 

Tincture  of  Strophanthus 
Tinctura  strophanthi: 

Title Strophanthi  tinctura  seu  Tinctura  Strophanthi. 

Tinctura  Strophanthi 

Strength : .    10  per  cent 100  mils  from  10  Gm  (approx.). 

Menstruum Alcohol,  70  per  cent. .  .  .  Alcohol,  95  per  cent. 

Requirement Seeds   not   to   be   freed  Assayed  biologically.    Purified 

from  fat  benzin  used  to  extract  fixed 
oil. 

Wine  of  Antimony 
Vinum  antimonii: 

Title Antimoniale  vinum  seu   Not  official. 

Vinum  antimoniale ; 
Stibiatum  vinum  seu 
Vinum  stibiatum 

Strength In    tartar    emetic,    0.4 

per  cent. 
Requirement 


I 


I 


Admissions,  Deletions  and  Changes 


ARTICLES  ADDED  TO  PART  I,  U.S.P.  IX 


Acidum  Phenj^lcinchoninicum 

j^thylmorphinse  Hydrochloridiim 

Agar 

Aqua  Destillata  Sterilisata 

Aspidosperma 

BetaeucainsE  Hydrochloridum 

Bismuthi  Betanaphtholas 

CaffeinjB  Sodio-Benzoas 

Calcii  Glj'cerophosphas 

Lactas 
Cotarninae  Hydrochloridum 
Creosoti  Carbonas 
Diacetylmorphina 
Diacetylmorphinse  Hydrochloridum 
Diastasum 

Emetinae  Hydrochloridum 
Emplastrum  Cantharidis 
"  Elasticum 

"  Resinae 

Extractum  Aconiti 

"  Fellis  Bo  vis 

"  Grelsemii 

"  Hydrastis 

"  Viburni  Prunifolii 

Fluidextractmn  Aspidospermatis 

Sabal 
Glucosum 

Hydrargyri  Salicylas 
Hydrastinae  Hydrochloridum 
Hypophysis  Sicca 
Liquor  Hypophj^sis 

"      Sodii  Chloridi  Physiologicus 
"  "     Glycerophosphatis 

Magma  Bismuthi 


Magma  Magnesia? 
Nitrogenii  Monoxidum 
Oleoresina  Petroselini 
Oleum  Pini  Pumilionis 

"      Sesami 
Oxj^genium 
Paraformaldehydum 
Petroselinum 
Phenolphthaleinum 
Potassa  Sulphurata 
Quininae  Dihydrochloridum 

"        et  LTreae  Hydrochloridum 
"        Tannas 
Scammoniae  Radix 

Serum  Antidiphthericum  Purificatum 
"  "  Siccum 

"      Antitetaniciun 

Purificatum 
Siccum 
Sodii  Benzosulphinidmn 
"     Cacodylas 
"     Cyanidum 
"     Glycerophosphas 
"     Indigotindisulphonas 
"     Per  boras 

Sulphis  Exsiccatus 
Terra  Sihcea  Purificata 
Theobrominae  Sodio-SaHcylas 
Theophylhna 
Toxitabellae  HydrargjTi   Chloridi    Cor- 

rosivi 
Trinitrophenol 
Uranii  Nitras 
Virus  Vaccinicum 

lix 


I 


ARTICLES  DISMISSED  PROM  U.S.P.  VIII 


Acetum  Opii 

Acidum  Camphoricum 

"       Nitriciun  Dilutum  (Part  II) 
"       Sulphurosum  (Part  II) 
^ther  Aceticus  (Ethyl  Acetate,  Part  II) 
Aloe  Purificata 
Alumini  Sulphas 
Amygdala  Amara 
Anthemis 
Apocynum 
Argenti  Cyanidum 

"       Nitras  Mitigatus 
Benzinum 
Berberis 
Bismuthi  Citras 
Bromum  (Part  II) 
Calamus 
Calcii  Phosphaa  Prgecipitatus 

"      Sulphas  Exsiccatus 
Calendula 
Carbo  Animalis 

"  "        Purificatus 

Carbonei  Disulphidum  (Part  II) 
Cassia  Fistula 
Cataplasma  Kaolini 
Ceratum  Camphorae 

"        Plumbi  Subacetatis 
"        Resinae  Compositum 
Chimaphila 
Chirata 

Chloralformamidum 
Cinnaldehydum 
Coca 

Collodium  Stypticum 
Confectio  Rosae 
"         Sennae 
Conium 
Convallaria 
Cusso 

Cypripedium 
Elastica 

Elixir    Ferri,    Quininae    et    StrychninsB 
Phosphatura 

Ix 


Emplastrum  Adhaesivum 
"  Hydrargyri 

"  Opii 

"  Saponis 

Emulsum  Chloroformi 

"         Olei   Morrhuae   cum   Hypo- 
phosphitibus 
Euonymus 
Eupatorium 
Extractum  Aloes 
"  Digitalis 

"  Euonymi 

"  Haematoxyli 

"  Krameriae 

"  Leptandrae 

"  Quassiae 

"  Scopolae 

Fel  Bovis  Purificatum 
Ferri  Citras 
"     et  Ammonii  Sulphas  (Part  II) 
"      "         "         Tartras 
"      "  Potassii         " 
"      "  Quininae  Citras 
"      "  Strychninae  Citras 
"     Hydroxidum 
"     Hypophosphis 
"     Pyrophosphas  Solubilis 
Ficus 
Fluidextractum  Apocyni 

"  Berberidis 

"  Calami 

"  Calumbae 

"  Capsici 

"  Chimaphilse 

"  Chiratae 

"  Cocae 

"  Conii 

"  ConvallarisB 

"  Cubebae 

"  Cypripedii 

"  '   Euonymi 

"  Eupatorii 

"  Geranii 


ARTICLES   DISMISSED   FROM   U.S.P.   VIII 


Ixi 


Pluidextractum  Hamamelidis  Foliorum 

"  Kramerise 

"  Lappae 

"  Leptandrse 

"  Lupulini 

"  Matico 

"  Mezerei 

"  Pareirae 

"  Phytolaccae 

"  Pruni  Virginianae 

"  Quassise 

"  Quercus 

"  Quillajae 

"  Rhois  Glabra? 

Rubi 

"  Sabinae 

"  Sanguinariae 

"  Scopolse 

"  Scutellariae 

"  Serpentariae 

"  Stramonii 

"  Valerianae 

"  Viburni  Opuli 

Geranium 
Glyceritum  Ferri,  Quininae  et  Strychninae 

Phosphatum 
Gossypii  Cortex 
Haematoxylon 
Hamamelidis  Cortex 

Folia 
Hedeoma 

Hyoscyaminae  Sulphas 
Infusum  Pruni  Virginianae 
lodolum 
Kaoliniun 
Krameria 
Lappa 
Leptandra 
Limonis  Succus 
tiquor  Antisepticus 

"       Chlori  Compositus  (Part  II) 
"       Hydrargyri  Nitratis 
"       Sodii  Phosphatis  Compositus 
Lithii  Benzoas 

"      Citras  Effervescens 
"      SaUcylas 
Lupulinum 
Magnesii  Sulphas  Effervescens 


Mangani  Hypophosphis 

Sulphas  (Part  II) 
Marrubium 
Mastiche 
Matico 
Mistura  Ferri  Composita 

"        Rhei  et  Sodae 
Morphinae  Acetas 
Mucilago  Sassafras  Medullae 

Ulmi 
Naphthaleniun 
Oleatum  Atropinae 
"        Cocainae 
"        Quininae 
"        Veratrinae 
Oleoresina  Lupulini 
Oleum  Adipis 

"      -iEthereum 

"      Copaibae 

"      Erigerontis 

"      Hedeomae 

"      Rosse 

"      Sabinae 
Pareira 

Physostigminae  Sulphas 
Phytolacca 
Pilulae  Aloes  et  Ferri 

"         "      "  Mastichea 

"  "      "  Myrrhae 

"      Catharticae  Vegetabiles 

"      Laxativae  Compositae 

"      Opu 

"      Podophylli,  BeUadonnae  et  Capsici 
Pimenta 
Piperina 
Plumbi  lodidum 

"       Nitras  (Part  II) 
Potassii  Cyanidum 

"        Dichromas  (Part  II) 
"       Ferrocyanidum  (Part  II) 
Sulphas  (Part  II) 
Prunum 
Pulvis  Acetanilidi  Compositus 

"      Morphinae  " 

Quercus 
Quillaja 
Rhus  Glabra 
Rubus 


Ixii 


ARTICLES  DISMISSED    FROM   U.S.P.  VIII 


Sabina 
Safrolum 
Salvia 
Santonica 
Sassafras  Medulla 
Scammonium 
Scoparius 
Scopola 
Scutellaria 

Sodii  Bisulphis  (Part  II) 
"     Chloras 
"     Nitras 

PjTophosphas 
Sulphis 
Spiritus  .Etheris  Cumpositus 
"        Ammonise 
"       Frumenti 
"       Gaultheria 
Vini  GaUici 
Sulphuris  lodidum 
Syrupus  Amygdake 
Calcis 
"        Ferri,    Quininas   et  Strj-chnina; 

Phosphatum 
"        Hypophosphitum  Compositus 
"        Krameriae 
"        Rosae 
Rubi 
Talcum 
Tamarindus 
Terebinthina 

"  Canadensis 

Tinctura  Aloes  et  Myrrhae 


Tinctura  Calendulae 
"        Cimicifugae 

Gallaj 
"        Herbarum  Recentium 
"        Ipecacuanhae  et  Opii 
"        Krameriae 

Quillajae 
"      .  Serpen tariae 
Vanilla 
Trochisci  Gambir 

"         GlycjTrhizae  et  Opii 
"         Krameriae 
"         Santonini 
Unguentum  HydrargAri  Oxidi  Rubri 
"  Potassii  lodidi 

"  Veratrinae 

"  Zinci  Stearatis 

\'anilla 

\'iburnum  Opulus 
\'inum  Album 
"       Antimonii 
"       Cocae 

"       Colchici  Seminis 
"       Ergotae 
"       Ferri 
"  "     Amarum 

"       Ipecacuanhae 
"       Opii 
"       Rubrum 
Zea 

Zinci  Bromidum 
"     lodidum 


I 


ARTICLES  ADDED  TO  PART  II,  U.S.P.  IX 

Reagents,  Test  Solutions,  and  Volumetric  Solutions 


Acetic  Acid  Anhydride 
Acetone 

Ammonia,  Spirit  of 
Ammonium  Nitrate 

Polysulphide  T.S. 
"  Vanadate 

Aniline  Sulphate 

T.S. 
Arsenic  Acid 

"  "     T.S.,  Concentrated 

"       Trioxide 
Asbestos 
AzoUtmin 

T.S. 
Azur  II 

"     II-Eosin 
Barium  Chloride 
"        Hydroxide 
"       Nitrate 
Beef  Extract 
Benzidine 

Betaiminazolylethylamine      Hydrochlo- 
ride 
Blood  Senma 
Bromine 

Cadmium  and  Potassium  Iodide 
Chloride 

T.S. 
Iodide 
Canada  Turpentine 
Carbon  Tetrachloride 
Carmine 
Cobaltous  Chloride 

"       T.S. 
Congo  Red 

"     T.S. 
Cupric  Acetate 

"       T.S. 
Curare 

•Dimethylaminoazobenzene 
Diphenylamine 
Eosiu  A 


Ether,  Dehydrated 

Ethyl  Acetate 

Ferric  Ammonium  Sulphate 

Ferrous  Sulphate  (Acid)  T.S. 

Filter  Paper,  Quantitative 

Fluorescein 

Fuchsin 

"        Acid 
Fuchsin-Sulphurous  Acid  T.S. 
Glass  ^^'ool 
Glucose,  Dry 
Gold  Chloride 

T.S.,  Diluted 
Hematein 
Hematoxylin 
Hydrated  Chloral  T.S. 
Indigo  Carmine  T.S. 
lodeosin 
Iodine,  Purified 
lodo-bromide  T.S. 
Laevomethj'laminoethanolcatechol 
Lead  Acetate  Glass  Wool 
"  "       Test  Paper 

"  .    T.S.,  Alcoholic 
"     Nitrate 
"     Peroxide 
Lime,  Freshly  Slaked 
Magnesium  Chloride 
Manganese  Sulphate 

T.S. 
Mercuric  Bromide 

"  "        Test  Paper 

T.S.,  AlcohoUc 
Methyl  Orange 
"       Red 

"    T.S. 
"       Violet  6B 
Methylene  Green 
Molybdic  Acid 
Naphthylamine  (Alpha)  Hydrochloride 

ti  a  "  T  S 

(Beta) 

bdii 


Ixiv 


ARTICLES  ADDED   TO   PART  II,  U.S.P.  IX 


■1 


Nitric  Acid,  Diluted 

Oil  of  Cedanvood 

Orange  G 

Orcin 

Ouabain 

Palladous  Chloride 

Paradimethylaminobenzaldehj'de 

Peptone 

Phenoldisulphonic  Acid  T.S. 

Phenylhydrazine 

"  Dihydrochloride 

"  Hydrochloride 

Phloroglucinol 

T.S. 
Phosphotungstic  Acid 
Platinic  Chloride 
Potassium  Chromate 
"  Ferricyanide 

"  Hj'droxide  T.S.,  Special 

**  Sulphate 

PyrogaUol  T.S.,  Alkaline 
Resorcinol  T.S. 
Rosaniliue  Acetate 
Rosolic  Acid 

"  "     T.S. 

Sawdust,  Purified 
Selenous  Acid 
Silver,  Metallic 
"       Sulphate 
Sodium  Acetate,  Anhydrous 
"       Bisulphite 

T.S. 


Sodium  Bitartrate 

"       Carbonate,  Anhydrous 

Chloride 
"       Cyanide  T.S. 
"        Hj'pobromite  T.S. 
"       Nitroprusside 

Oxalate 
"       Phospho-tungstate  T.S. 
Sulphide 

T.S. 
"       Tartrate,  Neutral 
"       Tungstate 
Stannous  Chloride 

T.S.,  Acid 
T.S.,  Saturated 
Starch  (Potato) 
Succinic  Acid 
SulphaniUc  Acid 
Sulpho-sahcylic  Acid 
Sulphuric  Acid,  Fuming 

"  "      Purified     and     Concen- 

trated for  Tests 
Sulphurous  Acid 
Toluol 
Xylol 
Yeast 
Zinc  Dust 
"     Oxide 
Tenth-Normal  Barium  Hydroxide  V.S. 
Half-Normal  Potassium  Hydroxide  V.S. 
Hundredth-Normal  Silver  Nitrate  V.S. 
Two-Hundredth-Normal  Sodium   Thio- 
sulphate  V.S. 


Diagnostical  Reagents  and  Clinical  Tests 


Agar-Agar,  Glycerin 

"        "      Glucose 

"        "      Lactose-htmus 

"      Plain 

Alcoholic  Solution  of  Dimethylamino- 

azobenzene 

"  "         "  Iodine  (1  per  cent.) 

tt  II         n      it        /•jn    "     "  ") 

"  ''         "  Methyl  Violet  6B 

"  "         "  Methylthionine 

Chloride  (Saturated) 

Aloin  (isobarbaloin  containing  barbaloin) 

Alum-hematoxylon  Solution 


Anihne  Water  and  Methj'l    Violet  6B 

Solution 
Aqueous  Solution  of  Trinitropheuol 

(Saturated) 
Bial's  Reagent 

Borax  Methylene  Blue  Solution 
Bouillon,  Glucose 

Plain 

Stock 
Carminfibrin 
Congo  Red  Test  Paper 
Diluted  Carbolfuchsin  Solution 
Ebner's  Fluid 


ARTICLES  ADDED   TO   PART  II,   U.S.P.  IX 


Ixv 


Ehrlich's  Solution  for  Diazo  Reaction 
"    Urobilinogen 

"        Triacid  Stain 
Esbach's  Reagent 

Ether  (containing  Hydrogen  Dioxide) 
Gelatin,  Glucose 

"        Plain 
Giemsa's  Stain 
Gram's  Iodine  Solution 
Giinzburg's  Reagent 
Hayem's  Solution 
Iodine  Potassium  Iodide  Solution 
Jenner's  Stain 
Loffler's  Methylene  Blue  Solution 

"        Mixture  (Blood  Serum) 
Mayer's  Hemalum 
Mixture  of  Zinc  Acetate 
Nitric  Acid  (containing  a  trace  of  nitrous 
acid) 
"         "     Solution  for  Decolorizing 
Nylander's  Reagent 


Obermeyer's  Solution 
Oxygenated  Oil  of  Turpentine 
Pavy's  Solution 
Solution  for  Hemoglobin  Estimation 

"   WTiite  Corpuscles 

of  Calcium  Chloride 

"  Carbolfuchsin 

"  Carbol  Methyl  Violto 

"  Chlorinated  Lime  (Saturated) 

"  Copper  Sulphate 

"  Guaiac 

"  Lead  Acetate 

"  Rosolic  Acid 

"  Sodium  Hydroxide  (for  Sugar 
Reaction) 

"  Sodium  Hypobromite 

"  Zinc  Chloride  (10  per  cent.) 
Spiegler-Jolles  Reagent 
Toison's  Solution 
Wright's  Stain 
Yeast  (for  fermentation  test) 


ARTICLES  DISMISSED  FROM  APPENDIX,  U.S.P.  VIII 

Mercuric  Chloride  Test  Paper 

T.S.,  AlcohoUc 
Methyl  Alcohol 
Naphthylamine  Acetate  T.S. 
Potassium  Cyanide  T.S. 
Sodium  Nitrite 


Barium  Carbonate 
Brazil-Wood  T.S. 
Cobaltous  Nitrate  T.S. 
Indigo  T.S. 
Iodine  T.S.,  Alcoholic 
Lead  Acetate  Test  Gause 


CHANGES  IN  OFFICIAL  LATIN  TITLES 

U.S.P.  VIII  U.S.P.  IX 

Alcohol  Absolutum Alcohol  Dehydratum 

Aqua  Hydrogenii  Dioxidi Liquor  Hydrogenii  Dioxidi 

Calx  Sulphurata Calcii  Sulphidum  Crudum 

Cannabis  Indica Cannabis 

Cardamomum Cardamomi  Semen 

Charta  Sinapis Emplastrum  Sinapis 

Elixir  Adjuvans EUxir  Glycyrrhizae 

Extractum  Cannabis  Indicse Extractum  Cannabis 

"          Rhanini  Purshianse "          Cascarse  Sagradae 

Ferri  et  Quininse  Citras  Solubilis Ferri  et  Quininae  Citras 

"     Phosphas  SolubiUs "     Phosphas 

Fluidextractum  Cannabis  Indicse Fluidextractum  Cannabis 

"              Rhamni  Purshianae "              Cascarse  Sagradae 

"              Rhamni  Purshianae  Aro-  "              Cascarse     Sagradae     Aro- 

maticum  maticum 

"              Veratri "              Veratri  Viridis 

Glandulae  Suprarenales  Siccae Suprarenalum  Siccum 

"         ThjToidese          "    Thyroideum          " 

Hyoscinae  Hydrobromidum Scopolaminae  Hydrobromidum 

Methylthioninae  Hydrochloridum Methylthioninae  Chloridum 

Oleum  Aurantii  Corticis Oleum  Aurantii 

"      Betulae Meth3iis  Salicylas 

"      Cinnamomi Oleum  Cassiae 

"      Gaultheriae Methylis  Salicylas 

"      Lavandulae  Florum Oleum  Lavandulae 

"      Picis  Liquidae "      Picis  Liquidae  Rectificatxmi 

Resina  Scammonii Resina  Scammoniae 

Rhamnus  Purshiana Cascara  Sagrada 

Tinctura  Cannabis  Indicae Tinctura  Cannabis 

"        Veratri "        Veratri  Viridia 

Veratmm Veratrum  Viride 

Ixvi 


I 


i 

I 


CHANGES  IN  OFFICIAL  ENGLISH  TITLES 
u.s.p.  vm  u.s.p.  IX 

Acetanilide Acetanilid 

Wool-Fat Wool  Fat 

Hydrous  Wool-Fat Hydrous  Wool  Fat 

Absolute  Alcohol Dehydrated  Alcohol 

Sulphurated  Lime Crude  Calcium  Sulphide 

Indian  Cannabis Cannabis 

Cardamom Cardamom  Seed 

Cloves Clove 

Mustard  Paper Mustard  Plaster 

Adjuvant  Elixir Elixir  of  Glycyrrhiza 

Extract  of  Indian  Cannabis Extract  of  Cannabis 

Soluble  Iron  and  Quinine  Citrate Iron  and  Quinine  Citrate 

"       Ferric  Phosphate Ferric  Phosphate 

Fluidextract  of  Cannabis  Indica; Fluidextract  of  Cannabis 

"  "  Veratrum "  "  Veratrum  Viride 

Desiccated  Suprarenal  Glands Dried  Suprarenals 

Thyroid  "       "      Thyroids 

Hyoscine  Hydrobromide Scopolamine  Hydrobromide 

Methj-lthionine  Hydrochloride Methylthionine  Chloride 

Oil  of  Orange  Peel Oil  of  Orange 

"    "  Betula Methyl  Salicylate  (from  Betula) 

"    "  Gaultheria "       Salicylate  (from  Gaultheria) 

"    "  Lavender  Flowers Oil  of  Lavender 

"    "  Tar Rectified  Oil  of  Tar 

Tincture  of  Cannabis  Indica Tincture  of  Cannabis 

"         "  Veratrum "         "  Veratrum  Viride 

Blue  Ointment Diluted  Mercurial  Ointment 

^'eratrum Veratrum  Viride 

Ixvii 


Ixviii 


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THE  PHARMACOPCEIA  OF  THE 
UNITED   STATES   OF   AMERICA 


I 
I 


THE 

PHARMACOPOEIA 

OF  THE 

UNITED  STATES  OF  AMERICA 

PART  I 

ACACIA 

Acacia 

Acac. — Gum  Arabic 
The  dried  gummy  exudation  of  Acacia  Senegal  Willdenow,  and  of 
other  African  species  of  Acacia  (Fam.  Leguminosce) . 

In  ovoid,  more  or  less  spheroidal  tears,  or  in  broken,  angular  fragments  from 
2  to  30  mm.  in  diameter,  varying  from  white  or  yellowish-white  to  light  amber- 
colored;  translucent;  very  brittle;  fractured  surface  glass-Uke,  sometimes  iri- 
descent; nearly  inodorous;  taste  insipid,  mucilaginous. 

Insoluble  in  alcohol ;  slowly  and  almost  completely  soluble  in  twice  its  weight 
of  water,  forming  a  mucilaginous  liquid,  which  has  a  slight,  characteristic  odor 
and  is  acid  to  litmus.  When  either  0.1  mil  of  basic  lead  acetate  T.S.,  or  0.1  mil 
of  a  concentrated  solution  of  sodium  borate,  or  0.1  mil  of  ferric  chloride  T.S.  is 
added  to  10  mils  of  a  10  per  cent,  aqueous  solution  of  Acacia,  a  gelatinous  pre- 
cipitate is  produced.  The  precipitate  produced  with  ferric  chloride  T.S.  is  neither 
black  nor  brownish-black  {tannin). 

The  powder  is  whitish,  with  few  or  no  starch  grains  or  fragments  of  vegetable 
tissues. 

Not  more  than  1  per  cent,  of  powdered  Acacia  is  insoluble  in  water  {plant 
tissues,  sand,  or  dirt). 

Acacia  yields  not  more  than  4  per  cent,  of  ash,  and  the  powder  contains  not 
more  than  15  per  cent,  of  moisture. 

Preparations — Mucilago  Acaciae      Syrupus  Acaciae. 

ACETANILIDUM 

Acetanilid 

Acetanil. — Acetanihde       Antifebrin 

The  monoacetyl  derivative  [CsHgON  or  CeHsNH.CHgCO  =  135.08] 
of  aniline. 

Acetanilid  occurs  in  colorless,  shining,  micaceous,  crystalline  laminae,  or  as  a 
crystalline  powder;  odorless,  having  a  slightly  burning  taste;  permanent  in 
the  air. 

3 


THE    PHARMACOPCEIA   OF  THE 


One  Gm.  of  Acetanilid  dissolves  in  190  mils  of  water,  3.4  mils  of  alcohol,  3.7 
mils  of  chloroform,  17  mils  of  ether,  47  mils  of  benzene,  and  in  about  5  mils  of 
glycerin  at  25°  C. ;  also  in  20  mils  of  boiling  water  and  in  0.6  mil  of  boiling  alcohol. 

Its  saturated  aqueous  solution  is  neutral  to  litmus. 

AcetaniUd  melts  between  112°  and  114°  C. 

Boil  about  0.1  Gm.  of  Acetanilid  with  5  mils  of  potassium  hydroxide  T.S.,  the 
characteristic  odor  of  aniline  becomes  noticeable.  Now  add  1  mil  of  chloroform, 
and  again  heat  the  mixture;  the  disagreeable  odor  of  phenylisocyanide  (a  poison- 
ous substance)  is  evolved. 

Boil  about  0.1  Gm.  of  Acetanilid  for  several  minutes  with  2  mils  of  hydro- 
chloric acid;  a  clear  solution  results,  which,  when  mixed  with  3  mils  of  an  aqueous 
solution  of  phenol  (1  in  20)  and  afterwards  with  5  mils  of  a  filtered,  saturated 
solution  of  chlorinated  lime,  acquires  a  brownish-red  color,  which  becomes  deep 
blue  upon  supersaturation  with  ammonia  water. 

Bromine  T.S.  produces  a  white,  crystalline  precipitate  in  an  aqueous  solution 
of  Acetanilid. 

Incinerate  about  2  Gm.  of  AcetaniUd;  not  more  than  0.05  per  cent,  of  ash 
remains. 

The  solution  of  about  0.5  Gm.  of  Acetanilid  in  5  mils  of  colorless  sulphuric 
acid  is  not  more  than  faintly  yellow  {readily  carbonizable  impurities). 

Add  5  drops  of  ferric  chloride  T.S  to  5  mils  of  a  cold,  saturated  aqueous 
solution  of  Acetanilid;  the  color  does  not  differ  from  that  produced  by  adding 
5  drops  of  ferric  chloride  T.S.  to  5  mils  of  distilled  water  ^aniline  salts  or  other 
allied  substances). 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.2  Gm. — Apothecaries,  3  grains. 


ACETONUM 

Acetone 

Aceton . — Dimethyl-ketone 

A  liquid  containing  not  less  than  99  per  cent,  by  weight  of  CaHeO  or 
CH3.CO.CH3  (58.05).  Preserve  it  in  well-closed  containers,  in  a  cool 
place,  remote  from  fire. 

A  transparent,  colorless,  mobile  and  volatile  liquid  of  a  characteriatic  ethereal 
odor  and  a  pungent,  sweetish  taste. 

Specific  gravity:  about  0.790  at  25°  C. 

Miscible  without  cloudiness  with  water,  alcohol,  ether,  chloroform,  and  with 
most  volatile  oils. 

It  volatilizes  even  at  low  temperatures  and  boils  between  56°  and  58°  C.  It 
is  inflammable  and  bums  with  a  luminous,  non-sooty  flame. 

Acetone  does  not  aff'ect  the  color  of  blue  or  red  Utmus  paper  previously  mois- 
tened with  water. 

Evaporate  25  mils  of  Acetone  in  a  platinum  or  porcelain  dish  on  a  water 
bath;  not  more  than  0.002  Gm.  of  residue  remains. 

Mix  20  mils  of  Acetone  in  a  clean,  glass-stoppered  bottle,  with  0.1  mil  of 
tenth-normal  potassium  permanganate  V.S. ;  the  pink  tint  so  produced  does 
not  wholly  disappear  in  less  than  fifteen  minutes  [empyreumatic  substances). 

Assay — Determine  the  exact  weight  of  a  glass-stoppered  weighing  bottle 
containing  15  mils  of  distilled  water,  add  about  1  mil  of  Acetone,  and  again 
weigh  accurately.  Transfer  the  contents  of  the  bottle,  washing  the  bottle  well 
with  distilled  water,  to  a  1000  mil  graduated  flask,  fill  to  the  mark  with  distilled 
water,  and  mix  the  contents  thoroughly.  Place  25  mils  of  normal  potassium 
hydroxide  V.S.  in  a  250  mil  glass-stoppered  flask,  add  exactly  25  mils  of  the 
Acetone  solution  (representing  one-fortieth  of  the  weight  of  Acetone  taken), 
then,  with  constant  agitation  of  the  flask,  add  35  mils  of  tenth-normal  iodine 


tJNITED    STATES    OF   AMERICA 


V.S.,  and  allow  the  mixture  to  stand  for  fifteen  minutes.  Now  add  26  mils  of 
nonnal  hydrochloric  acid  V.S.  and  at  once  titrate  the  residual  iodine  with  tenth- 
nonnal  sodium  thiosulphate  V.S.,  with  the  addition  of  starch  T.S.  as  indicator 
when  the  Uquid  is  nearly  decolorized.  Conduct  a  blank  test  with  the  same 
quantities  of  the  reagents  and  subtract  the  quantity  of  tenth-normal  iodine 
V.S.  consumed  in  this  blank  test  from  that  consumed  in  the  assay. 

Each  mil  of  this  difference,  which  represents  the  iodine  consumed  by  the 
reaction  with  the  Acetone,  corresponds  to  0.0009675  Gm.  of  CsHsO.  Each 
gramme  of  Acetone  corresponds  to  not  less  than  1023  mils  of  tenth-normal 
iodine  V.S. 

ACETPHENETIDINUM 

Acetphenetidin 

Acetphen. — Phenacetin 

The   monoacetyl  derivative  [CioHiaOaN   or  C6H4(0C2H5).NH.CH3 
CO    1:4  =  179.1 1  ]  of  para-amidophenetol. 

Acetphenetidin  occurs  in  white,  glistening,  crystalline  scales  or  as  a  fine  crystal- 
line powder ;  odorless,  having  a  slightly  bitter  taste  and  producing  a  faint  numbing 
effect  on  the  tongue;  permanent  in  the  air. 

OneGm.  of  Acetphenetidin  dissolves  in  1310  mils  of  water,  15  mils  of  alcohol, 
14  mils  of  chloroform,  and  in  90  mils  of  ether  at  25°  C;  also  in  82  mils  of  boil- 
ing water  and  2.8  mils  of  boiling  alcohol. 

Its  saturated  aqueous  solution  is  neutral  to  litmus. 

Acetphenetidin  melts  between  133°  and  135°  C. 

Boil  about  0.1  Gm.  of  Acetphenetidin  for  one  minute  with  1  mil  of  hydro- 
chloric acid,  dilute  the  mixture  with  10  mils  of  distilled  water,  cool,  and  filter  it;  a 
drop  of  potassium  dichromate  T.S.  added  to  the  filtrate  produces  a  ruby-red  color. 

Incinerate  about  2  Gm.  of  Acetphenetidin;  not  more  than  0.05  per  cent,  of  ash 
remains. 

A  mixture  of  about  0.005  Gm.  of  Acetphenetidin  and  1  mil  of  nitric  acid  is 
colored  yellow,  the  color  becoming  darker  on  standing.  The  solution  of  about 
0.5  Gm.  of  Acetphenetidin  in  5  mils  of  colorless  sulphuric  acid  is  not  more  than 
faintly  yellow  {readily  carbonizable  impurities). 

Boil  about  0.1  Gm.  of  Acetphenetidin  with  10  mils  of  distilled  water  until 
dissolved,  cool  the  solution,  filter  it,  and  add  bromine  T.S.  to  the  filtrate,  drop 
by  drop,  with  agitation  after  each  addition,  until  the  solution  remains  perma- 
nently yellow;  neither  turbidity  nor  precipitation  is  produced  (acetanilid) . 

A  mixture  of  about  0.3  Gm.  of  Acetphenetidin  with  1  mil  of  alcohol  and  1 
drop  of  tenth-normal  iodine  V.S.  does  not  acquire  a  red  tint  when  diluted  with 
three  times  its  volume  of  distilled  water  and  boiled  (parophenetidin) . 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.3  Gm. — Apothecaries,  5  grains. 


ACETUM  SCILL.E 

Vinegar  of  Squill 

Acet.  Scill. 

Squill,  in  No,  20  powder,  one  hundred  grammes 100  Gm. 

Diluted  Acetic  Acid,  a  sufficient  quantity, 


To  make  one  thousand  milliliters 1000  mils 


6  THE    PHARMACOPCEIA   OF   THE 

Macerate  the  squill  with  nine  hundred  mils  of  diluted  acetic  acid 
during  seven  days  with  frequent  agitation;  then  strain  the  mixture, 
and  wash  the  mass  on  the  strainer  with  enough  diluted  acetic  acid 
to  make  the  strained  liquid  measure  nearly  one  thousand  mils. 
Heat  this  liquid  to  boiling,  filter  while  hot,  and  when  cold  add 
sufficient  diluted  acetic  acid  to  make  the  product  measure  one  thousand 
mils. 

Preparation — Syrupus  Scillae. 

Average  dose — Metric,  1  mil — Apothecaries,  15  minims. 


ACIDUM  ACETICUM 

Acetic  Acid 

Acid.  Acet. 

An  aqueous  solution  containing  not  less  than  36  per  cent,  nor  more 
than  37  per  cent,  of  C2H4O2  or  CH3.COOH  (60.03). 

Acetic  Acid  is  a  clear,  colorless  liquid,  having  a  strong,  characteristic,  vinegar- 
Uke  odor,  a  sharply  acid  taste,  and  a  strongly  acid  reaction. 

Acetic  Acid  is  miscible  with  water  or  alcohol. 

Specific  gravity:  about  1.045  at  25°  C. 

Add  sufficient  ammonia  water  to  Acetic  Acid  to  neutralize  it  or  to  leave  the 
Acid  in  slight  excess,  and  then  add  ferric  chloride  T.S.;  a  blood-red  color  de- 
velops which  is  discharged  by  strongly  acidulating  the  liquid  with  sulphuric  acid. 

Evaporate  20  mils  of  Acetic  Acid  to  dryness  on  a  water  bath;  not  more  than 
0.002  Gm.  of  residue  remains. 

Acetic  Acid  diluted  with  20  volumes  of  distilled  water  does  not  respond  to 
the  Test  for  heavy  metals  (see  Part  II,  Test  No.  3). 

Separate  portions  of  1  mil  each  of  Acetic  Acid,  diluted  with  10  volumes  of 
distilled  water,  show  no  turbidity  on  the  addition  of  a  few  drops  of  barium 
chloride  T.S.  (sulphuric  acid)  nor  any  opalescence  with  a  few  drops  of  silver 
nitrate  T.S.  (hydrochloric  acid). 

Supersaturate  5  mils  of  the  Acid  with  10  mils  of  ammonia  water,  add  5  mils  of 
tenth-normal  silver  nitrate  V.S.  and  boil  the  solution  for  one  or  two  minutes; 
no  dark  deposit  is  produced  (formic  or  sulphurous  acid). 

Dilute  4  mils  of  the  Acid,  in  a  glass-stoppered  bottle,  with  20  mils  of  dis- 
tilled water  and  add  0.5  mil  of  tenth-normal  potassium  permanganate  V.S. 
The  pink  tint  is  not  changed  to  brown  at  once,  and  does  not  become  entirely 
brown  or  free  from  pinkish-brown  in  less  than  half  a  minute  (empyreumatic 
subslances). 

Assay — Pour  about  6  mils  of  Acetic  Acid  into  a  tared  flask,  stopper  and 
weigh  accurately,  dilute  with  50  mils  of  distilled  water,  and  titrate  with  normal 
potassium  hydroxide  V.S.,  using  phenolphthalein  T.S.  as  indicator.  It  shows 
not  less  than  36  per  cent,  nor  more  than  37  per  cent,  of  C2H4O2. 

Each  mil  of  normal  potas.sium  hydroxide  V.S.  used  corresponds  to  0.06003 
Gm.  of  C2H4O2.  Each  gramme  of  Acetic  Acid  corresponds  to  not  less  than 
6.00  mils  nor  more  than  6.16  mils  of  normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S. 

Preparation — Acidum  Aceticum  Dilutum. 


UNITED   STATES   OF  AMERICA 


ACIDUM  ACETICUM  DILUTUM 

Diluted  Acetic  Acid 

Acid.  Acet.  Dil. 

An  aqueous  solution  containing  not  less  than  5.7  nor  more  than  6.3 
per  cent,  of  C2H4O2  or  CH3.COOH  (60.03). 

Acetic  Acid,  one  hundred  and  twenty  grammes 120  Gm. 

Distilled  Water,  six  hundred  and  ten  grammes 610  Gm. 

To  make  seven  hundred  and  thirty  grammes. . .  730  Gm. 
Mix  them. 

It  is  miscible  with  water  or  alcohol. 

Specific  gravity:  about  1.008  at  25°  C. 

Diluted  Acetic  Acid  responds  to  the  tests  for  identity  and  purity  under 
Acidum  Acelicum,  allowance  being  made  for  the  difference  in  strength. 

Assay — Pour  about  25  mils  of  Diluted  Acetic  Acid  into  a  tared  flask,  weigh 
accurately,  and  titrate  with  normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S.,  using  phenol- 
phthalein  T.S.  as  indicator.  It  shows  not  less  than  5.8  nor  more  than  6.3 
per  cent,  of  C2H4O2. 

Each  mil  of  normal  pota.ssium  hydroxide  V.S.  used  corresponds  to  0.06003 
Gm.  of  C2H4O2.  Each  gramme  of  Diluted  Acetic  Acid  corresponds  to  not  less 
than  0.95  mil  nor  more  than  1.05  mils  of  normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S. 

Average  dose — Metric,  2  mils — Apothecaries,  30  minims. 


ACIDUM  ACETICUM  GLACIALE 

Glacial  Acetic  Acid 

Acid.  Acet.  Qlac. 

A  liquid  containing  not  less  than  99  per  cent,  of  C2H4O2  or  CH3.COOH 
(60.03).     Preserve  it  in  glass-stoppered  bottles. 

Glacial  Acetic  Acid  is  a  clear,  colorless  hquid  with  a  strong,  vinegar-hke  odor, 
and  a  very  pungent,  acid  taste. 

It  is  miscible  with  water  or  alcohol. 

Specific  gravity:  from  1.047  to  1.050  at  25°  C. 

It  boils  between  117°  and  118°  C. 

Congealing  point:  not  below  14.5°  C. 

Glacial  Acetic  Acid  responds  to  the  tests  for  identity  and  purity  under 
Acidum  Aceticum  when  diluted  to  that  strength,  but  the  tint  produced  by  the 
addition  of  0.1  mil  of  tenth-normal  potassium  permanganate  V.S.  to  2  mils  of 
Glacial  Acetic  Acid,  diluted  with  10  mils  of  distilled  water  and  contained  in  a 
glass-stoppered  bottle,  is  not  changed  to  brown  within  two  hours. 

Assay — Pour  about  2.5  mils  of  Glacial  Acetic  Acid  into  a  tared  flask  contain- 
ing 10  mils  of  distilled  water,  stopper  and  weigh  accurately,  dilute  ^-ith  40  mils 
of  distilled  water,  and  titrate  this  solution  \\-ith  normal  potassium  hydroxide 
V.S.,  using  phenolphthalein  T.S.  as  indicator.  It  shows  not  less  than  99  per 
cent,  of  C2H4O2. 

Each  mil  of  normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S.  used  corresponds  to  0.06003 
Gm.  of  C2H4O2.  Each  gramme  of  Glacial  Acetic  Acid  corresponds  to  not  less 
than  16.5  mils  of  normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S. 


THE   PHARMACOPCEIA   OF  THE 


ACIDUM  BENZOICUM 

Benzoic  Acid 

Acid.  Benz. 

An  organic  acid  obtained  from  benzoin,  or  prepared  synthetically. 
It  contains,  when  dried  to  constant  weight  in  a  desiccator  over  sul- 
phuric acid,  not  less  than  99.5  per  cent,  of  CvHeOa  or  CeHs.COOH 
(122.05).  Preserve  it  in  well-closed  containers,  in  a  cool  place,  protected 
from  light. 

Benzoic  Acid  occurs  in  lustrous  scales  or  friable  needles.  The  synthetic 
Acid  is  white,  odorless,  or  ^dth  a  slight  odor  of  benzaldehyde;  the  natural  Acid 
is  white  or  yellowish,  acquires  a  darker  color  on  exposure  to  Ught,  and  has  a 
slight  odor  of  benzoin.  Benzoic  Acid  has  a  pungent  taste,  is  somewhat  vola- 
tile at  moderately  warm  temperatures  and  freely  volatile  with  steam. 

One  Gm.  of  Benzoic  Acid  dissolves  in  275  mils  of  water,  2.3  mils  of  alcohol, 
4.5  mils  of  chloroform,  3  mils  of  ether,  in  10  mils  of  benzene  and  in  23  mils  of 
oil  of  turpentine  at  25°  C;  also  in  18  mils  of  boiUng  water,  1.5  mils  of  boiling 
alcohol,  and  in  fixed  or  volatile  oils. 

A  saturated  aqueous  solution  of  Benzoic  Acid  is  acid  to  litmus. 

It  melts  between  120°  and  122°  C. 

Benzoic  Acid  is  freely  dissolved  by  solutions  of  the  alkali  hydroxides;  neu- 
tralize such  a  solution  carefully  and  add  ferric  chloride  T.S.,  previously  diluted 
with  2  volumes  of  distilled  water  and  neutralized,  if  necessary,  with  ammonia 
water;  a  pink  precipitate  of  ferric  benzoate  is  produced. 

Incinerate  about  2  Gm.  of  Benzoic  Acid;  not  more  than  0.05  per  cent,  of  ash 
remains. 

A  solution  of  about  0.1  Gm.  of  the  synthetic  Acid  in  2  mils  of  sulphuric  acid 
does  not  become  darker  than  light  yellow,  when  warmed  for  five  minutes  at 
50°  C.  The  color  produced  by  the  Acid  from  benzoin  «tested  in  the  same  manner, 
does  not  become  darker  than  light  brown  {readily  carhonizable  impurities). 

Mix  0.5  Gm.  of  the  Acid  and  about  1  Gm.  of  calcium  carbonate  (free  from 
chloride)  with  a  little  distilled  water  in  a  crucible,  dry  the  mixture  and  incinerate  it 
at  a  low  red  heat.  Dissolve  the  residue  in  25  mils  of  diluted  nitric  acid  (free  from 
chloride)  and  filter.  If  the  s3Tithetic  Acid  is  being  tested,  the  addition  of  0.5  mil 
of  silver  nitrate  T.S.  to  the  filtrate  does  not  produce  a  greater  turbidity  than  is 
produced  by  the  same  quantity  of  the  reagent  in  a  mixture  of  25  mils  of  distilled 
water  and  0.1  mil  of  tenth-normal  hydrochloric  acid  V.S.  If  the  Acid  from  ben- 
zoin is  being  tested,  the  turbidity  is  not  greater  than  that  produced  by  the  same 
quantity  of  reagent  in  a  mixture  of  25  mils  of  distilled  water  and  0.05  mil  of 
tenth-normal  hydrochloric  acid  V.S.  (chlorine). 

Warm  0.5  Gm.  of  the  Acid  with  5  mils  of  distilled  water  and  0.5  Gm.  of  potas- 
sium permanganate  in  a  loosely-stoppered  test  tube,  and  place  it  in  a  water 
bath,  heated  to  about  45°  C,  for  ten  minutes.  Stopper  the  test  tube  tightly 
and  allow  it  to  cool.  On  removing  the  stopper,  no  odor  of  benzaldehyde  is  per- 
ceptible {cinnamic  acid). 

Assay — Dissolve  about  0.5  Gm.  of  Benzoic  Acid,  previously  dried  to  constant 
weight  in  a  desiccator  over  sulphuric  acid  and  accurately  weighed,  in  25  mils 
of  diluted  alcohol  which  has  been  previously  neutralized  with  tenth-normal 
potassium  hydroxide  V.S.,  phenolphthalein  T.S.  being  used  as  indicator. 
Titrate  this  .solution  with  tenth-normal  barium  hydroxide  V.S.,  using  phenol- 
phthalein T.S.  as  indicator.  It  shows,  in  the  dried  acid,  not  less  than  99.5 
per  cent,  of  C7H6O2. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  barium  hydroxide  V.S.  used  corresponds  to  0.012205 
Gm.  of  CvIIeOa.    Each  gramme  of  Benzoic  Acid,  previously  dried,  corresponds 
to  not  less  than  81.5  mils  of  tenth-normal  barium  hydroxide  V.S. 
Preparation — Tinctura  Opii  Camj)horata. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.5  Gm. — Apothecaries,  8  grains. 


UNITED   STATES   OF  AMERICA 


ACIDUM  BORICUM 

Boric  Acid 

Acid.  Bor. — Boracic  Acid 
It  contains,  when  dried  to  constant  weight  in  a  desiccator  over 
sulphuric  acid,  not  less  than  99.5  per  cent,  of  H3BO3  (62.02). 

Boric  Acid  occura  in  transparent,  colorless  scales,  of  a  somewhat  pearly  lustre, 
as  six-sided,  triclinic  crystals,  or  as  a  white,  bulky  powder,  slightly  unctuous 
to  the  touch;  odorless,  having  a  faintly  bittei;  taste;  permanent  in  the  air. 

One  Gm.  of  Boric  Acid  dissolves  in  18  mils  of  water,  18  mils  of  alcohol,  and 
in  4  mils  of  glycerin  at  25°  C;  also  in  4  mils  of  boiling  water  and  6  mils  of 
boiling  alcohol. 

When  heated  to  100°  C,  Boric  Acid  loses  water,  forming  metaboric  acid 
(hydrogen  metaborate,  HBO2),  which  slowly  volatilizes  at  that  temperature. 

Heated  to  about  160°  C,  Boric  Acid  fuses  to  a  glassy  mass  of  tetraboric  or 
pyroboric  acid  (hydrogen  tetraborate,  H2B4O7);  at  a  higher  temperature  the 
fused  mass  swells,  loses  all  of  its  water,  and  becomes  boron  trioxide  (B2O3), 
which  fuses  into  a  transparent,  non-volatile,  hygroscopic  mass. 

Boric  Acid  volatilizes  from  a  boiling  aqueous  or  alcoholic  solution. 

Its  solution  in  alcohol  or  glycerin,  when  ignited,  burns  with  a  flame  enveloped 
by  a  green  mantle. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  Boric  Acid  (1  in  50)  is  slightly  acid  to  litmus.  Tur- 
meric paper  moistened  with  such  a  solution,  to  which  a  little  hydrochloric  acid 
T.S.  has  been  added,  becomes  reddish-brown  on  drying,  this  color  being  changed 
to  greenish-black  by  ammonia  water. 

One  Gm.  of  Boric  Acid  dissolves  completely  in  10  mils  of  boiling  alcohol. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  the  Acid  does  not  respond  to  the  Test  for  heavy 
metals  (see  Part  II,  Test  No.  3). 

An  aqueous  solution  of  Boric  Acid  meets  the  requirements  of  the  Test  for 
arsenic  (see  Part  II,  Test  No.  1). 

Assay — Dissolve  about  2.5  Gm.  of  Boric  Acid,  previously  dried  to  constant 
weight  in  a  desiccator  over  sulphuric  acid  and  accurately  weighed,  in  50  mils 
of  distilled  water  and  50  mils  of  glycerin  and  titrate  with  normal  sodium  hydrox- 
ide V.S.,  phenolphthalein  T.S.  being  used  as  indicator.  It  shows,  in  the  dried 
acid,  not  less  than  99.5  per  cent,  of  H3BO3. 

Each  mU  of  normal  sodium  hj'droxide  V.S.  used  corresponds  to  0.06202  Gm. 
of  H3BO3.  Each  gramme  of  Boric  Acid,  previously  dried,  corresponds  to  not 
less  than  16.04  mils  of  normal  sodium  hydroxide  V.S. 

Preparations — Glyceritum  Boroglycerini        Unguentum  Acidi  Borici. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.5_Gm. — Apothecaries,  8  grains. 

ACIDUM  CITRICUM 

Citric  Acid 

Acid.  Cit. 

A  tribasic  organic  acid  usually  obtained  from  the  juice  of  limes  or 
lemons.  It  contains  not  less  than  99.5  per  cent,  of  C6H8O7+H2O 
or  C3H4(0H)(C00H)3+H20  (210.08).  Preserve  it  in  well-closed  con- 
tainers. 

Citric  Acid  occurs  in  colorless,  translucent,  right-rhombic  prisms,  or  as  a 
white  powder;  odorless  and  having  an  acid  taste;  efflorescent  in  warm  air. 

One  Gm.  of  Citric  Acid  dissolves  in  0.5  mil  of  water,  1.8  mils  of  alcohol, 
and  in  about  30  mils  of  ether  at  25°  C;  also  in  0.5  mil  of  boiling  water. 


10  THE    PHARMACOPCEIA   OF  THE 

An  aqueous  solution  of  Citric  Acid  (1  in  20)  is  acid  to  litmus. 

Add  1  mil  of  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  Acid  (1  in  10)  to  50  mils  of  calcium 
hydroxide  T.S.  (or  sufficient  of  the  latter  to  render  the  mixture  alkaline);  the 
liquid  remains  clear.  When  boiled  for  about  one  minute,  the  solution  becomes 
opaque  through  the  precipitation  of  calcium  citrate. 

When  slowly  ignited,  Citric  Acid  is  gradually  decomposed  without  emitting 
an  odor  resembling  burning  sugar  (difference  from  tartaric  acid). 

Incinerate  about  2  Gm.  of  Citric  Acid;  not  more  than  0.05  per  cent,  of  ash 
remains. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  Citric  Acid  (1  in  10),  which  has  been  nearly  neutralized 
with  ammonia  water,  remains  clear  on  the  addition  of  calcium  sulphate  T.S. 
(oxalic  acid). 

Heat  about  5  Gm.  of  powdered  Citric  Acid  for  fifteen  minutes  on  a  water 
bath  with  5  mils  of  sulphuric  acid  in  a  porcelain  dish,  which  has  previously  been 
rinsed  with  sulphuric  acid,  keeping  the  mixture  protected  from  dust;  no  darker 
color  than  yellow  develops  (tartaric  acid). 

Ten  mils  of  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  Acid  (1  in  50)  mixed  with  0.5  mil 
of  hydrochloric  acid  does  not  respond  to  the  Test  for  heavy  metals  (see  Part  II, 
Test  No.  3). 

The  addition  of  1  mil  of  barium  chloride  T.S.  to  10  mils  of  an  aqueous  solu- 
tion of  the  Acid  (1  in  100),  to  wliich  have  previously  been  added  a  few  drops  of 
hydrochloric  acid,  produces  no  turbidity  (sulphuric  acid). 

Dissolve  10  Gm.  of  Citric  Acid  in  20  mils  of  distilled  water,  add  2  mils  of  sul- 
phurous acid  and  boil  the  mixture  until  the  odor  of  sulphur  dioxide  is  barely 
f)erceptible.  Cool  the  solution,  mix  it  with  1  mil  of  sodium  cyanide  T.S.  and  fol- 
ow  this  immediately  with  stronger  ammonia  water  until  the  solution  possesses 
a  slight  odor  of  ammonia.  When  cold,  transfer  the  solution  to  a  glass-stoppered 
cylinder  graduated  at  50  mils,  dilute  it  with  sufficient  distilled  water  to  measure 
60  mils,  and  add  3  drops  of  sodium  sulphide  T.S.  After  mixing  well,  the  color 
produced  in  the  solution,  if  any,  when  viewed  downward  against  a  white  surface, 
is  not  greater  than  the  color  of  a  control  solution  prepared  as  follows:  Dissolve  2 
Gm.  of  ammonium  chloride  (see  Reagents,  Part  II)  in  20  mils  of  distilled  water, 
add  4  mils  of  a  solution  containing  0.08  Gm.  of  lead  nitrate  in  1000  mils  of  dis- 
tilled water,  and  then  1  mil  of  diluted  hydrochloric  acid.  Treat  this  solution  with 
the  same  quantity  of  sulphurous  acid,  sodium  cyanide  T.S.  and  stronger  ammonia 
water,  as  directed  above,  transfer  to  another  50  mil  glass-stoppered  cylinder, 
then  dilute  it  with  sufficient  distilled  water  to  make  50  mils  and  add  3  drops 
of  sodium  sulphide  T.S.  (before  adding  the  sodium  sulphide  T.S.,  the  liquid 
must  possess  a  distinct  odor  of  ammonia,  and  the  two  cylinders  used  must  be 
matched,  be  of  practically  colorless  glass,  and  have  the  same  internal  diameter) 
(lead). 

Assay — Dissolve  about  3  Gm.  of  the  Acid,  accurately  weighed,  in  50  mils  of 
distilled  water  and  titrate  the  solution  with  normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S., 
using  phenolphthalein  T.S.  as  indicator.  It  shows  not  less  than  99.5  per  cent. 
of  CsHsOt+HsO. 

Each  mil  of  normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S.  used  corresponds  to  0.07003 
Gm.  of  C6H8O7+H2O.  Each  gramme  of  Citric  Acid  corresponds  to  not  less 
than  14.2  mils  of  normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S. 

Preparation — Syrupus  Acidi  Citrici. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.5  Gm. — Apothecaries,  8  grains. 

ACIDUM  GALLICUM 

Gallic  Acid 

Acid.  Gallic. 
An  organic  acid  [CHeOs+HaO  or  C6H2(0H)3.C00H  l:3:4:5-f- 
H20  =  188.06]. 


UNITED   STATES  OP  AMERICA  11 

Gallic  Acid  occurs  in  white,  or  pale  fawn-colored,  silky,  interlaced  needles, 
or  in  triclinic  prisms;  odorless  and  having  an  astringent  and  slightly  acidulous 
taste;  permanent  in  the  air. 

One  Gm.  of  Gallic  Acid  dissolves  in  87  mils  of  water,  4.6  mils  of  alcohol,  10 
mils  of  glycerin,  and  in  about  100  mils  of  ether  at  25°  C.;  also  in  about  3  mils 
of  boiling  water;  almost  insoluble  in  chloroform. 

A  saturated  aqueous  solution  of  Gallic  Acid  is  acid  to  litmus. 

Add  6  drops  of  sodium  hydroxide  T.S.  to  5  mils  of  a  cold,  saturated  aqueous 
solution  of  the  Acid;  a  deep  green  color  gradually  develops,  which  is  changed 
to  reddish  or  brownish-red  by  acids. 

Gallic  Acid  neither  colors  nor  precipitates  solutions  of  pure  ferrous  salts, 
but  it  [forms  a  bluish-black  precipitate  with  ferric  salts. 

When  dried  to  constant  weight  at  100°  C.,  the  Acid  loses  not  more  than  12 
per  cent,  of  its  weight. 

Incinerate  about  1  Gm.  of  Gallic  Acid;  not  more  than  0.1  per  cent,  of  ash 
remains. 

A  cold,  saturated  aqueous  solution  of  Gallic  Acid  yields  no  precipitate  with 
gelatin  T.S.  or  starch  T.S.  (tarmic  add). 

Average  dose — Metric,  1  Gm. — Apothecaries,  15  grains. 


ACIDUM  HYDRIODICUM  DILUTUM 

Diluted  Hydriodic  Acid 

Acid.  Hydriod.  Dil. 

An  aqueous  solution  containing  not  less  than  9.5  per  cent,  nor  more 
than  10.5  per  cent,  of  HI  (127.93).  Preserve  it  in  amber-colored, 
glass-stoppered  bottles,  protected  from  light,  and  do  not  dispense  it  if 
it  contains  free  iodine. 

Potassium  Iodide,  one  hundred  and  thirty-five  grammes.      135.0  Gm. 

Potassium  Hypophosphite,  ten  grammes 10.0  Gm. 

Tartaric  Acid,  one  hundred  and  thirty-six  and  five-tenths 
grammes 136.5  Gm. 

Distilled  Water, 

Diluted  Alcohol,  each,  a  sufficient  quantity,  

To  make  one  thousand  grammes 1000     Gm. 

Dissolve  the  potassium  salts  in  two  hundred  and  fifty  mils  of  distilled 
water  with  the  aid  of  heat,  and  the  tartaric  acid  in  four  hundred  mils 
of  diluted  alcohol.  Having  poured  the  solution  of  tartaric  acid  into  a 
bottle  of  about  one  thousand  mils  capacity,  add  the  solution  of  the 
potassium  salts  and  shake  the  mixture  briskly.  Cool  the  mixture  to 
about  5°  C.  for  several  hours  and,  having  inserted  a  pledget  of  puri- 
fied cotton  tightly  in  the  throat  of  a  funnel,  transfer  the  contents  of 
the  bottle  to  the  funnel.  When  all  the  liquid  has  passed  through, 
wash  the  bottle  and  crystalline  precipitate  with  diluted  alcohol  in 


12  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA  OF  THE 

successive  small  portions  until  the  filtrate  weighs  one  thousand  grammes. 
Evaporate  the  liquid  at  a  moderate  temperature,  on  a  water  bath, 
until  all  of  the  alcohol  has  evaporated,  and  add  sufficient  distilled  water 
to  make  the  product  weigh  one  thousand  grammes. 

Diluted  Hydriodic  Acid  is  a  colorless  or  not  more  than  pale  yellow,  odorless 
liquid;  it  has  a  strongly  acid  taste  and  is  strongly  acid  to  litnius. 

Specific  gravity:  about  1.100  at  25°  C. 

Add  a  few  drops  of  ferric  chloride  T.S.  or  chlorine  water  to  Diluted  Hydriodic 
Acid,  diluted  with  twice  its  volume  of  distilled  water;  iodine  is  liberated  and 
imparts  to  the  solution  a  reddish-brown  color.  On  agitating  this  mixture  with 
a  few  drops  of  chloroform,  the  latter  acquires  a  violet  color. 

No  blue  color  is  produced  on  adding  a  few  drops  of  starch  T.S.  to  5  mils  of 
the  Acid  (free  iodine). 

Five  mils  of  Diluted  Hydriodic  Acid,  when  evaporated  to  dryness  on  a 
water  bath  and  the  residue  ignited,  leaves  not  more  than  0.165  Gm.  of  residue. 

The  addition  of  1  mil  of  barium  chloride  T.S.  to  10  mils  of  Diluted  Hydriodic 
Acid  produces  not  more  than  a  slight  cloudiness  {sulphuric  acid);  the  addition 
of  1  mil  of  potassium  sulphate  T.S.  to  10  mils  of  the  Acid  causes  no  turbidity 
{barium). 

Mix  0.5  mil  of  Diluted  Hydriodic  Acid  with  10  mils  of  distilled  water,  add 
8  mils  of  silver  nitrate  T.S.  and  6  mils  of  ammonium  carbonate  T.S.,  digest  the 
mixture  for  ten  minutes  on  a  water  bath,  cool,  and  filter.  The  filtrate,  upon 
supersaturating  with  nitric  acid,  does  not  become  more  than  shghtly  opalescent 
(chloride) . 

Ten  mils  of  Diluted  Hydriodic  Acid,  without  further  acidulation,  does  not 
respond  to  the  Test  for  heavy  metals  (see  Part  II,  Test  No.  3). 

Mix  5  mils  of  Diluted  Hydriodic  Acid  with  1  mil  of  nitric  acid  and  evaporate 
the  liquid  to  dryness  on  a  water  bath;  the  residue  meets  the  requirements  of  the 
Test  for  arsenic  (see  Part  II,  Test  No.  1). 

Assay — Pour  about  5  mils  of  Diluted  Hydriodic  Acid  into  a  tared  flask,  weigh 
accurately,  dilute  with  20  mils  of  distilled  water,  add  50  mils  of  tenth-norrnal 
silver  nitrate  V.S.  and  shake  the  mixture,  well.  Now  add  5  mils  of  nitric  acid, 
heat  the  mixture  on  a  water  bath  until  the  precipitate  has  a  bright  yellow  color, 
cool  and  add  2  mils  of  ferric  ammonium  sulphate  T.S.  The  residual  titration 
with  tenth-normal  potassium  sulphocyanate  V.S.  shows  not  less  than  9.5  per 
cent,  nor  more  than  10.5  per  cent,  of  HI. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  silver  nitrate  V.S.  used  corresponds  to  0.012793 
Gm.  of  HI.  Each  gramme  of  Diluted  Hydriodic  Acid  corresponds  to  not  less 
than  7.4  mils  nor  more  than  8.2  mils  of  tenth-normal  silver  nitrate  V.S. 

Preparation — SjTupus  Acidi  Hydriodici. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.5  mil — Apothecaries,  8  minims. 


ACIDUM  HYDROBROMICUM  DILUTUM 

Diluted  Hydrobromic  Acid 

Acid.  Hydrobrom.  Dil. 

An  aqueous  solution  containing  not  less  than  9.5.  per  cent,  nor  more 

than  10.5  per  cent,  of  IIBr  (80,93).      Preserve  it  in  amber-colored, 

glass-stoppered  bottles,  protected  from  light. 

Diluted  Hydrobromic  Acid  is  a  colorless,  odorless  liquid  having  a  strongly 
acid  taste;  it  is  strongly  acid  to  litmus. 


UNITED   STATES   OF  AMERICA  13 

Specific  gravity:  about  1.076  at  25°  C. 

On  distilling  it,  weak  acid  passes  over  first;  when  the  tennperature  of  126°  C. 
is  reached,  an  acid  of  48  per  cent,  remains,  which  may  be  distilled  unchanged. 

Silver  nitrate  T.S.  produces  a  yellowish-white  precipitate,  which  is  insoluble 
in  diluted  nitric  acid,  slowly  soluble  in  an  excess  of  stronger  ammonia  water, 
but  readily  soluble  in  a  10  per  cent,  solution  of  sodium  thiosulphate. 

Evaporate  25  mils  of  Diluted  Hydrobromic  Acid  from  a  platinum  or  porcelain 
dish  and  afterwards  dry  it  at  110°  C;  not  more  than  0.0025  Gm.  of  residue 
remains. 

The  addition  of  1  mil  of  barium  chloride  T.S.  to  10  mils  of  the  Acid  produces 
not  more  than  a  slight  cloudiness  {sulphuric  acid);  the  addition  of  1  mil  of 
potassium  sulphate  T.S.  to  10  mils  of  the  Acid  causes  no  turbidity  {barium). 

Shake  10  mils  of  the  Acid  with  2  mils  of  chloroform;  no  color  is  imparted  to 
the  latter  {free  bromine).  Now  add  5  drops  of  ferric  chloride  T.S.  and  shake  the 
mixture;  the  chloroform  does  not  acquire  a  violet  tint  {iodine). 

Ten  mils  of  Diluted  Hydrobromic  Acid,  without  further  acidulation,  does  not 
respond  to  the  Test  for  heavy  metals  (see  Part  II,  Test  No.  3). 

Mix  5  mils  of  Diluted  Hydrobromic  Acid  with  1  mil  of  nitric  acid  and  evapo- 
rate the  hquid  to  dryness  on  a  water  bath;  the  residue  meets  the  requirements 
of  the  Test  for  arsenic  (see  Part  II,  Test  No.  1). 

Mix  0.5  mil  of  Diluted  Hydrobromic  Acid  with  10  mils  of  distilled  water, 
add  8  mils  of  silver  nitrate  T.S.,  and  6  mils  of  ammonium  carbonate  T.S.,  digest 
the  mixture  for  ten  minutes  on  a  water  bath,  cool  and  filter.  The  filtrate,  on 
supersaturating  with  nitric  acid,  does  not  at  once  become  more  than  slightly 
turbid  {chloride). 

Assay — Pour  about  20  mils  of  l)iluted  Hydrobromic  Acid  into  a  tared  flask, 
weigh  accurately,  dilute  with  30  mils  of  distilled  water,  and  titrate  the  liquid 
with  normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S.,  using  methyl  orange  T.S.  as  indicator. 
It  shows  not  less  than  9.5  per  cent,  nor  more  than  10.5  per  cent,  of  HBr. 

Each  mil  of  normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S.  used  corresponds  to  0.08093 
Gm.  of  HBr.  Each  gramme  of  Diluted  Hydrobromic  Acid  corresponds  to  not 
less  than  1.17  mils  nor  more  than  1.30  mils  of  normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S. 

Average  dose — Metric,  1  mil — Apothecaries,  15  minims. 


ACIDUM  HYDROCHLORICUM 

Hydrochloric  Acid 

Acid.  Hydrochl. 

An  aqueous  solution  containing  not  less  than  31  per  cent,  nor  more 
than  33  per  cent,  of  HCl  (36.47).     Preserve  it  in  glass-stoppered  bottles. 

Hydrochloric  Acid  is  a  colorless,  fuming  liquid,  having  a  pungent  odor,  and 
an  intensely  acid  taste;  the  fumes  and  odor  disappear  on  diluting  the  Acid  with 
2  volumes  of  water;  it  is  strongly  acid  to  htmus,  even  when  highly  diluted. 

Specific  gravity:  about  1.155  at  25°  C. 

On  distilling  it  at  normal  barometric  pressure,  a  stronger  acid  passes  over 
first,  until,  at  110°  C,  an  acid  of  about  20  per  cent,  remains,  which  distils 
unchanged. 

When  heated  with  manganese  dioxide,  it  evolves  chlorine. 

It  conforms  to  the  tests  for  identity  and  purity  under  Acidum  Hydrochloricum 
Dilutum  when  diluted  to  that  strength. 

Assay — Pour  about  3  mils  of  Hydrochloric  Acid  into  a  tared  bottle  con- 
taining about  10  mils  of  distilled  water,  stopper,  weigh  accurately,  dilute 
with  50  mils  of  distilled  water  and  titrate  the  liquid  with  normal  potassium 


14  THE    PHARMACOPCEIA    OF  THE 

hydroxide  V.S.,  using  methyl  orange  T.S.  as  indicator.    It  shows  not  less  than  31 
per  cent,  nor  more  than  33  per  cent,  of  HCl. 

Each  mil  of  normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S.  used  corresponds  to  0.03647 
Gm.  of  HCl.  Each  gramme  of  Hydrochloric  Acid  corresponds  to  not  less  than 
8.50  mils  nor  more  than  9.05  mils  of  normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S. 

Preparations — Acidum  Hydrochloricum  Dilutum    Acidum  Nitrohydrochloricum 
Acidum  Nitrohydrochloricum  Dilutum. 

ACIDUM  HYDROCHLORICUM  DILUTUM 

Diluted  Hydrochloric  Acid 

Acid.  Hydrochl.  Dil. 

An  aqueous  solution  containing  not  less  than  9.5  per  cent,  nor  more 
than  10.5  per  cent,  of  HCl  (36.47).  Preserve  it  in  glass-stoppered 
bottles. 

Hydrochloric  Acid,  one  hundred  grammes 100  Gm. 

Distilled  Water,  two  hundred  and  twenty  grammes 220  Gm. 

To  make  three  hundred  and  twenty  grammes ....  320  Gm. 
Mix  them. 

Diluted  Hydrochloric  Acid  is  a  colorless,  odorless  liquid;  it  has  a  strongly 
acid  taste  and  is  strongly  acid  to  litmus. 

Specific  gravity:  about  1.049  at  25°  C. 

With  silver  nitrate  T.S.  it  yields  a  white,  curdy  precipitate,  insoluble  in  nitric 
acid,  but  readily  soluble  in  ammonia  water. 

Evaporate  25  mils  of  Diluted  Hydrochloric  Acid  from  a  platinum  or  porcelain 
dish  and  dry  at  110°  C;  not  more  than  0.003  Gm.  of  residue  remains. 
,  Add  1  mil  of  chloroform  to  10  mils  of  Diluted  Hydrochloric  Acid  and  then 
cautiously  introduce  chlorine  water,  which  has  been  diluted  with  an  equal 
volume  of  distilled  water,  a  drop  at  a  time,  with  constant  agitation;  the  chloro- 
form remains  free  from  any  yellow,  orange  or  violet  color  {bromide  or  iodide). 

Add  1  mil  of  potassium  iodide  T.S.  and  1  mil  of  chloroform  to  10  mils  of  Di- 
luted Hydrochloric  Acid  and  agitate  the  mixture;  the  chloroform  remains  free 
from  any  violet  coloration  (free  chlorine  or  bromine). 

Two  mils  of  Diluted  Hydrochloric  Acid,  diluted  with  seven  volumes  of  dis- 
tilled water,  does  not  respond  to  the  Test  for  heavy  metals  (see  Part  II,  Test 
No.  3). 

Five  mils  of  Diluted  Hydrochloric  Acid  diluted  with  12  mils  of  distilled  water 
(without  the  treatment  with  sulphuric  and  sulphurous  acids)  meets  the  require- 
ments of  the  Test  for  arsenic  (see  Part  II,  Test  No.  1). 

Add  5  drops  of  barium  chloride  T.S.  to  a  mixture  of  3  mils  of  Diluted  Hydro- 
chloric Acid  and  5  mils  of  distilled  water;  neither  turbidity  nor  precipitation  ap- 
pears within  one  hour  (sulphuric  acid  or  sulphates).  At  the  end  of  this  period, 
the  further  addition  to  the  liquid  of  2  drops  of  tenth-normal  iodine  V.S.  pro- 
duces neither  turbidity  nor  decoloration  of  the  iodine  (sulphurous  acid). 

Assay — Pour  about  10  mils  of  Diluted  Hydrochloric  Acid  into  a  tared  flask, 
weigh  accurately,  dilute  with  30  mils  of  distilled  water  and  titrate  the  liquid 
with  normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S.,  using  methyl  orange  T.S.  as  indicator. 
It  shows  not  less  than  9.5  per  cent,  nor  more  than  10.5  per  cent,  of  HCl. 

Each  mil  of  normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S.  used  corresponds  to  0.03647 
Gm.  of  HCl.  Each  gramme  of  Diluted  Hydrochloric  Acid  corresponds  to  not 
less  than  2.6  mils  nor  more  than  2.9  mils  of  normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S. 

Average  dose — Metric,  1  mil — Apothecaries,  15  minims. 


UNITED   STATES   OF  AMERICA  15 

ACIDUM  HYDROCYANICUM  DILUTUM 

Diluted  Hydrocyanic  Acid 

Acid.  Hydrocyan.  Dil. — Diluted  Prussic  Acid     Acidum  hydrocyanicum 

dilutum  P.  I. 

An  aqueous  solution  containing  not  less  than  1.9  per  cent,  nor  more 
than  2.1  per  cent,  of  HCN  (27.02)  and  not  more  than  0.1  per  cent,  of 
HCl.     Preserve  it  in  small,  dark  amber-colored,  well-stoppered  vials. 

Diluted  Hydrocyanic  Acid  is  a  colorless  liquid,  of  a  characteristic  odor  resem- 
bling that  of  bitter  almond;  it  is  acid  to  litmus. 

On  account  of  its  poisonous  character  it  must  be  handled  with  great  caution. 

Render  1  mil  of  the  Acid  alkaline  with  potassium  hydroxide  T.S.,  add  a  few 
drops  of  ferrous  sulphate  T.S.,  boil  the  mixture,  and  then  acidulate  with  hydro- 
chloric acid;  a  blue  precipitate  is  formed. 

Not  more  than  0.002  Gm.  of  residue  remains  on  evaporating  10  mils  of 
Diluted  Hydrocyanic  Acid  to  dryness  on  a  water  bath. 

Pour  5  mils  of  Diluted  Hydrocyanic  Acid  into  a  tared  100  mil  glass-stop- 
pered flask  containing  25  mils  of  distilled  water,  accurately  determine  the 
weight  of  the  Acid  added  and  then  add  50  mils  of  tenth-normal  silver  nitrate 
V.S.  and  enough  distilled  water  to  make  100  mils.  Agitate  it  well  and  filter 
through  a  dry  filter,  rejecting  the  first  10  mils  of  the  filtrate.  In  50  mils  of  the 
clear  filtrate  determine  the  excess  of  silver  nitrate  by  titration  with  tenth- 
normal potassium  sulphocyanate  V.S.,  previously  adding  2  mils  of  nitric  acid 
and  2  mils  of  ferric  ammonium  sulphate  T.S.  From  the  number  of  mils  of  tenth- 
normal silver  nitrate  V.S.  consumed  in  this  assay  subtract  twice  the  niunber 
of  mils  of  tenth-normal  silver  nitrate  V.S.  consumed  in  the  assay  of  the  same 
quantity  of  Diluted  Hydrocyanic  Acid  as  ascertained  below.  The  difference 
when  calculated  to  free  hydrogen  chloride,  using  the  factor  0.003647,  does  not 
amount  to  more  than  one-tenth  of  1  per  cent,  of  the  weight  of  Diluted  Hydro- 
cyanic Acid  originally  taken  for  the  determination  {hydrogen  chloride). 

Assay — Pour  about  5  mils  of  Diluted  Hydrocyanic  Acid  into  a  100  mil  flask 
containing  25  mils  of  distilled  water  and  5  mils  of  potassium  hydroxide  T.S., 
the  whole  having  been  previously  tared,  and  weigh  the  Acid  accurately.  Then 
add  3  drops  of  potassium  iodide  T.S.  and  titrate  with  tenth-normal  silver 
nitrate  V.S.  to  the  production  of  a  slight,  permanent  precipitate.  It  shows 
not  less  than  1.9  per  cent,  nor  more  than  2.1  per  cent,  of  HCN. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  silver  nitrate  V.S.  used  corresponds  to  0.005404 
Gm.  of  HCN.  Each  gramme  of  Diluted  Hydrocyanic  Acid  corresponds  to  not 
less  than  3.5  mils  nor  more  than  3.9  mils  of  tenth-normal  silver  nitrate  V.S. 

AVERA.GE  DOSE — Metric,  0,1  mil — Apothecaries,  13^  minims. 


ACIDUM  HYPOPHOSPHOROSUM 

Hypophosphorous  Acid 

.    Acid.  Hypophos. 

An  aqueous  solution  containing  not  less  than  30  per  cent,  nor  more 
than  32  per  cent,  of  HPH2O2  (66.06).  Preserve  it  in  glass-stoppered 
bottles. 

Hypophosphorous  Acid  is  a  colorless  or  slightly  yellow,  odorless  liquid;  it  has 
an  intensely  acid  taste,  and  is  acid  to  litmus,  even  when  highly  diluted. 
Specifio  gravity:  about  1.130  at  25°  C. 


16  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA   OF   THE 

When  the  Acid  is  heated  in  a  suitable  dish,  water  evaporates  and  it  becomes 
more  concentrated.  On  further  heating  between  130°  and  140°  C,  it  decom- 
poses, forming  hydrogen  phosphide,  which  ignites,  and  phosphorous  acid;  the 
latter  between  160°  and  170°  C.  decomposes  into  hydrogen  phosphide  and 
phosphoric  acid;  the  pasty  residue  finally  reddens,  ignites,  and  the  last  portions 
of  unoxidized  phosphorus  burn  out  at  a  higher  temperature. 

Hypophosphorous  Acid  conforms  to  the  tests  for  identity  and  purity  under 
Acidum  Hypophosphorosum  Dilutum  when  diluted  to  that  strength. 

Assay — Pour  about  7  mils  of  Hypophosphorous  Acid  into  a  tared  and  stoppered 
flask,  weigh  accurately,  dilute  with  50  mils  of  distilled  water  and  titrate  wuth 
normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S.,  using  methyl  orange  T.S.  as  indicator.  It 
shows  not  less  than  30  per  cent,  nor  more  than  32  per  cent,  of  HPH2O2. 

Each  mil  of  normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S.  used  corresponds  to  0.06606 
Gm.  of  HPH2O2.  Each  gramme  of  Hypophosphorous  Acid  corresponds  to  not 
less  than  4.54  mils  nor  more  than  4.84  mils  of  normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S. 

Preparation — Acidum  Hypophosphorosum  Dilutum. 

ACIDUM  HYPOPHOSPHOROSUM  DILUTUM 

Diluted  Hypophosphorous  Acid 

Acid.  Hypophos.  Dil. 

An  aqueous  solution  containing  not  less  than  9.5  per  cent,  nor  more 
than  10.5  per  cent,  of  HPHgOa  (66.06).     Preserve  it  in  well-stoppered 

bottles. 

Hypophosphorous  Acid,  one  hundred  grammes 100  Gm. 

Distilled  Water,  two  hundred  and  ten  grammea 210  Gm. 

To  make  three  hundred  and  ten  grammes 310  Gm. 

Mix  them. 

Diluted  Hypophosphorous  Acid  is  a  colorless,  odorless  liquid;  it  has  a  strongly 
acid  taste  and  is  strongly  acid  to  litmus. 

Specific  gravity:  about  1.042  at  25°  C. 

When  heated  in  a  porcelain  dish,  water  evaporates  with  the  evolution  of 
hydrogen  phosphide,  and  further  decomposition  takes  place  as  described  under 
Acidum  Hypophosphorosum. 

With  silver  nitrate  T.S.  it  yields  a  black  precipitate  of  silver,  and  with  mer- 
curic chloride  T.S.,  a  white  precipitate  of  mercurous  chloride. 

Neutralize  30  mils  of  Diluted  Hypophosphorous  Acid  with  ammonia  water; 
not  more  than  a  slight  precipitate  results,  and,  after  filtering,  a  portion  of  the 
filtrate,  slightly  acidulated  with  hydrochloric  acid,  does  not  become  turbid 
upon  the  addition  of  potassium  sulphate  T.S.  {barium);  another  portion  of  the 
filtrate  shows  no  turbidity  with  calcium  chloride  T.S.  {oxalic  add). 

One  mil  of  Diluted  Hypophosphorous  Acid  mixed  with  9  mils  of  distilled 
water  does  not  respond  to  the  Test  for  heavy  metals  (see  Part  II,  Test  No.  3). 

Mix  5  mils  of  Diluted  Hypophosphorous  Acid  with  3  mils  of  nitric  acid  and 
10  mils  of  distilled  water,  and  evaporate  the  liquid  to  dryness  on  a  water  bath; 
the  residue  meets  the  requirements  of  the  Test  for  arsenic  (see  Part  II,  Test 
No.  1). 

Assay — Pour  about  25  mils  of  Diluted  Hypophosphorous  Acid  into  a  tared 
flask,  weigh  accurately,  add  25  mils  of  distilled  water  and  titrate  with  normal 

f)otassium  hydroxide  V.S.,  using  methyl  orange  T.S.  as  indicator.    It  shows  not 
ess  than  9.5  per  cent,  nor  more  than  10.5  per  cent,  of  HPH2O2. 


UNITED   STATES   OP  AMERICA  17 

Each  mil  of  normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S.  used  corresponds  to  0.06(506 
Gm.  of  HPH2O2.  Each  gramme  of  Diluted  Ilj^pophosphorous  Acid  cor- 
responds to  not  less  than  1.44  mils  nor  more  than  1.6  mils  of  normal  potassium 
hydroxide  V.S. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.5  mil — Apothecaries,  8  minims. 

ACIDUM  LACTICUM 

Lactic  Acid 

Acid.  Lact. 

A  liquid  containing  lactic  acid  [optically  inactive  alphahydroxy- 
propionic  acid,  CgHeOa  or  CH3.CH0H.C00H  =  90.05]  and  lactic  anhy- 
drides, equivalent  to  a  total  of  not  less  than  85  per  cent,  nor  more  than 
90  per  cent,  of  CgHeOg. 

Lactic  Acid  is  a  colorless,  or  slightly  yellow,  sjTupy  liquid,  nearly  odorless, 
having  an  acid  taste,  and  absorbing  moisture  on  exposure  to  air. 

It  is  miscible  with  water,  alcohol,  or  ether;  insoluble  in  chloroform,  petroleum 
benzin,  or  carbon  disulphide. 

Lactic  Acid  is  strongly  acid  to  litmus. 

Specific  gravity:  about  1.206  at  25°  C. 

Lactic  Acid  is  not  vaporized  at  a  temperature  below  160°  C;  at  a  higher 
temperature  it  emits  inflammable  vapors. 

Add  about  0.1  Gm.  of  potassium  permanganate  to  2  mils  of  a  mixture  of  equal 
volumes  of  Lactic  and  sulphuric  acids,  and  heat  it  gently;  the  odor  of  aldehyde 
becomes  perceptible. 

Not  more  than  0.006  Gm.  of  ash  remains  on  incinerating  5  mils  of  Lactic  Acid. 

Ten  mils  of  a  solution  of  the  Acid  in  distilled  water  (1  in  100)  is  not  rendered 
opalescent  by  1  mil  of  silver  nitrate  T.S.  (chloride). 

Separate  portions  of  10  mils  each  of  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  Acid  (1  in  20) 
remain  unaffected  by  the  addition  of  1  mil  of  barium  chloride  T.S.  (sulphate), 
or  by  1  mil  of  copper  sulphate  T.S.  (sarcolactic  acid). 

An  aqueous  solution  of  the  Acid  does  not  respond  to  the  Test  for  heavy 
metals  (see  Part  IL  Test  No.  3). 

Add  a  few  drops  of  Lactic  Acid  to  10  mils  of  hot  alkaline  cupric  tartrate  V.S. ; 
no  red  precipitate  is  produced  [sugars). 

Add  1  mil  of  Lactic  Acid,  in  drops,  to  5  mils  of  ether,  shaking  it  after  each 
addition;  the  ether  solution  does  not  become  even  transiently  turbid  (glycerin). 

Pour  Lactic  Acid  carefully  upon  an  equal  volume  of  colorless,  concentrated 
sulphuric  acid  contained  in  a  clean  test  tube,  and  keep  the  temperature  at 
15°  C;  no  dark  colored  zone  develops  at  the  line  of  contact  upon  standing  for 
fifteen  minutes   (organic  impurities). 

No  turbidity  is  produced  on  heating  the  Acid  with  an  excess  of  lime  water 
(phosphoric,  tartaric,  citric,  or  oxalic  acid) . 

Assay — Pour  about  2.5  mils  of  Lactic  Acid  into  a  tared  and  stoppered  250  mil 
flask,  weigh  accurately,  add  50  mils  of  normal  potassium  hj'droxide  V.S.  and 
boil  the  liquid  for  twenty  minutes.  The  residual  titration  of  the  boiling  solu- 
tion with  normal  sulphuric  acid  V.S.,  using  phenolphthalein  T.S.  as  indicator, 
shows  not  less  than  85  per  cent,  nor  more  than  90  per  cent,  of  CsHeOs. 

Each  mil  of  normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S.  used  corresponds  to  0.09005 
Gm.  of  CsHeOa  or  lactic  anhydrides  calculated  as  C3H6O3.  Each  gramme  of 
Lactic  Acid  corresponds  to  not  less  than  9.44  mils  nor  more  than  10.0  mils  of 
normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S. 

Average  dose — Metric,  2  mils — Apothecaries,  30  minims. 

7 


18  THE    PHARMACOPCEIA   OP  THE 

ACIDUM  NITRICUM 
Nitric  Acid 

Acid.  Nitric. 

An  aqueous  solution  containing  not  less  than  67  per  cent,  nor  more 
than  69  per  cent,  of  HNO3  (63.02).  Preserve  it  in  dark  amber-colored, 
glass-stoppered  bottles,  and  protect  it  from  light. 

Nitric  Acid  is  a  fuming  liquid,  very  caustic  and  corrosive;  it  has  a  peculiar, 
somewhat  suffocating  odor,  and  is  strongly  acid  to  litmus,  even  when  highly 
diluted. 

Specific  gravity:  about  1.403  at  25°  C. 

It  is  volatiUzed  at  110°  C. 

Nitric  Acid  dissolves  copper,  mercury,  silver,  and  many  other  metals  with 
the  evolution  of  brownish-red  fimaes,  and  stains  woollen  fabrics  and  animal 
tissues  a  bright  yellow. 

Evaporate  20  mils  of  Nitric  Acid  from  a  platinum  or  porcelain  dish  and  dry 
at  110°  C;  not  more  than  0.003  Gm.  of  residue  remains  {non-volatile  impurities). 

Shake  2.5  mils  of  Nitric  Acid,  diluted  with  7.5  mils  of  distilled  water,  with  2 
mils  of  chloroform;  the  latter  remains  colorless  {iodine  or  bromine)  even  after  the 
introduction  of  a  small  piece  of  metallic  tin  {iodic  or  bromic  acid). 

Nitric  Acid  diluted  with  25  volumes  of  distilled  water  and  neutraUzed  with 
ammonia  water  does  not  respond  to  the  Test  for  heavy  metals  (see  Part  II,  Test 
No.  3). 

Evaporate  0.5  mil  of  Nitric  Acid  to  dryness  on  a  water  bath;  the  residue 
meets  the  requirements  of  the  Test  for  arsenic  (see  Part  II,  Test  No.  1). 

Separate  portions  of  Nitric  Acid,  diluted  with  10  volumes  of  distilled  water, 
do  not  yield  a  precipitate  upon  the  addition  of  barium  chloride  T.S.  {sulphuric 
acid),  or  of  silver  nitrate  T.S.  {hydrochloric  acid). 

Assay — Pour  about  2  mils  of  Nitric  Acid  into  a  tared  flask  containing  10 
mils  of  distilled  water,  stopper,  weigh  accurately,  dilute  with  50  mils  of  distilled 
water  and  titrate  with  normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S.,  using  methyl  orange 
T.S.  as  indicator.  It  shows  not  less  than  67  per  cent,  nor  more  than  69  per 
cent,  of  HNO3. 

Each  mil  of  normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S.  used  corresponds  to  0.06302 
Gm.  of  HNO3.  Each  gramme  of  Nitric  Acid  corresponds  to  not  less  than  10.63 
mils  nor  more  than  10.95  mils  of  normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S. 

Preparations — Acidum  Nitrohydrochloricum        Acidum  Nitrohydrochloricum 
Dilutum. 


ACIDUM  NITROHYDROCHLORICUM 

Nitrohydrochloric  Acid 

Acid.  Nitrohydrochl. — Nitromuriatic  Acid 

A  strong  aqueous  solution  containing  hydrochloric  acid,  nitric  acid, 
nitrosyl  chloride,  and  chlorine. 

Nitric  Acid,  eighteen  milliliters 18  mils 

Hydrochloric  Acid,  eighty-two  milliliters 82  mils 

To  make  about  one  hundred  milliliters 100  mils 


UNITED   STATES   OF  AMERICA  19 

Mix  the  acids  in  a  capacious  glass  vessel,  and,  when  effervescence  has 
ceased,  pour  the  product  into  dark  amber-colored,  glass-stoppered 
bottles,  which  must  not  be  more  than  half  filled,  and  must  be  kept  in  a 
cool  place. 

Note — Do  not  dispense  Nitrohydrochloric  Acid  which  does  not 
immediately  liberate  iodine  when  one  drop  of  the  Acid  is  added  to  1 
mU  of  an  aqueous  solution  of  potassium  iodide  (1  in  5). 

Nitrohydrochloric  Acid  is  a  golden-yellow,  fuming,  and  very  corrosive  liquid; 
it  has  a  strong  odor  of  chlorine  and  is  intensely  acid  to  litmus,  afterwards 
bleaching  it.    It  readily  dissolves  gold  leaf. 

Not  more  than  0.0035  Gm.  of  residue  remains  on  evaporating  10  mils  of  the 
Acid  in  a  glass  or  porcelain  dish  and  drj'ing  at  110°  C. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.2  mil — Apothecaries,  3  minims. 


ACIDUM  NITROHYDROCHLORICUM  DILUTUM 

Diluted  Nitrohydrochloric  Acid 

Acid.  Nitrohydrochl.  Dil.— Diluted  Nitromuriatic  Acid 

A  diluted  aqueous  solution  containing  hydrochloric  acid,  nitric  acid, 
nitrosyl  chloride,  and  chlorine. 

Nitric  Acid,  ten  milliliters 10.0  mils 

Hydrochloric  Acid,  forty-five  and  five-tenths  milliliters. .  45.5  mils 
Distilled  Water,  one  hundred  and  ninety-four  and  five- 
tenths  milliliters 194.5  mils 

To  make  about  two  hundred  and  fifty  milli- 
liters   250    mils 

Mix  the  acids  in  a  capacious  glass  vessel,  and,  when  effervescence 
has  ceased,  add  the  distilled  water;  pour  it  into  dark  amber-colored, 
glass-stoppered  bottles  and  keep  it  in  a  cool  place. 

Note — Do  not  dispense  Diluted  Nitrohydrochloric  Acid  which  does 
not  immediately  liberate  iodine  when  five  drops  of  the  Acid  are  added 
to  1  mil  of  an  aqueous  solution  of  potassium  iodide  (1  in  5). 

Diluted  Nitrohydrochloric  Acid  ia  a  colorless  or  pale  yellow  liquid;  it  has 
a  faint  odor  of  chlorine,  a  very  acid  taste  and  is  strongly  acid  to  Utmus,  after- 
wards bleaching  it. 

Not  more  than  0.0015  Gm.  of  residue  remains  on  evaporating  20  mils  of  the 
Acid  in  a  glass  or  porcelain  dish  and  drying  at  110"  C. 

Average  po3E — Metric,  1  mil — Apothecaries,  15  minims. 


20  THE    PHARMACOPCEIA    OF  THE 

ACIDUM  OLEICUM 

Oleic  Acid 

Acid.  Oleic. 

An  acid  obtained  from  fats,  consisting  chiefly  of  Ci8H3402  or  C17H33. 
COOH  (282.27),  Preserve  it  in  well-closed  glass  or  stoneware  containers, 
in  a  cool  place. 

Oleic  Acid  is  a  yellowish  or  brownish-yellow,  oily  liquid,  having  a  peculiar, 
lard-like  odor  and  taste  free  from  rancidity.  It  becomes  darker  and  absorbs 
oxygen  on  exposure  to  air. 

It  is  practically  insoluble  in  water;  slightly  soluble  in  60  per  cent,  alcohol 
(by  volume),  the  solubility  very  rapidly  increasing  in  stronger  alcohol;  it  is 
completely  miscible  with  about  85  per  cent,  alcohol  (by  volume);  it  is  also 
soluble  in  chloroform,  benzene,  petroleum  benzin,  or  in  fixed  or  volatile  oils. 

Specific  gravity:  about  0.895  at  25°  C. 

When  gradually  cooled,  Oleic  Acid  does  not  become  semi-solid  above  9°  C; 
on  further  cooling,  it  congeals  to  a  whitish,  solid  mass  at  about  4°  C. 

When  heated  to  a  temperature  of  about  95°  C,  decomposition  commences 
and  acrid  vapors  are  produced. 

Incinerate  5  mils  of  Oleic  Acid;  not  more  than  0.005  Gm.  of  ash  remains. 

Shake  Oleic  Acid  with  an  equal  volume  of  distilled  water;  the  separated  water 
after  filtration  is  not  reddened  by  the  addition  of  a  drop  of  methyl  orange  T.S. 
{mineral  acids). 

Boil  about  1  Gm.  of  Oleic  Acid  and  about  0.5  Gm.  of  monohydrated  sodium 
carbonate  with  30  mils  of  distilled  water  in  a  capacious  flask;  the  resulting  solu- 
tion while  hot  is  clear  or  at  most  opalescent  (undecomposed  fat  or  mineral  oil). 


ACIDUM  PHENYLCINCHONINICUM 

Phenylcinchoninic  Acid 

Acid.  Phenylcinch. — Phenyl-quinoline-carboxylic  Acid 

An  organic  acid,  2-phenyl-quinoline-4-carboxylic  acid  [C16H11O2N  or 
C6H5.C9H5N.COOH  =  249.10]. 

Phenylcinchoninic  Acid  occurs  in  small,  colorless  needles  or  as  a  white  or  yel- 
lowish-white micro-crystalline  powder;  odorless  or  having  a  slight  odor  resem- 
bling benzoic  acid,  and  a  bitter  taste.     It  is  permanent  in  the  air. 

Insoluble  in  cold  water;  slightly  soluble  in  cold  alcohol,  hot  water  or  ether; 
readily  soluble  in  hot  alcohol. 

It  melts  at  about  210°  C.  with  partial  decomposition. 

A  saturated  solution  of  Phenylcinchoninic  Acid  in  hot  diluted  hydrochloric 
acid  yields  a  precipitate  of  reddish-brown  crystals  with  platinic  chloride  T.S.  _ 

Dissolve  about  1  Gm.  of  Phenylcinchoninic  Acid  in  an  excess  of  ammonia 
water,  evaporate  the  solution  to  dryne,«3  on  a  water  bath,  or  until  free  from  the 
odor  of  ammonia,  then  dilute  to  20  mils  with  distilled  water,  and  filter.  Separate 
portions  of  this  filtrate  yield  a  white,  flocculent  precipitate  with  silver  nitrate 
T.S.;  a  yellowish,  flocculent  precipitate  with  lead  acetate  T.S.;  and  a  green, 
flocculent  precipitate  with  copper  sulphate  T.S. 

No  weighable  ash  remains  on  incinerating  about  0.5  Gm.  of  Phenylcincho- 
ninic Acid. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.5  Gm. — Apothecaries,  8  grains. 


UNITED   STATES   OF  AMERICA  21 

ACIDUM  PHOSPHORICUM 

Phosphoric  Acid 

Acid.  Phos. 

A  liquid  containing  not  less  than  85  per  cent,  nor  more  than  88  per 
cent,  of  H3PO4  (98.06).     Preserve  it  in  glass-stoppered  bottles. 

Phosphoric  Acid  is  a  colorless,  odorless  liquid  of  a  syrupy  consistence;  it  has 
a  strongly  acid  taste  and  is  strongly  acid  to  litmus,  even  when  highly  diluted. 

Specific  gravity:  about  1.72  at  25°  C. 

When  heated,  the  liquid  loses  water;  at  200°  C.  it  gradually  begins  to  change 
to  pyrophosphoric  acid.  At  a  still  higher  temperature,  it  is  converted  into 
metaphosphoric  acid,  which  volatilizes  in  dense  fumes,  or  which  forms,  on  cool- 
ing, a  transparent  mass  of  glacial  metaphosphoric  acid. 

Phosphoric  Acid  conforms  to  the  tests  for  identity  and  purity  given  under 
Acidum  Phosphoriciim  Dilutum  when  diluted  to  that  strength. 

Assay— Pour  about  1  Gm.  of  Phosphoric  Acid  into  a  tared  flask,  stopper,  and 
weigh  accurately,  transfer  it  to  a  100  mil  graduated  flask  and  make  it  up  to 
100  mils  with  distilled  water.  Transfer  10  mils  of  this  solution  to  a  100  mil 
graduated  flask,  add  a  drop  of  phenolphthalein  T.S.  and  neutralize  it  with 
special  potassium  hydroxide  T.S.  (see  page  545).  Add  50  mils  of  tenth-normal 
silver  nitrate  V.S.  and  agitate  it,  gradually  adding  zinc  oxide  (see  page  554)  in 
small  portions  until  the  liquid  is  neutral  to  litmus  paper.  Now  add  distilled 
water  to  make  the  liquid  measure  100  mils,  agitate  it  thoroughly,  filter  through 
a  dry  filter,  collect  50  mils  of  the  filtrate,  add  2  mils  of  nitric  acid  and  2  mils  of 
ferric  ammonium  sulphate  T.S.  and  determine  the  excess  of  silver  nitrate  by 
titration  vnih.  tenth-normal  potassium  sulphocyanate  V.S.,  to  the  production 
of  a  permanent  red  color.  \Yhen  calculated  to  the  amount  of  Phosphoric  Acid 
originally  taken,  it  shows  not  less  than  85  per  cent,  nor  more  than  88  per  cent. 

of  H3PO4. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  silver  nitrate  V.S.  used  corresponds  to  0.0032687 
Gm.  of  H3PO4.  Each  gramme  of  Phosphoric  Acid  corresponds  to  not  less  than 
260.0  mils  nor  more  than  269.2  mils  of  tenth-normal  silver  nitrate  V.S. 

Preparation — Acidum  Phosphoricum  Dilutum. 

ACIDUM  PHOSPHORICUM  DILUTUM 

Diluted  Phosphoric  Acid 

Acid.  Phos.  Dil. 

An  aqueous  solution  containing  not  less  than  9.5  per  cent,  nor  more 
than  10.5  per  cent,  of  H3PO4  (98.06).  Preserve  it  in  well-stoppered 
bottles. 

Phosphoric  Acid,  one  hundred  grammes 100  Gm. 

Distilled  Water,  seven  hundred  and  sixty-five  grammes.  .  .  .   765  Gm. 

To  make  eight  hundred  and  sixty-five  grammes .  .  865  Gm. 
Mix  them. 

Diluted  Phosphoric  Acid  is  a  clear,  colorless,  odorless  liquid;  it  has  a  strongly 
acid  taste  and  is  strongly  acid  to  Htmus. 

Specific  gravity:  about  1.057  at  25°  C. 

Supersaturate  3  mils  of  Diluted  Phosphoric  Acid  with  ammonia  water;  the 
addition  of  magnesium  sulphate  T.S.  (or  of  magnesia  mixture  T.S.)  produces  a 


22  THE  pharmacopceia  of  the 

white,  crj'stalline  precipitate.  Collect  this  precipitate,  wash  it,  and  then  dissolve 
it  in  diluted  acetic  acid;  the  solution  yields  a  yellow  precipitate  with  silver 
nitrate  T.S.  (distinction  from  melaphosphoric  or  pyrophosphoric  acid). 

Warm  5  mils  of  Diluted  Phosphoric  Acid  gently  and  add  a  few  drops  of  silver 
nitrate  T.S.;  it  does  not  become  turbid  or  brov/n  {jphosphorous  or , fiypophos- 
phorous  acid). 

Ten  mils  of  Diluted  Phosphoric  Acid  does  not  respond  to  the  Test  for  heavy 
metals  (see  Part  II,  Test  No.  3). 

Two  mils  of  Diluted  Phosphoric  Acid  meets  the  requirements  of  the  Test  for 
arsenic  (see  Part  II,  Test  No.  1). 

Diluted  Phosphoric  Acid  is  not  immediately  affected  by  silver  nitrate  T.S. 
(hydrochloric  acid) ;  nor  is  it  affected,  even  after  one  hour,  by  the  addition  of  an 
equal  volume  of  tincture  of  ferric  chloride  (pyrophosphoric  or  metaphosphoric 
add). 

Evaporate  20  mils  of  Diluted  Phosphoric  Acid  to  a  volume  of  about  4  mils  on 
a  water  bath.  Cool,  transfer  2  mils  to  a  graduated  cylinder  and  add  6  mils  of 
ether  and  2  mils  of  alcohol;  no  turbidity  appears  (phosphates). 

Mix  1  mil  of  Diluted  Phosphoric  Acid  with  6  mils  of  distilled  water,  and 
add  1  mil  of  barium  chloride  T.S.;  no  immediate  precipitate  is  produced  (sul- 
phuric acid). 

Mix  equal  parts  of  Diluted  Phosphoric  Acid  and  sulphuric  acid  and,  after 
cooling,  add  a  clear  crystal  of  ferrous  sulphate;  no  brownish  color  appears  around 
the  crystal  (nitric  acid). 

Assay — Pour  about  1  mil  of  Diluted  Phosphoric  Acid  into  a  tared  flask,  weigh 
accurately,  transfer  it  to  a  100  mil  graduated  flask,  add  a  drop  of  phenolphthalein 
T.S.,  neutraUze  it  with  sodium  hydroxide  T.S.  (free  from  chloride),  then  intro- 
duce 50  mils  of  tenth-normal  silver  nitrate  V.S.,  agitate  the  liquid,  and  gradually 
add  zinc  oxide  (free  from  chloride)  in  small  portions  until  the  mixture  is  neutr:il 
to  litmus.  Now  add  distilled  water  to  make  the  product  measure  100  mils, 
agitate  it  thoroughly,  filter  through  a  dry  filter,  collect  50  mils  of  the  filtrate, 
add  2  mils  of  nitric  acid  and  2  mils  of  ferric  ammonium  sulphate  T.S.  and  deter- 
mine the  excess  of  silver  nitrate  by  titration  with  tenth-normal  potassium  sul- 
phocyanateV.S.  to  the  production  of  a  permanent  red  color.  When  calculated 
to  the  amoimt  of  Diluted  Phosphoric  Acid  originally  taken,  it  shows  not  less 
than  9.5  per  cent,  nor  more  than  10.5  per  cent,  of  H3PO4. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  silver  nitrate  V.S.  used  corresponds  to  0.0032687 
Gm.  of  H3PO4.  Each  gramme  of  Diluted 'Phosphoric  Acid  corresponds  to  not 
less  than  29.0  mils  nor  more  than  32.1  mils  of  tenth-normal  silver  nitrate  V.S. 

Average  dose — Metric,  2  mils — Apothecaries,  30  minims. 


ACIDUM  SALICYLICUM 

Salicylic  Acid 

Acid.  Salicyl. 

Orthohydroxybenzoic  acid,  existing  naturally  in  combination  in  vari- 
ous plants,  but  generally  prepared  synthetically.  It  contains,  when 
dried  to  constant  weight  in  a  desiccator  over  sulphuric  acid,  not  less  than 
99.3  per  cent,  of  CHeOg  or  C6H4(0H)C00H  (138.05).  Preserve  it  in 
well-closed  containers. 


UNITED   STATES   OF  AMERICA  23 

Salicylic  Acid  occurs  in  fine  prismatic  needles,  or  as  a  bulky,  crystalline 
powder,  having  a  sweetish,  afterwards  acrid  taste;  permanent  in  the  air.  Syn- 
thetic Salicylic  Acid  is  white  and  odorless;  when  prepared  from  methyl  salicylate 
the  Acid  may  have  a  slightly  yellow  or  pink  tint  and  a  slight,  gaultheria-like  odor. 

One  Gm.  of  Sahcylic  Acid  dissolves  in  460  mils  of  water,  2.7  mils  of  alcohol, 
42  mils  of  chloroform,  3  mils  of  ether,  135  mils  of  benzene,  or  in  52  mils  of 
oil  of  turpentine  at  25°  C;  also  in  about  15  mils  of  boiling  water. 

A  saturated,  aqueous  solution  of  Salicylic  Acid  is  acid  to  Utmus. 

It  melts  between  156°  and  159°  C. 

A  saturated,  aqueous  solution  of  SalicyUc  Acid  is  colored  intensely  bluish- 
violet  (in  high  dilution  violet-red)  by  ferric  chloride  T.S. 

Incinerate  about  1  Gm.  of  SalicyUc  Acid;  not  more  than  0.1  per  cent,  of  ash 
remains. 

Allow  a  saturated  alcoholic  solution  of  about  1  Gm.  of  Salicylic  Acid  to  evapo- 
rate spontaneously,  in  a  glass  or  porcelain  dish  in  a  place  protected  from  dust;  the 
sj^Tithetic  Acid  jdelds  a  perfectly  white,  crystalline  residue;  the  Acid,  prepared 
from  methyl  salicylate,  yields  a  white,  or  not  more  than  a  slightly  yellow, 
or  slightly  pink  residue  {iron,  phenol,  or  coloring  mailer). 

Dissolve  about  1  Gm.  of  Salicylic  Acid  in  an  excess  of  cold  sodium  carbonate 
T.S.,  agitate  the  hquid  with  an  equal  volume  of  ether,  and  allow  the  ethereal 
solution  to  evaporate  spontaneously;  the  residue,  if  any,  is  free  from  the  odor 
of  phenol. 

A  solution  of  about  0.5  Gm.  of  the  synthetic  Salicylic  Acid  in  10  mils  of  sul- 
phuric acid  at  room  temperature  acquires  not  more  than  a  light  yellow  color. 
The  Acid,  prepared  from  methyl  sahcylate,  under  similar  conditions,  may  pro- 
duce a  slightlj'  brown  color  {organic  impurities). 

A  solution  of  about  0.5  Gm.  of  Salicylic  Acid  in  10  mils  of  alcohol  mixed  with 
a  few  drops  of  nitric  acid  remains  unaffected  upon  the  addition  of  a  few  drops 
of  silver  nitrate  T.S.  {hydrochloric  acid). 

Assay — Dissolve  about  0.5  Gm.  of  Salicylic  Acid,  pre\aously  dried  to  constant 
weight  in  a  desiccator  over  sulphuric  acid  and  accurately  weighed,  in  25  mils 
of  diluted  alcohol  which  has  previously  been  neutralized  with  tenth-normal 
potassium  hj^droxide  V.S.,  phenolphthalein  T.S.  being  used  as  indicator. 
Titrate  this  solution  with  tenth-normal  barium  hydroxide  V.S.,  using  phenol- 
phthalein T.S.  as  indicator.  It  shows,  in  the  dried  acid,  not  less  than  99.3  per 
cent,  of  CtHgOs. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  barium  hydroxide  V.S.  corresponds  to  0.013805  Gm. 
of  CtHsOs.  Each  gramme  of  Salicylic  Acid,  previously  dried,  corresponds  to 
not  less  than  71.9  mils  of  tenth-normal  barium  hydroxide  V.S. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.75  Gm. — Apothecaries,  12  grains. 

ACIDUM  STEARICUM 

Stearic  Acid 
Acid.  Stear. 

An  acid  obtained  from  tallow  and  other  solid  fats,  consisting  chiefly  of 
CisHaeOa  or  C17H35.COOH  (284.29). 

Stearic  Acid  is  a  hard,  white,  or  yellowish-white,  somewhat  glossy  solid,  odor- 
less, or  having  a  slight,  tallow-like  odor,  tasteless,  and  permanent  in  the  air. 

One  Gm.  of  Stearic  Acid  dissolves  in  21  mils  of  alcohol,  2  mils  of  chloroform, 
or  in  3  mils  of  ether  at  25°  C. ;  almost  insoluble  in  water;  freely  soluble  in  carbon 
disulphide  or  carbon  tetrachloride. 

Melting  point:  not  below  56°  C. 

Congealing  point :  not  below  54°  C. 

Incinerate  about  1  Gm.  of  Stearic  Acid;  not  more  than  0.1  per  cent,  of  ash 
remains. 


24  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA    OF  THE 


Boil  about  1  Gm.  of  Stearic  Acid  and  about  0.5  Gm.  of  monohj'drated  sodium 
carbonate  with  30  mils  of  distilled  water  in  a  capacious  flask;  the  resulting  solu- 
tion while  hot  is  not  more  than  opalescent  (undecomposed  fat  or  paraffin). 

Shake  melted  Stearic  Acid  with  an  equal  volume  of  hot  distilled  water;  the 
separated  water,  after  filtration,  is  not  reddened  by  the  addition  of  a  drop  of 
methyl  orange  T.S.  (mineral  acids). 


ACIDUM  SULPHURICUM 

Sulphuric  Acid 

Acid.  Sulphuric. 

A  liquid  containing  not  less  than  93  per  cent,  nor  more  than  95  per 
cent,  of  H2SO4  (98.09).    Preserve  it  in  glass-stoppered  bottles. 

Sulphuric  Acid  is  a  colorless,  odorless  liquid,  of  oily  consistence,  very  caustic 
and  corrosive;  it  is  strongly  acid  to  litmus,  even  when  highly  diluted. 

Specific  gravity:  about  1.83  at  25°  C. 

Sulphuric  Acid  is  miscible  with  water  or  alcohol,  with  the  evolution  of  much 
heat;  the  Acjd  must  be  added  with  great  caution  to  the  diluent. 

When  heated  on  platinum  foil,  it  is  vaporized  with  the  evolution  of  dense 
fumes. 

Sulphuric  Acid  chars  cane  sugar,  wood,  and  many  other  organic  substances. 

Pour  a  layer  of  ferrous  sulphate  T.S.  carefully  upon  3  mils  of  Sulphuric  Acid, 
contained  Ln  a  test  tube,  and  cool  the  liquid;  the  zone  of  contact  does  not  as- 
sume a  brown  or  reddish-brown  color  (nitric  or  nitrous  acid). 

No  precipitate  is  formed  within  an  hour  on  mixing  Sulphuric  Acid  with  4  or  5 
volumes  of  alcohol  (lead). 

Sulphuric  Acid  conforms  to  the  tests  for  identity  and  purity  given  under 
Acidum  Sulphuricum  Dilutum  when  diluted  to  that  strength. 

Assay — Pour  about  1  mil  of  Sulphuric  Acid  into  a  tared  flask,  stopper, 
weigh  accurately,  dilute  with  50  mils  of  distilled  water,  cool  the  solution  and 
titrate  with  normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S.,  using  methyl  orange  T.S.  as 
indicator.  It  shows  not  less  than  93  per  cent,  nor  more  than  95  per  cent,  of 
H2SO4. 

Each  mil  of  normal  potassiima  hydroxide  V.S.  used  corresponds  to  0.049045 
Gm.  of  H2SO4.  Each  gramme  of  Sulphuric  Acid  corresponds  to  not  less  than 
18.96  mils  nor  more  than  19.37  mils  of  normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S. 

Preparations  —  Acidum    Sulphuricum    Aromaticum        Acidum    Sulphuricum 
Dilutum. 


ACIDUM  SULPHURICUM  AROMATICUM 

Aromatic  Sulphuric  Acid 

Acid.  Sulph.  Arom. 

Aromatic  Sulphuric  Acid  contains  free  sulphuric  acid  and  ethyl- 
sulphuric  acid  together  equivalent  to  not  less  than  19  per  cent,  nor  more 
than  21  per  cent,  of  H2SO4  (98.09).  Preserve  it  in  glass-stoppered 
bottles. 


UNITED   STATES   OF  AMERICA  25 

Sulphuric  Acid,  one  hundred  and  nine  milliliters 109  mils 

Tincture  of  Ginger,  fifty  milliliters 50  mils 

Oil  of  Cinnamon,  one  milliliter 1  mil 

Alcohol,  a  sufficient  quantity, 

To  make  one  thousand  milliliters 1000  mils 

Add  the  sulphuric  acid  gradual!}^,  and  with  great  caution,  to  seven 
hundred  mils  of  alcohol,  and  allow  the  mixture  to  cool.  Then  add  to 
it  the  tincture  of  ginger  and  the  oil  of  cinnamon,  and  afterwards  enough 
alcohol  to  make  the  product  measure  one  thousand  mils. 

Aromatic  Sulphuric  Acid  is  a  clear,  reddish-brown  liquid;  it  has  a  pleasant, 
aromatic  odor  and  is  strongly  acid  to  litmus. 

When  added  to  barium  chloride  T.S.  it  produces  a  white  precipitate,  insoluble 
in  hydrochloric  acid. 

Specific  gravity:  about  0.933  at  25°  C. 

Assay — Pour  about  10  mils  of  Aromatic  Sulphuric  Acid  into  a  tared  flask, 
stopper,  weigh  accurately,  transfer  to  a  small  flask,  using  60  mils  of  distilled 
water  to  rinse  the  weighing-flask,  and,  having  connected  the  flask  with  a  reflux 
condenser,  boil  the  liquid  for  six  hours.  When  cold,  dilute  it  with  distilled  water 
to  about  100  mils  and  titrate  with  normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S.,  methyl 
orange  T.S.  being  used  as  indicator.  It  shows  not  less  than  19  per  cent,  nor 
more  than  21  per  cent,  of  H2SO4. 

Each  mil  of  normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S.  used  corresponds  to  0.049045 
Gm.  of  H2SO4.  Each  gramme  of  Aromatic  Sulphuric  Acid  corresponds  to  not 
less  than  3.87  mils  nor  more  than  4.28  mils  of  normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S. 

Average  dose — Metric,  1  mil — Apothecaries,  15  minims. 


ACIDUM  SULPHURICUM  DILUTUM 

Diluted  Sulphuric  Acid 

Acid.  Sulph.  Dil. 

An  aqueous  solution  containing  not  less  than  9.5  per  cent,  nor  more 
than  10.5  per  cent,  of  H2SO4  (98.09).  Preserve  it  in  glass-stoppered 
bottles. 

Sulphuric  Acid,  fifty  grammes 50  Gm. 

Distilled  Water,  four  hundred  and  twenty  grammes  ....      420  Gm. 

To  make  four  hundred  and  seventy  grammes      470  Gm. 

Pour  the  acid  gradually,  with  constant  stirring,  into  the  distilled 
water  and  allow  it  to  cool. 

Diluted  Sulphuric  Acid  is  a  colorless,  odorless  Uquid;  it  has  a  strongly  acid 
taste  and  is  strongly  acid  to  litmus. 

Specific  gravity:  about  1.067  at  25°  C. 

With  barium  chloride  T.S.  it  yields  a  white  precipitate  insoluble  m  hydro- 
chloric acid. 


26  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA   OF  THE 

Evaporate  25  mils  of  Diluted  Sulphuric  Acid  from  a  platinum  or  porcelain 
dish,  and  ignite  the  residue;  not  more  than  0.0015  Gm.  of  residue  remains  after 
ignition  (non-volatile  impurities). 

Ten  mils  of  Diluted  Sulphuric  Acid  d9es  not  at  once  discharge  the  color  of 
0.1  mil  of  tenth-normal  potassium  pernianganate  V.S.  (sidphuroiis  or  nitrous 
acid). 

Diluted  Sulphuric  Acid  is  not  immediately  affected  by  silver  nitrate  T.S. 
{hydrochloric  acid). 

Ten  mils  of  Diluted  Sulphuric  Acid  does  not  respond  to  the  Test  for  heavy 
metals  (see  Part  II,  Test  No.  3). 

Two  mils  of  Diluted  Sulphuric  Acid  meets  the  requirements  of  the  Test  for 
arsenic  (see  Part  II,  Test  No.  1). 

Assay — Pour  about  20  mils  of  Diluted  Sulphuric  Acid  into  a  tared  flask,  weigh 
accuratel}^,  dilute  with  10  mils  of  distilled  water  and  titrate  with  normal  potas- 
sium hydroxide  V.S.,  using  methyl  orange  T.S.  as  indicator.  It  shows  not  less 
than  9.5  per  cent,  nor  more  than  10.5  per  cent,  of  H2SO4. 

Each  mil  of  normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S.  used  corresponds  to  0.049045 
Gm.  of  H2SO4.  Each  gramme  of  Diluted  Sulphuric  Acid  corresponds  to  not 
less  than  1.94  mils  nor  more  than  2.14  mils  of  normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S. 

Average  dose — Metric,  1  mil — Apothecaries,  15  minims. 


ACIDUM  TANNICUM 

Tannic  Acid 

Acid.  Tann. — Gallotannic  Acid         Tannin 

A  tannin  usually  obtained  from  nutgalls.    Preserve  it  in  well-closed 
containers,  in  a  cool  place,  protected  from  light. 

Tannic  Acid  occurs  as  a  yellowish-white  to  light  brown,  amorphous  powder, 
gradually  turning  darker  when  exposed  to  air  and  light,  usually  cohering  in 
the  form  of  glistening  scales  or  spongy  masses;  odorless,  or  having  a  faint, 
characteristic  odor,  and  a  strongly  astringent  taste. 

One  Gm.  of  Tannic  Acid  dissolves  in  1  mil  of  glycerin  with  the  application 
of  a  moderate  heat;  very  soluble  in  water  and  alcohol  at  25°  C.  and  in  boiling 
water  and  boiling  alcohol;  freely  soluble  in  diluted  alcohol,  slightly  soluble  in 
dehydrated  alcohol  and  almost  insoluble  in  ether,  chloroform,  benzene,  or 
petroleum  benzin. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  Tannic  Acid  (1  in  20)  is  acid  to  litmus. 

The  addition  of  a  small  quantity  of  ferric  chloride  T.S.  to  an  aqueous  solu- 
tion of  the  Acid  produces  a  bluish-black  color  or  precipitate. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  Tannic  Acid  produces  precipitates  with  nearly  all 
alkaloids  and  glucosides,  and  with  solutions  of  gelatin,  albumin,  and  starch. 

Tannic  Acid  does  not  lose  more  than  12  per  cent,  of  its  weight  when  dried 
to  con.stant  weight  at  100°  C. 

Incinerate  about  1  Gm.  of  Tannic  Acid  in  a  platinum  dish;  not  more  than 
O.G  per  cent,  of  ash  remains. 

Dis.solve  about  2  Gm.  of  Tannic  Acid  in  10  mils  of  hot  distilled  water;  the  solu- 
tion is  not  more  than  slightly  turbid,  and  no  turbidity  is  produced  on  diluting 
5  mils  of  the  cooled  and  filtered  solution  with  twice  its  volume  of  alcohol  (gum 
or  dextrin)  or  with  twice  its  volume  of  distilled  water  (resinous  substances). 

Preparations — Glyceritum  Acidi  Tannici    Trochisci  Acidi  Tannici    Unguentum 
Acidi  Tannici. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.5  Gm. — Apothecaries,  8  grains. 


UNITED   STATES  OF  AMERICA  27 

ACIDUM  TARTARICUM 

Tartaric  Acid 

Acid.  Tart. 

A  dibasic  organic  acid  usually  obtained  from  wine  lees  or  argol.  It 
contains  not  less  than  99.5  per  cent,  of  C4H6O6  or  C2H2(OH)2(COOH)2 
(150.05). 

Tartaric  Acid  occurs  in  colorless,  translucent,  monoclinic  prisms,  or  as  a 
white,  granular  or  fine  powder;  odorless,  having  an  acid  taste;  permanent  in 
the  air. 

One  Gm.  of  Tartaric  Acid  dissolves  in  0.75  mil  of  water  and  in  3.3  mils  of 
alcohol  at  25°  C;  also  in  0.5  mil  of  boiling  water;  almost  insoluble  in  chloro- 
form, slightly  soluble  in  ether. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  Tartaric  Acid  (1  in  20)  is  acid  to  litmus. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  the  Acid  (1  in  2)  mixed  with  an  equal  volume  of 
an  aqueous  solution  of  potassium  acetate  (1  in  3)  yields  a  white,  crystalline 
precipitate,  which  is  dissolved  by  solutions  of  alkalies  and  by  mineral  acids, 
but  is  insoluble  in  acetic  acid. 

When  slowly  ignited  it  is  gradually  decomposed,  evolving  an  odor  resembling 
burning  sugar. 

Incinerate  about  2  Gm.  of  Tartaric  Acid;  not  more  than  0.05  per  cent,  of  ash 
remains. 

The  addition  of  1  mil  of  barium  chloride  T.S.  to  10  mils  of  an  aqueous  solution 
of  the  Acid  (1  in  100),  to  which  has  previously  been  added  a  few  drops  of  hydro- 
chloric acid,  produces  no  turbidity  (sulphuric  acid). 

An  aqueous  solution  of  the  Acid  (1  in  10),  in  which  the  free  acid  has  been 
nearly  neutralized  with  ammonia  water,  is  not  affected  by  calcium  sulphate 
T.S.  (oxalic  add). 

Ten  mils  of  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  Acid  (1  in  50),  mixed  with  0.5  mil 
of  hvdrochloric  acid,  does  not  respond  to  the  Test  for  heavy  metals  (see  Part 
II.  Test  No.  3). 

Dissolve  10  Gm.  of  Tartaric  Acid  in  20  mils  of  distilled  water,  add  2  mils  of 
sulphurous  acid  and  boil  the  mixture  until  the  odor  of  sulphur  dioxide  is  barely 
perceptible.  Cool  the  solution,  mix  it  with  1  mil  of  sodium  cj-anide  T.S.  and 
foUow  this  immediately  with  stronger  ammonia  water  until  the  precipitate 
formed  is  redissolved  and  the  solution  has  a  shght  odor  of  ammonia.  When 
cold,  transfer  the  solution  to  a  glass-stoppered  cylinder,  graduated  to  50  mils. 
Dilute  it  with  sufficient  distilled  water  to  measin-e  50  mils  and  add  3  drops  of 
sodimn  sulphide  T.S.  After  mi.\ing  well,  the  color  produced  in  the  solution, 
if  any,  when  viewed  downward  against  a  white  surface,  is  not  greater  than  the 
color  of  a  control  solution  prepared  as  follows;  Dissolve  2  Gm.  of  ammonium 
chloride  (see  Reagents,  Part  II)  in  20  mils  of  distilled  water,  add  4  mils  of  a 
solution  containing  0.08  Gm.  of  lead  nitrate  in  1000  mils  of  distilled  water,  and 
then  1  mil  of  diluted  hydrochloric  acid.  Treat  this  solution  with  the  same  quan- 
tity of  sulphurous  acid,  sodium  cyanide  T.S.  and  stronger  ammonia  water,  as 
directed  above,  transfer  to  another  50  mil  glass-stoppered  cylinder,  then  dilute 
it  with  sufficient  distilled  water  to  make  50  mils,  and  add  3  drops  of  sodium 
sulphide  T.S.  (before  adding  the  sodium  sulphide  T.S.,  the  Uquid  must  possess  a 
distinct  odor  of  ammonia  and  the  two  cylinders  used  must  be  matched,  be  of 
practically  colorless  glass,  and  have  the  same  internal  diameter)  (lead). 

Assay — Dissolve  about  3  Gm.  of  Tartaric  Acid,  accurately  weighed,  in  50  mils 
of  distilled  water  and  titrate  this  solution  with  normal  potassium  hydroxide 
V.S.,  using  phenolphthalein  T.S.  as  indicator.  It  shows  not  less  than  99.5 
per  cent,  of  C4H6O6. 

Each  mil  of  normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S.  consumed  corresponds  to 
0.07503  Gm.  of  C4H6O6.  Each  gramme  of  Tartaric  Acid  corresponds  to  not 
less  than  13.26  mils  of  normal  potassium  hydro-dde  V.S. 

A\t:rage  dose — Metric,  0.5  Gm. — Apothecaries,  8  grains. 


28  THE    PHARMACOPCEIA   OF   THE 

ACIDUM  TRICHLORACETICUM 

Trichloracetic  Acid 

Acid.  Trichloracet. 

A  monobasic  organic  acid.  It  contains,  when  dried  to  constant 
weight  in  a  desiccator  over  sulphuric  acid,  not  less  than  99  per  cent,  of 
C2HO2CI3  or  CCI3.COOH  (163.39).  Preserve  it  in  well-stoppered 
bottles,  in  a  cool  place,  protected  from  light. 

Trichloracetic  Acid  occurs  in  colorless,  deliquescent,  rhombohedral  cr\'stals, 
having  a  slight,  characteristic  odor. 

One  Gm.  of  Trichloracetic  Acid  dissolves  in  about  0.1  mil  of  water  at  25°  C; 
it  is  very  soluble  in  alcohol  and  ether  at  25°  C. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  Trichloracetic  Acid  (1  in  20)  is  acid  to  litmus. 

When  the  Acid  is  heated  with  potassium  hydroxide  T.S.,  it  is  decomposed 
with  the  formation  of  cliloroform  and  potassium  carbonate. 

Incinerate  about  2  Gm.  of  Trichloracetic  Acid;  not  more  than  0.05  per  cent, 
of  ash  remains. 

Ten  mils  of  a  freshly  made,  aqueous  solution  of  the  Acid  (1  in  20)  does  not 
immediately  become  more  than  slightly  opalescent  upon  the  addition  of  a  few 
drops  of  silver  nitrate  T.S.   (chlorides). 

Dissolve  a  small  crystal  of  ferrous  sulphate  in  5  mils  of  an  aqueous  solution 
of  Trichloracetic  Acid  (1  in  20),  and  pour  this  solution  upon  5  mils  of  sulphuric 
acid  (free  from  nitrogen  compounds)  so  as  to  form  a  layer  above;  no  browTiish- 
red  color  is  produced  at  the  zone  of  contact  of  the  two  liquids  (nitric  acid). 

Assay — Dissolve  about  4  Gm.  of  Trichloracetic  Acid,  previously  dried  to 
constant  weight  in  a  desiccator  over  sulphuric  acid  and  accurately  weighed  in  a 
tared  and  stoppered  flask,  in  50  mils  of  distilled  water,  add  a  few  drops  of  phen- 
olphthalein  T.S.  and  titrate  this  solution  with  normal  potassium  hydroxide 
V.S.    It  shows,  in  the  dried  acid,  not  less  than  99  per  cent,  of  C2HO2CI3. 

Each  mil  of  normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S.  corresponds  to  0.16339  Gm.  of 
C2HO2CI3.  Each  gramme  of  Trichloracetic  Acid,  previously  dried,  corresponds 
to  not  less  than  6.06  mils  nor  more  than  6.12  mils  of  normal  potassium 
hydroxide  V.  S. 


ACONITINA 

Aconitine 

Aconitin. 

An  alkaloid  [C34H470iiN  =  645.39]  obtained  from  aconite.     Preserve 
it  in  well-closed  containers  protected  from  light. 

Aconitine  occurs  in  colorless  or  white  rhombic  tables  or  prisms,  possessing 
no  odor  and  permanent  in  the  air.  The  alkaloid  itself  must  never  be  tasted,  and 
its  solutions  only  when  largely  diluted,  and  then  with  the  utmost  caution.  A  drop 
of  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  alkaloid  or  its  salts  (1  in  100,000),  placed  upon  the 
tongue,  produces  a  tingling  and  numbing  sensation. 

One  Gm.  of  Aconitine  dissolves  in  28  mils  of  alcohol,  about  65  mils  of  ether, 
and  in  7  mils  of  benzene,  at  25°  C. ;  very  slightly  soluble  in  water  and  almost 
insoluble  in  petroleum  benzin  at  25°  C. 

Aconitine  .solutions  are  alkaline  to  litmus. 

When  heated  rapidly,  Aconitine  melts  at  about  195°  C. 


UNITED   STATES   OF  AMERICA  29 

Stir  about  0.001  Gm.  of  Aconitine  with  2  or  3  drops  of  nitric  or  sulphuric 
acid  on  a  white  porcelain  surface;  it  dissolves  without  coloration.  With 
2  drops  of  sulphuric  acid  containing  0.005  Gm.  of  ammonium  vanadate  in  each 
mil  an  orange  color  is  produced  under  the  same  conditions. 

Dilute  solutions  of  Aconitine  salts  yield  precipitates  with  mercuric  potas- 
sium iodide  T.S.,  tannic  acid  T.S.,  or  gold  chloride  T.S.,  but  only  concentrated 
solutions  yield  precipitates  with  platinic  chloride  T.S.,  mercuric  chloride  T.S., 
or  picric  acid  T.S. 

No  weighable  ash  remains  on  incinerating  0.05  Gm.  of  Aconitine. 

Evaporate  a  solution  of  0.01  Gm.  of  Aconitine  to  dryness,  add  5  drops  of 
fuming  nitric  acid;  evaporate  again  to  dryness;  the  resulting  yellow  residue, 
when  cooled,  yields  no  violet  color  when  treated  with  alcohoUc  potassium 
bydro>dde  T.S.  {pscudaconitine  or  atropine). 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.00015  Gm. — Apothecaries,  i-^oo  grain. 

ACONITUM 

Aconite 

Aconit. — Monkshood  Aconite  Root  Aconiti  tuber  P.  I. 
The  dried  tuberous  roots  of  Aconitum  Napellus  Linn^  (Fam.  Ranun- 
culaceoe),  without  the  presence  or  admixture  of  more  than  5  per  cent,  of 
stems  or  other  foreign  matter,  and  yielding  not  less  than  0.5  per  cent, 
of  the  ether-soluble  alkaloids  of  Aconite.  If  made  into  a  fluidextract 
and  assayed  biologically  the  minimum  lethal  dose  should  not  be  greater 
than  0.00004  mil  for  each  gramme  of  body  weight  of  guinea-pig. 

More  or  less  conical  or  fusiform,  from  4  to  10  cm.  in  length  and  from  1  to  2  cm. 
in  diameter  at  the  crown;  externally  dark  brown  or  grayish-brown,  smooth  or 
longitudinally  ^Tinkled,  the  upper  end  with  a  bud,  remains  of  bud-scales  or  stem 
scars,  the  other  portions  with  numerous  root-scars  or  short  rootlets;  fracture 
short,  horny  or  somewhat  mealy;  internally,  bark  light  or  dark  brown  1  to  2 
mm.  in  thickness,  cambium  zone  usually  5-  to  8-angled,  with  a  small  fibro- 
vascular  bundle  in  each  angle,  pith  whitish  or  light  brown,  from  2  to  7  mm.  in 
diameter;  odor  very  shght;  taste  sweetish,  soon  becoming  acrid  and  developing 
a  tingling  sensation,  followed  by  numbness. 

Under  the  microscope  transverse  sections,  m  ade  near  the  middle  of  the  tuberous 
root  of  Aconite,  show  an  outer  layer  consisting  of  one  or  more  rows  of  cells  with 
blackish-brown  walls;  a  primary  cortex  of  8  to  15  rows  of  parenchjTnatous  cells 
and  interspersed  with  characteristic  stone  cells,  which  occur  either  singly  or  in 
small  groups;  a  more  or  less  modified  endodermis;  a  secondary  cortex,  consisting 
chiefly  of  starch-bearing  parenchyma  and  interspersed  with  a  few  small  fibro- 
vascular  bundles;  a  more  or  less  star-shaped  and  characteristic  cambium  with 
from  5  to  12  collateral  fibro-vascular  bundles;  and  a  pith  composed  of  large, 
etarch-bearing  parenchjona  cells. 

The  powder  is  grayish-brown;  starch  grains  numerous,  spherical,  somewhat 
plano-convex,  single  or  2-  to  5-compound,  the  individual  grains  from  0.003  to 
0.015  mm.  in  diameter  and  frequently  with  a  central  cleft;  tracheae  mostly  with 
slit-like,  simple  pores,  sometimes  with  spiral  or  reticulate  thickenings  or  with 
bordered  pores;  stone  cells  single,  tabular,  irregular  in  shape  or  elongated  to 
fibers,  from  0.1  to  0.4  mm.  in  length,  walls  from  0.008  to  0.025  mm.  in  thick- 
ness, strongly  lignified  and  having  large,  simple  pores;  fragments  of  cork  few, 
yellowish-brown;  fragments  of  parenchyma  numerous,  the  cells  being  filled 
with  starch  grains;  bast-fibers  from  stems  few,  very  long,  with  lignified  walls 
about  0.005  mm.  in  thickness,  and  marked  by  transverse  or  obUque,  slit-hke 
pores. 


30  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA   OF  THE 

Aconite  jaelds  not  more  than  6  per  cent,  of  ash. 

Assay — Proceed  as  directed  under  BeUadonnoe  Radix  (page  73),  using  15  Gm. 
of  Aconite  in  No.  40  powder  and  ether  only  as  the  immiscible  solvent  through- 
out the  assay. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  sulphuric  acid  V.S.  consumed  corresponds  to  64.539 
milligrammes  of  the  ether-soluble  alkaloids  of  Aconite. 

For  an  alternative  method  of  assaying  Aconite  see  Biological  Assays  (Part  II). 

Preparations — ^Extractum  Aconiti    Fluidextractum  Aconiti     Tinctura  Aconiti. 
Average  dose — Metric,  0.03  Gm. — Apothecaries,  3^  grain. 


ADEPS 

Lard 

The  purified  internal  fat  of  the  abdomen  of  the  hog  {Sus  scrofa,  var. 
domesticus  Gray,  Fam.  Suidce} .  Preserve  it  in  a  cool  place  in  well-closed 
containers  which  are  impervious  to  fat. 

Lard  is  a  soft,  white,  unctuous  sohd,  having  a  faint  odor  and  a  bland  taste; 
it  is  free  from  rancidity. 

It  is  insoluble  in  water;  very  slightly  soluble  in  alcohol;  readily  soluble  in 
ether,  chloroform,  carbon  disulphide,  or  petroleum  benzin. 

Lard  melts  between  36°  and  42°  C.  to  a  clear  liquid,  from  which  no  aqueous 
layer  separates. 

Distilled  water  boiled  with  Lard  does  not  acquire  an  alkaline  reaction  (alka- 
lies). Boil  about  1  Gm.  of  Lard  with  20  mils  of  alcohol  and  filter  the  solution  after 
coohng;  the  filtrate  is  not  rendered  more  than  slightly  turbid  by  the  addition 
of  a  few  drops  of  a  saturated  alcoholic  solution  of  silver  nitrate  (chlorides). 

Dissolve  10  Gm.  of  Lard  in  30  mils  of  chloroform,  mix  the  solution  with  10  mils 
ofsneutral  alcohol  and  add  1  drop  of  phenolphthalein  T.S.;  not  more  than  2  mils 
of  tenth-normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S.  is  required  to  produce  a  pink  tint 
after  shaking  it  vigorously  (free  fatty  adds). 

Intimately  mix  5  mils  of  melted  and  filtered  Lard,  while  warm,  by  agitating 
it  in  a  test  tube  with  5  mils  of  an  alcoholic  solution  of  silver  nitrate  (made  by 
dissolving  0.1  Gm.  of  silver  nitrate  in  10  mils  of  alcohol,  and  adding  2  drops  of 
nitric  acid);  heat  this  mixture  for  five  minutes  on  a  water  bath.  The  liquid 
fat  acquires  no  reddish  or  brown  color,  nor  is  any  dark  color  produced  at  the 
line  of  contact  of  the  hot  liquids  (cottonseed  fats) . 

Dissolve  5  Gm.  of  Lard  in  20  mils  of  ether  in  a  test  tube,  stopper  the  tube 
loosely  with  purified  cotton  and  allow  it  to  stand  for  about  twelve  hours  or 
over  night  at  a  temperature  of  about  20°  C.  Collect  some  of  the  crystals  which 
have  separated  at  the  bottom  of  the  test  tube,  mount  them  in  either  alcohol  or 
a  fixed  oil  and  examine  them  under  a  microscope  having  a  magnifying  power 
of  about  two  hundred  diameters.  Lard  stearin  crystallizes  in  the  form  of 
flat  and  rhomboidal  plates,  cut  off  obliquely  at  one  end  and  grouped  irregularly. 
Beef  stearin  crystallizes  in  the  form  of  cylindrical  rods  or  needles  with  sharp 
ends,  grouped  in  fan-shaped  clusters. 

Saponification  value:  not  less  than  195  nor  more  than  203  (see  Part  II, 
Test  No.  9). 

Iodine  value:  not  less  than  46  nor  more  than  70  (see  Part  II,  Test  No,  8). 

Preparation— Adepa  Benzoinatus. 


UNITED   STATES   OF  AMERICA  31 

ADEPS  BENZOINATUS 

Benzoinated  Lard 

Adeps  Benz. 

Lard,  one  thousand  grammes 1000  Gm. 

SiAM  Benzoin,  in  coarse  powder,  ten  grammes 10  Gm. 

To  make  about  one  thousand  grammes 1000  Gm. 

Add  the  benzoin  to  the  lard  and  mix  thoroughly;  then  melt  the  mixt- 
ure by  means  of  a  water  bath,  and,  stirring  frequently,  continue  the  heat 
for  two  hours,  covering  the  vessel  and  not  allowing  the  temperature 
to  rise  above  60°  C.  Lastly,  strain  the  liquid  through  muslin,  and  stir 
it  occasionally,  while  it  cools.  Preserve  it  in  a  cool  place  in  well-closed 
containers  which  are  impervious  to  fat. 

For  use  in  southern  latitudes  and  during  the  heated  season  in  other 
localities,  50  Gm.  of  the  lard  (or  more,  if  necessary)  may  be  replaced 
by  an  equal  weight  of  white  wax. 

ADEPS  LANiE 

Wool  Fat 

Adeps  Lan. — Anhydrous  Lanolin 

The  purified  fat  of  the  wool  of  the  sheep  (Ovis  aries  Linn^  Fam. 
Bovidce),  freed  from  water.  Preserve  it  in  a  cool  place  in  well-closed 
containers  which  are  impervious  to  fat. 

Wool  Fat  is  a  light-yellow,  tenacious,  unctuous  mass,  having  not  more  than 
a  slight  odor. 

It  is  insoluble  in,  but  miscible  with,  about  twice  its  weight  of  water,  sparingly 
soluble  in  cold  alcohol,  more  soluble  in  hot  alcohol,  freely  soluble  in  ether  and 
in  chloroform. 

Wool  Fat  melts  between  38°  and  42°  C.  At  higher  temperatures  it  vaporizes, 
the  vapor  igniting  and  burning  with  a  luminous,  sooty  flame. 

A  solution  of  Wool  Fat  in  chloroform  (1  in  50),  when  poured  upon  the  surface 
of  concentrated  sulphuric  acid,  gradually  develops  a  deep  brownish-red  color 
at  the  line  of  contact  of  the  layers. 

Dried  to  a  constant  weight  on  a  water  bath,  with  frequent  stirring,  Wool  Fat 
loses  not  more  than  0.5  per  cent,  of  its  weight  (water). 

Incinerate  about  1  Gm.  of  Wool  Fat;  not  more  than  0.1  per  cent,  of  ash 
remains.  The  ash,  if  any,  is  not  alkaline  to  moistened  Utmus  paper  {alkalies 
and  soaps). 

Dissolve  about  2  Gm.  of  Wool  Fat  in  10  mils  of  ether  and  add  2  drops  of  phenol- 
phthalein  T.S.;  a  colorless  liquid  is  obtained  (free  alkalies)  which,  on  the  addi- 
tion of  0.2  mil  of  tenth-normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S.,  develops  a  deep  red 
color  (free  fatty  acids). 

Boil  about  1  Gm.  of  Wool  Fat  with  20  mils  of  alcohol,  and  filter  the  solution 
after  cooUng;  the  filtrate  is  not  rendered  more  than  slightly  turbid  by  the 
addition  of  a  few  drops  of  saturated  alcohoUc  solution  of  silver  nitrate  (chlorides). 

Melt  about  10  Gm.  of  Wool  Fat  with  50  mils  of  distilled  water  on  a  water 
bath,  with  constant  stirring;  the  fat  separates  completely  on  coohng,  leaving 


32  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA   OF  THE 

the  aqueous  layer  nearly  clear  and  neutral  to  litmus.  Separate  portions  of  10  mils 
each  of  the  filtered  aqueous  layer  leave  no  sweet  residue  on  evaporation  (glycerin), 
emit  no  ammonia  vapors  when  boiled  with  1  mil  of  potassium  hydroxide  T.S., 
and  do  not  completely  decolorize  0.05  mil  of  tenth-normal  potassium  perman- 
ganate V.S.  within  ten  minutes  (soluble  oxidizahle  impurities). 

About  0.5  Gm.  of  Wool  Fat  dissolves  completely  in  40  mils  of  boiling  dehydrated 
alcohol  (■petrolatum). 

Iodine  value  not  less  than  18  nor  more  than  28  (see  Part  II,  Test  No.  8). 

ADEPS  LAN^  HYDROSUS 

Hydrous  Wool  Fat 

Adeps  Lan.  Hyd. — Lanolin 

The  purified  fat  of  the  wool  of  the  sheep  {Ovis  aries  Linn4  Fam. 
Bovidoe),  combined  with  not  less  than  25  nor  more  than  30  per  cent,  of 
water.  Preserve  it  in  a  cool  place  in  well-closed  containers  which  are 
impervious  to  fat. 

Hydrous  Wool  Fat  is  a  yellowish-white,  or  nearly  white,  ointment-like  mass, 
having  not  more  than  a  slight  odor. 

It  is  insoluble  in  water;  with  ether  or  chloroform  it  yields  turbid  solutions 
which  are  neutral  to  moistened  litmus  paper. 

Hydrous  Wool  Fat  on  heating  separates  into  an  upper  oily  and  a  lower  aqueous 
layer.  When  heated  on  a  water  bath  with  stirring  until  it  ceases  to  lose  weight, 
there  remains  not  less  than  70  per  cent,  and  not  more  than  75  per  cent,  of  residue, 
which  is  transparent  when  melted,  and  when  cold  remains  as  a  yellowish,  tena- 
cious, unctuous  mass,  completely  soluble  in  ether  or  chloroform,  and  only  spar- 
ingly soluble  in  alcohol.  Hydrous  Wool  Fat  thus  deprived  of  water  responds 
to  the  tests  under  Adeps  Lance. 

iETHER 

Ether 

A  liquid  containing  not  less  than  95.5  per  cent,  nor  more  than  97.5 
per  cent,  of  ethyl  oxide  [(€2115)20  =  74.08],  the  remainder  consisting  of 
alcohol  containing  a  little  water.  Preserve  it  in  partially  filled,  well- 
closed  containers,  in  a  cool  place,  remote  from  fire,  and  protected  from 
daylight. 

When  Ether  is  to  be  used  for  anesthesia  it  is  to  be  dispensed  only  in 
small,  well-closed  containers  and  is  not  to  be  used  for  this  purpose  if 
the  container  has  been  opened  longer  than  twenty-four  hours. 

Ether  is  a  transparent,  colorless,  mobile  liquid,  having  a  characteristic  odor, 
and  a  burning  and  sweetish  taste. 

It  is  soluble  in  about  12  times  its  volume  of  water  at  25°  C.  with  slight  con- 
traction of  volume.  Miscible  with  alcohol,  chloroform,  petroleum  benzin, 
benzene,  or  fixed  or  volatile  oils. 

The  color  of  light  blue  litmus  paper,  moistened  with  water,  is  not  changed 
to  red  when  the  paper  is  immersed  in  Ether  for  ten  minutes. 

Specific  gravity:  0.713  to  0.716  at  25°  C. 

Boiling  point;  about  35°  C. 


UNITED   STATES   OF  AMERICA  33 

Ether  is  highly  volatile  and  inflammable.  Its  vapor  when  mixed  with  air 
and  ignited  may  explode  violently.  It  is  slowly  oxidized  by  the  action  of  air, 
moisture,  and  sun-light  with  the  formation  of  peroxides. 

The  moist  residue  left  on  the  spontaneous  evaporation  of  30  mils  of  Ether  from 
a  shallow  dish  is  odorless  and  neither  reddens  nor  bleaches  blue  litmus  paper. 
Dried  at  100°  C,  this  residue  does  not  exceed  0.001  Gm. 

Pour  10  mils  of  Ether  in  portions  upon  clean,  odorless  blotting  paper  and  allow 
it  to  evaporate  spontaneously.  No  foreign  odor  is  perceptible  when  the  last 
traces  of  Ether  leave  the  paper. 

Shake  10  mils  of  Ether  occasionally  during  one  hour  with  1  mil  of  potassium 
hydroxide  T.S.  in  a  glass-stoppered  container,  protecte'd  from  light;  no  color  is 
developed  in  either  liquid  {aldehyde). 

Shake  10  mils  of  Ether  occasionally  during  one  hour  with  1  mil  of  a  freshly 
made  solution  of  cadmium  and  potassium  iodide  (1  in  10),  in  a  glass-stoppered 
cylinder  previou.sly  rinsed  with  the  Ether  under  examination  and  protected 
from  light;  no  color  develops  in  either  liquid  (peroxides). 

Preparation — Spiritus  ^theris. 

Average  dose — Metric,  1  mil — Apothecaries,  15  minims. 


yETHYLIS  CARBAMAS 

Ethyl  Carbamate 

iCthyl.  Carbarn. 

The  ethyl  ester  [C3H7O2N  or  CO (0C2H5)NH2  =  89.07]  of  carbamic 
acid.    Preserve  it  in  well-closed  containers. 

Ethyl  Carbamate  occurs  in  colorless,  columnar  crystals  or  scales,  odorless, 
and  having  a  cooling,  saline  taste. 

One  Gm.  of  Ethyl  Carbamate  dissolves  in  0.45  mil  of  water,  0.8  mil  of  alcohol, 
2.5  mils  of  glycerin,  0.9  mil  of  chloroform,  1.5  milsof  ether,  and  in  32  mils  of  olive 
oil,  at  25°  C. 

Its  aqueous  solution  (1  in  20)  is  neutral  to  Htmus. 

Ethyl  Carbamate  melts  between  48°  and  50°  C. 

Add  1  Gm.  of  Ethyl  Carbamate  to  5  mils  of  sulphuric  acid  and  heat  it  gently; 
decomposition  follows  with  the  evolution  of  carbon  dioxide  (alcohol  and  acid 
ammonium  sulphate  remain  in  solution). 

Heat  1  Gm.  of  Ethyl  Carbamate  with  5  mils  of  concentrated  potassium  hy- 
droxide solution;  ammonia  gas  is  given  off,  recognizable  by  its  odor. 

Dissolve  about  0.5  Gm.  of  Ethyl  Carbamate  in  5  mils  of  distilled  water  with 
about  1  Gm.  of  dry  sodium  carbonate  and  about  0.01  Gm.  of  iodine,  and  warm 
the  solution;  yellow  crystals  of  iodoform  separate  on  cooling. 

Incinerate  about  2  Gm.  of  Ethyl  Carbamate;  not  more  than  0.05  per  cent,  of 
ash  remains. 

Dissolve  about  2  Gm.  of  Ethyl  Carbamate  in  2  mils  of  distilled  water  and 
add  5  mils  of  nitric  acid  to  the  solution;  no  white  precipitate  is  produced  {urea). 

Not  more  than  slight  opalescence  results  from  the  addition  of  a  few  drops  of 
silver  nitrate  T.S.  to  10  mils  of  an  aqueous  solution  of  Ethyl  Carbamate  (1  in  20) 
{chloride). 

Mix  2  mils  of  the  aqueous  solution  (1  in  20)  with  1  mil  of  ferrous  sulphate 
T  .S.  and  pour  the  mixture  upon  2  mils  of  sulphuric  acid,  so  as  to  fotm  a  sepa- 
rate layer;  no  red  or  brown  zone  appears  {nitrate). 

Average  dose — Metric,  1  Gm. — Apothecaries,  15  grains. 


34  The  pharmacopceia  ci?  the 

iETHYLIS  CHLORIDUM 

Ethyl  Chloride 

/Ethyl.  Chlor. 

Monochlorethane  [CgHgCl  or  CH3CH2C1  =  64.50].  Preserve  it  in 
hermetically  sealed  containers,  in  a  cool  place,  remote  from  fire,  and 
protected  from  light, 

When  liberated  at  ordinary  room  temperature  from  its  sealed  container 
Ethyl  Chloride  vaporizes  at  once;  the  gas  is  very  inflammable,  and  must  not  be 
used  in  proximity  to  fire. 

At  low  temperatures  or  under  pressure  Ethyl  Chloride  is  a  colorless,  mobile, 
very  volatile  liquid,  having  a  characteristic,  ethereal  odor,  and  a  burning  taste. 

It  is  slightly  soluble  in  water,  freely  soluble  in  alcohol  and  in  ether. 

Specific  gravity:  about  0.921  at  0°  C. 

Ethyl  Chloride  boils  between  12°  and  13"  C. 

It  burns  with  a  smoky,  greenish  flame,  with  the  production  of  hydrogen 
chloride. 

Dissolve  about  1  mil  of  Ethyl  Chloride  in  20  mils  of  alcohol,  both  previously 
cooled  to  the  temperature  of  melting  ice,  and  add  a  few  drops  of  silver  nitrate 
T.S. ;  no  turbidity  is  produced  at  once  (hydrochloric  acid). 

Shake  10  mils  of  Ethyl  Chloride  with  10  mils  of  distilled  water,  both  previously 
cooled  to  the  temperature  of  melting  ice,  and  allow  the  supernatant  stratum  of 
Ethyl  Chloride  to  evaporate  spontaneously.  The  residual  liquid  is  neutral  to 
litmus,  and  on  adding  to  it  a  few  drops  of  potassium  dichromate  T.S.,  followed 
by  some  diluted  sulphuric  acid,  and  boiling  the  mixture,  no  odor  of  aldehyde  is 
developed,  and  no  greenish  or  purplish  color  is  produced  in  the  liquid  (alcohol). 

On  the  spontaneous  evaporation  of  5  mils  of  Ethyl  Chloride,  no  foreign  odor 
is  noticeable  while  the  last  portions  evaporate  and  no  weighable  residue  remains. 

iETHYLMORPHIN^  HYDROCHLORIDUM 

Ethylmorphlne  Hydrochloride 

/Ethylmorph.  Hydrochl.— Ethylmorphlne  Chloride 

The  hydrochloride  [C19H23O3NHCH-2H2O  or  Ci7Hi70N(0H) 
(0C2H5).HC1+2H20  =  385.69]  of  an  alkaloid  prepared  from  morphine 
by  ethylation.  Preserve  it  in  well-closed  containers,  protected  from 
light. 

Ethylmorphine  Hydrochloride  is  a  white  or  yellowish,  odorless,  microcrystalline 
powder. 

One  Gm.  of  Ethylmorphine  Hydrochloride  dissolves  in  8  mils  of  water  and  in 
22  mils  of  alcohol  at  25°  C;  slightly  soluble  in  ether  or  chloroform. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  20)  is  neutral  to  litmus. 

It  melts  at  about  123°  C.  with  decomposition. 

Add  a  drop  of  ferric  chloride  T.S.  to  a  solution  of  about  0.01  Gm.  of  the  salt 
in  10  mils  of  sulphuric  acid  and  warm  it  on  a  water  bath;  the  color  of  the  mixture 
will  become  at  first  green,  then  deep  violet-blue,  and,  after  the  addition  of  a 
drop  of  nitric  acid,  deep  red. 

Add  silver  nitrate  T.S.  to  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  20);  a  white 
precipitate  insoluble  in  nitric  acid  is  produced. 

No  weighable  ash  remains  on  incinerating  0.2  Gm.  of  Ethylmorphine  Hydro- 
chloride. 


UNITED  STATES  OF  AMERICA  35 

Heat  o  mils  of  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  20)  with  5  mils  of  potassium 
hydroxide  T.S.  on  a  water  bath;  no  vapors  showing  an  alkaline  reaction  with 
litmus  paper  are  evolved  at  once  {ammonium  compounds) 

Dissolve  about  0.05  Gm.  of  potassium  ferricyanide  in  10  mils  of  distilled  water, 
add  a  drop  of  ferric  chloride  T.S.,  then  1  mil  of  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt 
(1  in  100);  no  green  or  blue  color  is  produced  at  once  (morphine) . 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.015  Gm. — Apothecaries,  H  grain. 

AGAR 

Agar 

Agar-agar 

The  dried  mucilaginous  substance  extracted  from  Gracilaria  (Sphcero- 
coccus)  lichenoides  Greville  and  other  marine  algae  growing  along  the 
eastern  coast  of  Asia,  particularly  several  species  of  Gelidium,  or  Gloio- 
peltis  (Class  RhodophyceoB) . 

Mostly  in  bundles  from  4  to  6  dm.  in  length,  consisting  of  thin,  translucent, 
membranous,  agglutinated  pieces  from  4  to  8  mm.  in  width;  externally  yellowish- 
white  or  brownish-white;  tough  when  damp,  brittle  when  dry;  odor  slight;  taste 
mucilaginous. 

A  fragment  mounted  in  water  and  examined  under  the  microscope  gradually 
becomes  more  transparent,  showing  a  granular  structure  and  a  few  diatoms, 
notably  the  frustules  of  Arachnoidiscus  Ehrenbergii  Baillon,  which  are  disk- 
shaped  and  from  0.1  to  0.2  mm.  in  diameter,  and  also  fragments  of  the  spiculse 
of  sponges;  upon  the  addition  of  iodine  some  of  the  granules  or  hyphal  portiona 
are  colored  bluish-black. 

Insoluble  in  cold  water,  but  slowly  soluble  in  hot  water.  A  solution  made  by 
boiling  0.1  Gm.  of  Agar  in  100  mils  of  water,  upon  cooling  yields  no  precipitate 
upon  the  addition  of  tannic  acid  T.S.  (gelatin),  and  does  not  produce  a  blue 
color  upon  the  addition  of  iodine  T.S.  (starch). 

Boil  1  part  of  Agar  for  about  ten  minutes  with  100  parts  of  water,  and  re- 
place the  water  lost  by  evaporation;  it  yields  a  stiff  jelly  upon  cooling. 

The  powder  is  pale  buff;  when  mounted  in  water  and  examined  under  the  mi- 
croscope it  shows  transparent,  more  or  less  granular,  striated  angular  fragments, 
occasionally  containing  frustules  of  diatoms;  with  iodine  T.S.,  fragments  for 
the  most  part  are  colored  bright  red,  certain  more  or  less  definite  areas  being 
stained  bluish-black. 

Agar  yields  not  more  than  5  per  cent,  of  ash. 

Average  dose — Metric,  10  Gm. — Apothecaries,  2}^  drachms. 

ALCOHOL 

Alcohol 
A  liquid  containing  not  less  than  92.3  per  cent,  by  weight  or  94.9 
per  cent,  by  volume,  at  15.56°  C.,  of  C2H5.OH  (46.05).  Preserve  it  in 
well-closed  containers,  in  a  cool  place,  remote  from  fire. 

Alcohol  is  a  transparent,  colorless,  mobile  and  volatile  liquid,  having  a  slight, 
characteristic  odor,  and  a  burning  taste. 

It  is  miscible  with  water  in  all  proportions,  and  without  any  trace  of  cloudi- 
ness; also  miscible  with  ether  or  chloroform. 


36  THE    PHARMACOPCEIA    OF   THE 

.. ^___ .1 

It  does  not  affect  the  color  of  blue  or  red  litmus  paper  previously  moistened 
with  water. 

Specific  gravity:  not  above  0.816  at  15.56°  C  .,the  U.  S.  Government  standard 
temperature  for  Alcohol,  nor  above  0.810  at  25°  C. 

Alcohol  is  readily  volatilized,  even  at  low  temperatures,  and  boils  at  about 
78°  C.    It  is  inflammable,  and  burns  with  a  pale  blue,  smokele.ss  flame. 

Evaporate  50  mils  of  Alcohol  in  a  platinum  or  porcelain  dish  on  a  water  bath; 
the  residue  does  not  exceed  0.002  Gm. 

Mi.x  10  mils  of  Alcohol  with  5  mils  of  distilled  water  and  1  mil  of  glycerin 
and  allow  the  mixture  to  evaporate  spontaneously  from  a  piece  of  clean,  odorless 
blotting  paper;  no  foreign  odor  is  perceptible  when  the  last  traces  of  the  Alcohol 
leave  the  paper  {fusel  oil  constituents). 

Allow  25  mils  of  alcohol  to  evaporate  spontaneously  in  a  porcelain  evaporating 
dish,  carefully  protected  from  dust,  until  the  surface  of  the  dish  is  barely  moist. 
No  red  or  brown  color  is  produced  upon  the  addition  of  a  few  drops  of  colorless 
sulphuric  acid  {amyl  alcohol  or  non-volatile,  carbonizahle  organic  impurities,  etc.). 

Mix  10  mils  of  Alcohol  in  a  test  tube  with  5  mils  of  potassium  hydroxide 
T.S.;  the  liquid  does  not  at  once  assume  a  yellow  color  {aldehyde  or  oak  tannin). 

Shake  20  mils  of  Alcohol  in  a  clean,  glass-stoppered  bottle  with  1  mil  of  silver 
nitrate  T.S.;  the  mixture  does  not  become  more  than  faintly  opalescent,  or 
acquire  more  than  a  faint  brownish  tint  when  exposed  for  six  hours  to  diffused 
daylight  {organic  impurities,  amyl  alcohol,  aldehyde,  etc.). 

Dilute  the  Alcohol  with  distilled  water  until  it  contains  about  10  per  cent.,  by 
volume,  of  ethyl  alcohol.  Transfer  5  mils  of  the  dilute  alcohol  to  a  test  tube,  add 
to  it  2  mils  of  a  potassiiun  permanganate  solution  (made  by  dissolving  3  Gm.  of 
potassium  permanganate  in  100  mils  of  distilled  water)  and  0.3  mil  of  sulphuric 
acid,  and  allow  the  mixture  to  stand  for  five  minutes.  Now  dissolve  the  precipitate 
of  manganese  dioxide  by  the  addition  of  sulphurous  acid,  drop  by  drop  with  agita- 
tion, then  add  1  mil  of  sulphuric  acid  and  5  mils  of  fuchsin-sulphurous  acid 
T.S.  and  mix  them.  After  standing  for  ten  minutes,  a  colorless  liquid  results 
{methyl  alcohol). 

A  mixture  of  5  mils  of  Alcohol,  2  mils  of  .sodium  hydroxide  T.S.,  and  5  drops 
of  a  freshly  made  aqueous  solution  of  sodium  nitroprusside  (1  in  50),  rendered 
slightly  acid  with  acetic  acid,  shows  no  violet  tint  within  one  minute  {acetone). 

Preparation — Alcohol  Dilutum. 


ALCOHOL  DEHYDRATUM 

Dehydrated  Alcohol 
Alcohol  Dehyd.— Alcohol  Absolutum,  U.S.P.  VIII. 

A  liquid  containing  not  less  than  99  per  cent,  by  weight  of  C2H5.OH 
(46.05).  Preserve  it  in  well-closed  containers,  in  a  cool  place,  remote 
from  fire. 

Dehydrated  Alcohol  is  a  transparent,  colorless,  mobile,  and  volatile  liquid 
having  a  characteristic  odor,  and  a  burning  taste.    It  is  very  hygroscopic. 

Specific  gravity:  not  above  0.798  at  15.56°  C,  the  U.  S.  Government  standard 
temperature  for  alcohol,  nor  above  0.790  at  25°  C. 

Shake  10  mils  of  Dehydrated  Alcohol  in  a  stoppered  tube  with  about  0.5  Gm. 
of  powdered  anhydrous  copper  sulphate;  the  latter  does  not  become  blue  {water). 

In  other  respects  Dehydrated  Alcohol  has  the  properties  and  responds  to  the 
tests  and  reactions  under  Alcohol. 


UNITED   STATES   OF  AMERICA  37 

ALCOHOL  DILUTUM 

Diluted  Alcohol 

Alcohol  Dil. 

A  liquid  containing  from  41  to  42  per  cent,  by  weight  or  from  48.4 
to  49.5  per  cent,  by  volume,  at  15.56°  C,  of  C2H5.OH  (46.05).  Preserve 
it  in  well-closed  containers,  in  a  cool  place,  remote  from  fire. 

Alcohol,  five  hundred  milliliters 500  mils 

Distilled  Water,  five  hundred  milliliters 500  mils 

Measure  the  alcohol  and  water  at  the  same  temperature  and  mix  them. 
If  the  two  liquids  are  measured  at  the  temperature  of  25°  C,  the 

mixture,  when  cooled  to  the  same  temperature,  will  measure  about 

970  mils. 
Diluted  Alcohol  may  also  be  prepared  in  the  following  manner: 

Alcohol,  four  hundred  and  eight  grammes 408  Gm. 

Distilled  Water,  five  hundred  grammes 500  Gm. 

Mix  them. 

Diluted  Alcohol  has  a  specific  gravity  of  from  0.935  to  0.937 at  15.56°  C,  the 
U.  S.  Government  standard  temperature  for  alcohol,  and  from  0.930  to  0.932 
at  25°  C. 

It  responds  to  the  reactions  and  tests  under  Alcohol,  allowance  being  made 
for  the  difference  in  strength  and  the  presence  of  water  and  the  boiling  point 
being  omitted. 

ALOE 

Aloes 

The  inspissated  juice  of  the  leaves  of  Aloe  Perryi  Baker,  yielding 
Socotrine  Aloes;  or  Aloe  vera  Linne,  jdelding  Curasao  Aloes;  or  of  Aloe 
ferox  Miller,  yielding  Cape  Aloes  (Fam.  Liliacece). 

Socotrine  Aloes — In  yellowish-brown  to  blackish-brown  opaque,  or  smooth 
and  glistening  masses;  fractured  surface  somewhat  conchoidal;  sometimes  soft  or 
semi-liquid;  odor  aromatic  or  saffron-hke,  never  fetid  or  putrid;  taste  nauseous, 
bitter. 

Not  less  than  50  per  cent,  of  Socotrine  Aloes  is  soluble  in  cold  water,  the  solu- 
tion being  of  a  yellowish  color. 

The  powder  is  dark  brown;  when  mounted  in  expressed  oU  of  almond  and 
examined  under  the  microscope,  it  shows  yellowish-  to  reddish-brown,  irregular 
or  angular  fragments.  Upon  the  addition  of  nitric  acid,  it  yields  a  yellowish- 
to  reddish-browTi  solution. 

Curapao  Aloes — In  orange  to  blackish-brown,  opaque  masses;  fractured  surface 
uneven,  waxy,  somewhat  resinous;  odor  characteristic  but  not  aromatic  as  in 
Socotrine  Aloes. 

Not  less  than  60  per  cent,  of  Curagao  Aloes  is  soluble  in  cold  water,  the  solu- 
tion being  of  a  purplish-red  color. 

The  powder  is  deep  reddish-bro^Ti ;  when  mounted  in  expressed  oU  of  almond 
and  examined  under  the  microscope,  it  shows  numerous  blackish-brown,  irregular, 


3S  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA   OF  THfi  , 

more  or  less  opaque  and  angular  fragments.  Upon  the  addition  of  nitric  acid, 
it  yields  immediately  a  deep  red  liquid. 

Cape  Aloes — In  reddish-brown  or  olive-black  masses,  usually  covered  with 
a  yellowish  powder,  or  in  thin,  transparent  fragments  of  a  reddish-brown  color; 
fracture  smooth  and  glassy;  odor  characteristic. 

Not  less  than  60  per  cent,  of  Cape  Aloes  is  soluble  In  cold  water,  the  solution 
being  of  a  pale  yellow  color. 

The  powder  is  greenish-yellow,  changing  to  light  brown  on  aging;  when 
mounted  in  expressed  oil  of  almond  and  examined  under  the  microscope,  it  shows 
nimierous,  distinctly  angular,  bright  yellow  fragments.  Upon  the  addition  of 
nitric  acid,  it  yields  a  liquid  that  is  colored  reddish-brown,  changing  to  purplish- 
brown  and  finally  greenish. 

The  tests  which  follow  apply  to  Socotrine,  Curasao,  and  Cape  Aloes. 

Aloes  contains  not  more  than  10  per  cent,  of  moisture. 

Add  50  mils  of  alcohol  to  1  Gm.  of  Aloes,  gently  heat  the  mixture  and  then 
cool  it;  a  nearly  clear  solution  is  obtained  (gum  and  inorganic  impurities). 

Intimately  mix  1  Gm.  of  Aloes  with  10  mils  of  hot  water  and  dilute  1  mil  of 
this  mixture  with  100  mils  of  wat€r;  a  green  fluorescence  is  produced  upon  the 
addition  of  an  aqueous  solution  of  sodium  borate  (1  in  20).  Dilute  1  mil  of  the 
original  aqueous  mixture  of  Aloes  with  100  mils  of  water,  and  shake  it  with  10 
mils  of  benzene;  upon  separating  the  benzene  solution  and  adding  to  it  5  mils  of 
ammonia  water,  a  permanent  deep  rose  color  is  produced  in  the  lower  layer. 

Aloes  yields  not  more  than  4  per  cent,  of  ash. 

Preparations — Extractum  Colocynthidis  Compositum       Pilulae  Aloes      Pilulae 
Rhei  Compositae     Tinctura  Aloes     Tinctura  Benzoini  Composita. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.25  Gm. — Apothecaries,  4  grains. 


ALOINUM 

Aloin 

Aloin. 

A  pentoside  or  mixture  of  pentosides  obtained  from  aloes,  varying  in 
chemical  composition,  physical  and  chemical  properties  according  to 
the  source.     Preserve  it  in  well-closed  containers,  protected  from  light. 

Aloin  occurs  as  a  micro-crystalline  powder  or  in  minute  acicular  crystals 
from  lemon-yellow  to  dark-yellow  in  color,  odorless,  or  possessing  a  slight  odor 
of  aloes  and  an  intensely  bitter  taste.  It  becomes  darker  on  exposure  to  light 
and  air. 

Aloin  varies  in  solubility  with  its  composition.  It  is  soluble  in  water,  alcohol 
or  acetone;  slightly  soluble  in  ether. 

A  saturated  aqueous  solution  of  AJoin  is  neutral  or  not  more  than  faintly 
arid  to  litmus. 

Aloin  is  soluble  in  ammonia  water  and  alkali  hydroxide  solutions,  forming 
red  solutions  (or  yellow  solutions  that  soon  become  red)  which  exhibit  a  green 
fluorescence. 

When  added  to  alkaline  solutions,  Aloin  is  rapidly  decomposed;  when  mixed 
with  acid  solutions  decomposition  is  slower.  A  drop  of  ferric  chloride  T.S. 
added  to  an  alcoholic  solution  of  Aloin  produces  a  brownish-green  color. 

The  color  of  a  saturated  aqueous  solution  of  Aloin  is  yellow,  but  changes  to 
brown  on  standing. 

Incinerate  about  0.5  Gm.  of  Aloin;  not  more  than  0.5  per  cent,  of  ash  remains. 

Shake  about  1  Gm.  of  Aloin  with  10  mils  of  benzene  for  one  minute  and  filter; 


UNITED   STATES   OF  AMERICA  39 

the  filtrate  imparts  not  more  than  a  faint,  pink  color  to  an  equal  volume  of 
dilute  ammonia  water  (5  per  cent.),  when  shaken  with  it  {emodin). 

Dissolve  about  1  Gm.  of  Aloin  in  120  mils  of  distilled  water,  collect  the  insol- 
uble residue,  if  any,  on  a  filter  tared  after  it  has  been  dried  at  100°  C.  and  wash 
the  residue  with  25  mils  of  distilled  water.  Tliis  residue,  when  dried  at  100°  C, 
does  not  exceed  1.5  per  cent. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.015  Gm. — Apothecaries,  3^  grain. 


ALTERA 

Althaea 

Marsh  Mallow  Root 

The  root  of  Althosa  officinalis  Linne  (Fam.  Malvacece)  deprived  of  the 
brown,  corky  layer  and  small  roots,  and  carefully  dried.  Preserve 
Althaea  in  tightly-closed  containers,  adding  a  few  drops  of  chloroform 
or  carbon  tetrachloride  from  time  to  time,  to  prevent  attack  by  insects. 

Usually  cut  into  small  pieces  about  5  mm.  in  diameter,  of  a  uniform  grayish- 
white  color  and  otherwise  having  the  characters  of  entire  roots;  occasionally 
entire,  slenderly  tapering,  attaining  a  length  of  30  cm.  and  a  thickness  of  2  cm.; 
externally  whitish,  longitudinally  furrowed,  frequently  spirally  twisted  and 
covered  with  the  somewhat  loosened  bast-fibers;  fracture  of  bark  fibrous,  of 
wood  short  and  granular;  internally  yellowish-white;  bark  1  to  2  mm.  thick, 
porous,  due  to  mucilage  cells,  and  separated  from  the  slightly  radiating  wood 
by  a  distinct,  grayish  cambium  zone;  odor  slight;  taste  sweetish,  mucilaginous. 

The  powder  is  whitish;  starch  grains  numerous,  from  0.003  to  0.02  nun.  in 
diameter,  usually  with  a  long  cleft  at  the  point  of  origin  of  growth;  sclerenchy- 
matous  fibers  in  groups,  the  walls  being  quite  thick  and  more  or  less  lignified; 
tracheae  with  scalariform  thickenings  or  with  bordered  pores;  calcium  oxalate 
crystals  few,  in  rosette  aggregates  from  0.02  mm.  to  0.03  mm.  in  diameter. 

Add  1  Gm.  of  Althaea  to  10  mils  of  cold  water,  allow  it  to  stand  with  occasional 
stirring  during  thirty  minutes,  and  filter  through  cotton;  a  pale  yellow-colored 
mucilage  is  obtained,  which  is  neutral  to  litmus  and  is  colored  a  deep  yellow 
on  the  addition  of  a  few  drops  of  potassium  hydroxide  T.S.  The  mucilage 
does  not  have  a  sour  or  ammoniacal  odor. 

Althaea  j-ields  not  more  than  8  per  cent,  of  ash. 

ALUMEN 

Alum 

Alum. 

It  contains  not  less  than  99.5  per  cent,  of  AINH 4 (SO 4)2+121130 

(453.47),  or  of  AIK(S04)2+12H20  (474.53),  the  label  of  the  container 
must  indicate  whether  the  salt  is  Ammonium  Alum  or  Potassium  Alum. 

Ammonium  Alum  and  Potassium  Alum  both  occur  in  large,  colorless  crj'stals, 
cr>'stalline  fragments,  or  as  white  powders;  Alum  is  odorless  and  has  a  sweetish 
and  strongly  astringent  taste. 

Ammonium  Alum — It  is  somewhat  less  soluble  in  water  than  is  Potassium 
Alum. 

Potassium  hydroxide  T.S.  added  to  an  aqueous  solution  of  Ammoniuna  Alun3 


40  THE  PHARMACOPCEIA  OF  THE 

(1  in  20)  at  first  causes  a  precipitate,  which  completely  dissolves  in  an  excess 
of  the  reagent,  ammonia  being  evolved. 

Completely  precipitate  the  aluminum  from  a  boiling  solution  of  1  Gm.  of 
Ammonium  Alum  in  100  mils  of  distilled  water  by  the  addition  of  a  slight  excess 
of  ammonia  water  and  filter;  not  more  than  0.5  per  cent,  of  residue  remains  on 
evaporating  the  filtrate  to  dryness  and  igniting  it. 

Potassium  Alum — One  Gm.  of  Potassium  Alum  dissolves  in  7.2  mils  of  water 
at  25°  C.,  and  in  0.3  mil  of  boiling  water;  insoluble  in  alcohol,  freely  soluble  in 
glycerin. 

Potassium  Alum  imparts  a  violet  color  to  a  non-luminous  flame. 

The  addition  of  sodium  bitartrate  T.S.  to  a  saturated  solution  of  Potassium 
Alum  produces,  sometimes  slowlj'-,  a  white  crystalline  precipitate. 

Potassium  hydroxide  T.S.  added  to  an  aqueous  solution  of  Potassium  Alum 
(1  in  20)  at  first  causes  a  precipitate,  which  completely  dissolves  in  an  excess 
of  the  reagent,  but  no  ammonia  is  evolved. 

Both  Ammonium  Alum  and  Potassium  Alum  conform,  to  the  following  tests: 

An  aqueous  solution  of  Alum  (1  in  20)  is  acid  to  litmus. 

When  heated  it  fuses,  and  at  about  200°  C.  it  loses  all  of  its  water  of  crystalli- 
zation. When  strongly  heated  it  loses  sulphuric  anhydride,  becoming  incom- 
pletely soluble  in  water. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  Alum  (1  in  20)  yields  with  ammonia  water  a  white 
gelatinous  precipitate  almost  insoluble  in  an  excess  of  ammonia  water. 

With  barium  chloride  T.S.,  an  aqueous  solution  of  Alum  (1  in  20)  yields  a 
white  precipitate  insoluble  in  hydrochloric  acid. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  Alum  does  not  respond  to  the  Test  for  heayj'^  metals 
(see  Part  II,  Test  No.  3).  An  aqueous  solution  of  Alum  meets  the  requirements 
of  the  Test  for  arsenic  (see  Part  II,  Test  No.  1). 

Add  5  drops  of  potassium  ferrocyanide  T.S.  to  20  mils  of  an  aqueous  solution 
of  Alum  (1  in  150);  no  blue  color  is  produced  at  once  (iron). 

Assay — Dissolve  about  1  Gm.  of  the  Alum,  accurately  weighed,  and  about 
1  Gm.  of  ammonium  chloride  in  250  mils  of  distilled  water  and  precipitate  the 
/  aluminum  hydroxide  by  the  addition  of  a  slight  excess  of  ammonia  water  to 
the  boiling  solution.  Collect  the  precipitate  on  a  filter,  wash  it  thoroughly 
with  hot  distilled  water,  dry,  ignite  strongly  and  weigh  it.  The  aluminum  oxide 
so  obtained  corresponds  to  not  less  than  99.5  per  cent,  of  the  Alum  assayed. 

Each  Gm.  of  aluminum  oxide  corresponds  to  8.874  Gm.  of  AINH4 (804)2  + 
I2H2O  and  to  9.286  Gm.  of  AlK (804)2 +  I2H2O. 

Preparation — Alumen  Exsiccatum. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.5  Gm. — Apothecaries,  8  grains. 

ALUMEN  EXSICCATUM 

Exsiccated  Alum 

Alum.  Exsic. — Alumen  Ustum    Dried  Alum    Burnt  Alum 

It  contains,  when  recently  dried  to  constant  weight  at  200"  C, 
not  less  than  96.5  per  cent,  of  anhydrous  A1NH4(S04)2  (237.28)  or  of 
anhydrous  A1K(S04)2  (258.34),  the  label  of  the  container  indicating 
whether  it  is  made  from  Ammonium  Alum  or  from  Potassium  Alum. 
Preserve  it  in  well-closed  containers  and  do  not  dispense  it  if  it  contains 
more  than  10  per  cent,  of  moisture. 

Alum,  in  small  pieces,  one  hundred  grammes 100  Gm. 

To  make  about  fifty-five  grammes 55  Gm. 


UNITED    STATES   OF  AMERICA  41 

Place  the  alum  in  a  tared,  shallow,  porcelain  dish  so  as  to  form  a  thin 
layer,  and  heat  it  cautiously  on  a  sand  bath  until  it  liquefies.  Then 
continue  the  application  of  heat,  at  a  temperature  not  exceeding  200°  C, 
with  constant  stirring,  until  aqueous  vapors  cease  to  be  evolved  and 
a  dry,  white,  porous  mass  is  obtained.  When  cold,  reduce  the  product 
to  a  fine  powder. 

Exsiccated  Alum  is  a  white,  granular  powder,  without  odor,  possessing  a 
sweetish,  astringent  taste,  and  attracting  moisture  on  exposure  to  the  air. 

One  Gm.  of  Exsiccated  Alum  dissolves  very  slowly  and  usually  incompletely 
in  about  20  mils  of  water  at  25°  C;  also  in  1.5  mils  of  boiling  water;  insoluble  in 
alcohol. 

Add  2  Gm.  of  Exsiccated  Alum  to  40  mils  of  distilled  water  and  allow  it  to 
stand  with  occasional  agitation  for  twenty-four  hours.  Collect  the  insoluble 
residue  on  previously  dried  and  counterbalanced  filters,  wash  with  50  mils  of 
distilled  water  and  finally  dry  at  100°  C.  until  of  constant  weight;  the  residue 
weighs  not  more  than  0.05  Gm. 

Dr>^  about  1  Gm.  of  Exsiccated  Alum  in  an  air  bath,  to  constant  weight  at 
200°  C. ;  the  loss  does  not  exceed  10  per  cent. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  Exsiccated  Alum  responds  to  the  reactions  and  tests 
for  Ammonium  Alum  or  for  Potassium  Alum  given  under  Alwnien,  allowance 
being  made  for  the  difference  in  strength. 

Assay — Dissolve  about  0.5  Gm.  of  Exsiccated  Alum,  pre\nously  dried  to 
constant  weight  at  200°  C.  and  accurately  weighed,  in  100  mils  of  distilled  water, 
filter  if  necessary,  thoroughly  wash  the  insoluble  residue  with  distilled  water, 
dilute  the  filtrate  and  washings  to  about  250  mils,  with  distilled  water,  and  add 
1  Gm.  of  ammonium  chloride.  Proceed  with  the  assay  as  directed  under 
Alumen,  beginning  with  the  words  "and  precipitate,"  second  line  of  the  Assay. 
The  aluminum  oxide  so  obtained  corresponds  to  not  less  than  96.5  per  cent,  of 
the  previously  dried  Exsiccated  Alum. 

Each  gramme  of  aluminum  oxide  corresponds  to  4.643  Gm.  of  .A1XH4(S04)2, 
and  to  5.055  Gm.  of  A1K(804)2. 

ALUMINI  HYDROXIDUM 

Aluminum  Hydroxide 

Alum.  Hydrox. 

A  compound  consisting  principally  of  aluminum  hydroxide  [A1(0H)3 

=  78.12]. 

Alum,  one  hundred  grammes 100  Gm. 

MoNOHYDRATED  SoDiUM  Carbonate,  forty-five  grammes. .  .     45  Gm. 
Water,  a  sufficient  quantity. 

Dissolve  each  salt  separately  in  one  thousand  mils  of  water,  filter 
the  solutions  and  heat  them  to  boiling.  Then,  having  poured  the  hot 
solution  of  monohydrated  sodium  carbonate  into  a  capacious  vessel, 
gradually  pour  in  the  hot  solution  of  alum  with  constant  stirring,  and 
afterwards  add  two  thousand  mils  of  boiling  water.  Allow  the  precipi- 
tate to  subside,  decant  the  clear  liquid,  and  mix  the  precipitate  with 
two  thousand  mils  of  hot  water.    Again  decant,  transfer  the  precipitate 


42  THE    PHARMACOPCEIA   OF  THE 

to  a  strainer,  and  wash  it  with  hot  water,  until  the  washings  produce 
not  more  than  a  faint  cloudiness  with  barium  chloride  T.S.  Allow 
the  precipitate  to  drain,  dry  it  at  a  temperature  not  exceeding  40°  C, 
and  reduce  it  to  a  uniformly  fine  powder. 

Aluminum  Hydroxide  is  a  white,  bulky,  amorphous  powder,  odorless  and  taste- 
less; permanent  in  dry  air. 

It  is  insoluble  in  water  and  alcohol ;  it  is  dissolved  by  hydrochloric  or  sulphuric 
acid  and  by  the  fixed  alkali  hj'droxides. 

Solutions  of  Aluminum  Hydroxide  in  hydrochloric  or  sulphuric  acid  yield 
with  potassium  hydroxide  T.S.  a  white  gelatinous  precipitate,  dissolved  by  an 
excess  of  the  reagent  but  again  precipitated  by  the  addition  of  an  excess  of 
ammonium  chloride. 

When  heated  to  redne.ss  it  loses  about  34  per  cent,  of  its  weight. 

Boil  1  Gm.  of  Aluminum  Hydroxide  with  20  mils  of  distilled  water,  and  filter 
the  liquid;  the  filtrate  does  not  show  an  alkaline  reaction,  and,  on  evaporation, 
does  not  leave  a  residue  weighing  more  than  0.005  Gm.  {alkali  salts). 

Heat  1  Gm.  of  Aluminum  Hydroxide  with  10  mils  of  hydrochloric  acid, 
evaporate  the  solution  to  dryness,  and  dissolve  the  residue  in  50  mils  of  distilled 
water.  Ten  mils  of  this  solution  does  not  respond  to  the  Test  for  heavy  metals 
(see  Part  II,  Test  No.  3). 

Heat  1  Gm.  of  Aluminum  Hydroxide  with  5  mils  of  sulphuric  acid  and  5  mils 
of  distilled  water,  on  a  water  bath,  for  fifteen  minutes.  Then  dilute  it  to  25  mils 
with  distilled  water  and  filter.  Five  mils  of  this  filtrate  meets  the  requirements 
of  the  Test  for  arsenic  (see  Part  II,  Test  No.  1). 

AMMONII  BENZOAS 

Ammonium  Benzoate 

Ammon.  Benz. 

It  contains,  when  dried  for  twenty-four  hours  in  a  desiccator  over 
sulphuric  acid,  not  less  than  98  per  cent,  of  NH4C7H5O2  or  CeHs. 
COONH4  (139.08).    Preserve  it  in  well-closed  containers  in  a  cool  place. 

Ammonium  Benzoate  occurs  in  thin,  white,  laminar  crystals  or  as  a  crystalline 
powder;  gradually  losing  ammonia  on  exposure  to  air;  odorless,  or  having  a 
slight  odor  of  benzoic  acid,  a  saline,  bitter,  afterwards  slightly  acrid  taste. 

One  Gm.  of  Ammonium  Benzoate  dissolves  in  about  10  mils  of  water,  35.5 
mils  of  alcohol,  and  about  8  mils  of  glycerin  at  25°  C. 

When  strongly  heated  it  evolves  ammonia  and  benzoic  acid,  and  is  finally 
volatilized  leaving  not  more  than  0.05  per  cent,  of  ash. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  20)  is  neutral  or  not  more  than  shghtly 
acid  to  litmus. 

An  acjueous  solution  of  Ammonium  Benzoate  (1  in  10)  yields  with  ferric 
chloride  T.S.  a  pink  precipitate,  and  when  such  a  solution  is  gently  heated  with 
potassium  hydroxide  T.S.,  ammonia  is  evolved. 

Acidulate  10  mils  of  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  50)  with  hydrochloric 
acid  and  filter  it;  the  filtrate  does  not  respond  to  the  Test  for  heavy  metals 
(see  Part  II,  Test  No.  3). 

Assay — Di.ssolve  about  0.5  Gm.  of  Ammonium  Benzoate,  previously  dried 
for  twenty-four  hours  in  a  desiccator  over  sulphuric  acid  and  accurately  weighed, 
in  10  mils  of  distilled  water  in  a  separator.  Add  to  the  solution  5  mils  of  diluted 
eulphuric  acid,  and  extract  the  liberated  benzoic  acid  by  shaking  out  with  3 
successive  portions  of  25,  15  and  10  mils  respectively  of  chloroform,  passing 
the  chloroform  solution  through  a  filter  previously  moistened  with  chloroform 
and  removing  any  benzoic  acid  adhering  to  the  stem  of  the  funnel  with  a  few 
mils  of  chloroform.    Evaporate  the  chloroform  solution  at  a  low  temperature, 


trtJiTEli    STA-TES  OF  AMERICA  43 


preferably  spontaneously,  to  about  5  mils,  add  25  mils  of  diluted  alcohol  which 
has  been  previously  neutrahzed  with  tenth-normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S., 
phenolphthalein  T.S.  being  used  as  indicator,  and  titrate  this  solution  with 
tenth-norrnal  barium  hydroxide  V.S.,  using  phenolphthalein  T.S.  as  indicator. 
It  shows,  in  the  dried  salt,  not  less  than  98  per  cent,  of  NII4C7II5O2. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  barium  hydroxide  \'.S.  corresponds  to  0.013908 
Gm.  of  NH4C7H5O2.  Each  gramme  of  Ammonium  l^enzoate,  previously  dried, 
corresponds  to  not  less  than  70.5  mils  of  tenth-normal  barium  hydroxide  V.S. 

Average  dose — Metric,  1  Gm. — Apothecaries,  15  grains. 

AMMONII  BROMIDUM 

Ammonium  Bromide 

Ammon.  Brom. 

It  contains,  when  dried  to  constant  weight  at  100°  C,  not  less  than 
98.5  per  cent,  of  NH4Br  (97.96).    Preserve  it  in  well-closed  containers. 

Ammonium  Bromide  occurs  in  colorless,  transparent,  prismatic  cr3-stals,  or  as 
a  white,  crj-stalline  or  granular  powder;  odorless,  of  a  pimgent,  sahne  taste; 
somewhat  hygroscopic. 

One  Gm.  of  Ammoniimi  Bromide  dissolves  in  1.3  mils  of  water  and  in  12  mils 
of  alcohol  at  25°  C;  also  in  0.9  mil  of  boiling  water  and  1.2  mils  of  boiling 
alcohol. 

When  heated,  Ammonium  Bromide  volatilizes  without  fusing. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  20)  is  neutral  or  not  more  than  slightly 
acid  to  litmus. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  Ammonium  Bromide  when  gently  heated  with  potas- 
sium hydroxide  T.S.  evolves  ammonia. 

Silver  nitrate  T.S.  added  to  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  10)  produces 
a  yellowish-white  precipitate,  insoluble  in  nitric  acid  or  in  a  moderate  excess  of 
ammonia  water. 

Add  2  mils  of  nitric  acid  to  about  2  Gm.  of  the  salt  and  evaporate  the  mixture 
to  drjTiess  in  a  porcelain  dish  on  a  water  bath  and  ignite  the  residue;  it  yields 
not  more  than  0.05  p)er  cent,  of  non-volatile  matter. 

Add  1  mil  of  chloroform  to  10  mils  of  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in 
20)  and  cautiously  introduce  chlorine  water,  which  has  been  diluted  with  an  equal 
volume  of  distilled  water,  drop  by  drop  and  with  constant  agitation.  The 
liberated  bromine  dissolves  in  the  chlorofonn  and  imparts  to  it  a  yellow  or  orange 
color,  which  is  free  from  any  violet  tint  (iodide). 

Drop  1  mil  of  diluted  sulphuric  acid  upon  about  1  Gm.  of  the  powdered  salt; 
no  yellow  color  appears  at  once  ihromate). 

A- blue  color  is  not  produced  at  once  on  adding  potassium  ferrocyanide  T.S. 
to  20  mils  of  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  250)  {iron). 

Add  1  mil  of  potassium  sulphate  T.S.  to  10  mils  of  an  aqueous  solution  of 
Anmaonium  Bromide  (1  in  20),  acidulated  with  acetic  acid;  no  turbidity  is  pro- 
duced immediately  (harium);  under  similar  conditions  the  addition  of  barium 
chloride  T.S.  produces  no  turbidity  (sulphate). 

An  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  does  not  respond  to  the  Test  for  heavy  metals 
(see  Part  11,  Test  No.  3). 

Assay — Proceed  as  directed  under  the  Assay  for  bromides  (see  Part  II,  Test 
No.  5),  using  about  0.4  Gm.  of  Ammonium  Bromide,  previously  dried  to  con- 
stant weight  at  100°  C.  and  accurately  weighed.  It  shows,  in  the  dried  salt, 
not  less  than  98.5  per  cent,  of  NH4Br. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  silver  nitrate  V.S.  corresponds  to  0.009796  Gm. 
of  NH4Br.  Each  gramme  of  .\mmonium  Bromide,  previously  dried,  corresponds 
to  not  less  than  100.5  mils  nor  more  than  103.4  mils  of  tenth-normal  silver 
nitrate  V.S. 

Average  dose — Metric,  1  Gm. — Apothecaries,  15  grains. 


44  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA   OF  THE 

a:mmoxii  carbonas 

Ammonium  Carbonate 
Ammon.  Carb. 

It  consists  of  varying  proportions  of  a  mixture  of  acid  ammonium 
carbonate  [NH4HC03  =  79.05]  and  ammonium  carbamate  [XH4XH2CO2 
=  78.07],  and  yields  not  less  than  30  per  cent,  nor  more  than  32  per 
cent,  of  XH3.  Preserve  it  in  well-closed  containers  in  a  cool  place. 
For  medicinal  purposes,  use  only  the  translucent  portions. 

Ammonium  Carbonate  occurs  in  white,  hard,  translucent,  striated  masses, 
having  a  strong  odor  of  ammonia,  without  empjTeuma,  and  a  sharp,  ammoniacal 
taste.  On  exposure  to  the  air,  the  salt  loses  both  ammonia  and  carbon  dioxide, 
becoming  opaque,  and  is  finally  converted  into  friable,  porous  lumps,  or  a  white 
powder.  . 

When  heated,  Ammonium  Carbonate  is  volatilized,  without  charring,  the 
vapor  showing  a  strongly  alkaline  reaction  with  litmus;  not  more  than  0.05 
per  cent,  of  residue  remains. 

One  Gm.  of  Ammonium  Carbonate  dissolves  very  slowly  in  4  mils  of  water 
at  25°  C. ;  it  is  decomposed  by  hot  water,  with  the  elimination  of  carbon  dioxide 
and  ammonia.  By  prolonged  boiling  with  water  the  salt  is  completely  volatil- 
ized.    Alcohol  dissolves  the  carbamate  leaving  the  acid  carbonate. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  20j  effervesces  with  acids,  and  is  alkaUne 
to  htmus. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  50),  when  slightly  supersaturated  with 
hydrochloric  acid,  does  not  respond  to  the  Test  for  heavy  metals  (see  Part  II, 
Test  No.  .3).  Five  mils  of  a  similar  solution  is  not  immediately  affected  by 
barium  chloride  T.S.  (sulphate). 

Ten  mils  of  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  20),  on  the  addition  of  a 
slight  excess  of  silver  nitrate  T.S.,  and  subsequent  supersaturation  with  nitric 
acid,  neither  assumes  a  brown  color  (ihiosulphate) ,  nor  becomes  more  than  slightly 
opalescent  within  two  minutes  (chloride). 

On  slightly  supersaturating  an  aqueous  solution,  containing  1  Gm.  of  the 
salt,  with  nitric  acid,  and  then  evaporating  it  to  dryness  on  a  water  bath,  a 
colorless  and  odorless  residue  is  obtained  (empyreumatic  mailer). 

Assay — Introduce  about  2  Gm.  of  unaltered,  translucent  Ammonium  Carbon- 
ate into  a  tared  weighing-bottle  containing  10  mils  of  distilled  water,  stopper, 
weigh  accurately  and  add  40  mils  of  distilled  water  and  50  mils  of  normal  sul- 
phuric acid  V.S.  and  when  solution  is  effected  titrate  the  excess  of  acid  with 
normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S.,  using  methyl  orange  T.S.  as  indicator.  It 
shows  not  less  than  .30  per  cent,  nor  more  than  32  per  cent,  of  XH3. 

Each  mil  of  normal  sulphuric  acid  V.S.  used  corresponds  to  0.01703  Gm. 
of  NH3.  Each  gramme  of  Ammonium  Carbonate  corresponds  to  not  less  than 
17.6  mils  nor  more  than  18.8  mils  of  normal  sulphuric  acid  V.S. 

Preparation — Spiritus  Ammonii  Aromaticus. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.3  Gm. — Apothecaries,  5  grains. 

AMMONII  CHLORIDUM 

Ammonium  Chloride 

Ammon.  Chlor. 

It  contains,  when  dried  to  constant  weight  at  100°  C,  not  less  than 
90.5  per  cent,  of  NH4CI  (53.50). 


UNITED   STATES   OF   AMERICA  45 


Ammonium  Chloride  is  a  white,  crystalHne  or  granular  powder,  without  odor, 
having  a  cooling;  and  saline  taste;  somewhat  hygroscopic. 

One  Gm.  of  Ammonium  Chloride  dissolves  in  2.6  mils  of  water,  100  mils  of 
alcohol  and  in  8  mils  of  glycerin  at  25°  C;  also  in  1.4  mils  of  boiling  water. 

Ammonium  Chloride,  on  ignition,  is  volatilized  without  fu.sing. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  20)  in  ice-cold  water  does  not  show  an 
immediate  acid  reaction  with  litmus. 

Silver  nitrate  T.S.  added  to  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  10)  produces 
a  white,  curdy  precipitate,  insoluble  in  nitric  acid  but  readily  soluble  in  ammonia 
water. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt,  when  heated  with  potassium  hydroxide  T.S., 
evolves  ammonia. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  does  not  respond  to  the  Test  for  heavy  metals 
(see  Part  II,  Test  No.  3). 

When  acidulated  with  hydrochloric  acid,  10  mils  of  an  aqueous  solution  of 
the  salt  (1  in  10)  does  not  assume  a  red  color  on  the  addition  of  a  few  drops  of 
ferric  chloride  T.S.  (sulphocyanate) . 

Add  2  mils  of  nitric  acid  to  2  Gm.  of  the  salt  and  evaporate  the  mixture  to  dry- 
ness in  a  porcelain  dish  on  a  water  bath;  a  white  residue  is  obtained,  which, 
when  ignited,  yields  not  more  than  0.05  per  cent,  of  non-volatile  substances. 

Assay — Proceed  as  directed  under  the  Assay  for  chlorides  (see  Part  II,  Test 
No.  5),  using  about  0.2  Gm.  of  Ammonium  Chloride,  previously  dried  to  constant 
weight  at  100°  C.  and  accuratelv  weighed.  It  shows,  in  the  dried  salt,  not  less 
than  99.5  per  cent,  of  NH4CI. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  silver  nitrate  V.S.  corresponds  to  0.005350  Gm.  of 
NH4CI.  Each  gramme  of  Ammonium  Chloride,  previously  dried,  corresponds 
to  not  less  than  186.0  mils  of  tenth-normal  silver  nitrate  V.S. 

Preparation — Trochisci  Ammonii  Chloridi. 

Average  dose — JMetric,  0.3  Gm. — Apothecaries,  5  grains. 


AMMONII  lODIDUM 

Ammonium  Iodide 
Ammon.  lod. 

It  contains,  when  dried  to  constant  weight  at  100°  C,  not  less  than 
99  per  cent,  of  NH4I  (144.96).  Preserve  it  in  small,  well-closed  con- 
tainers, protected  from  light. 

Ammonium  Iodide  occurs  in  minute,  colorless,  cubical  crystals,  or  as  a  white, 
granular  powder,  odorless  and  having  a  sharp,  saline  taste.  The  salt  is  very 
hj'groscopic,  and  soon  becomes  yellow  or  yellowish-bro^Mi  on  exposure  to  air 
and  hght,  owing  to  the  loss  of  ammonia  and  the  liberation  of  iodine. 

One  Gm.  of  Ammonium  Iodide  dissolves  in  0.6  mil  of  water,  3.7  mils  of 
alcohol  and  in  1.5  mils  of  glycerin  at  25°  C;  also  in  0.5  mil  of  boiling  water. 

When  strongly  heated,  Ammonium  Iodide  evolves  vapor  of  iodine,  and  vola- 
tihzes  without  fusing,  leaving  not  more  than  0.1  per  cent,  of  residue. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  20)  is  neutral  or  not  more  than  slightly 
acid  to  litmus.  When  heated  with  potassium  hydroxide  T.S.,  ammonia  is 
liberated. 

Add  a  few  drops  of  ferric  chloride  T.S.  to  5  mils  of  an  aqueous  solution  of 
the  salt  (1  in  20);  iodine  is  liberated  which  imparts  a  violet  color  to  chloroform 
when  shaken  with  the  solution. 

Ten  mils  of  an  aqueous  solution  of  Ammonium  Iodide  (1  in  20),  when  acidu- 
lated with  hydrochloric  acid,  is  not  rendered  turbid  by  the  addition  of  1  mil  of 
potassium  sulphate  TtS.  {barium). 


46  THE    PHARMACOPCEIA   OF  THE 

Ten  mils  of  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  150)  does  not  at  once  assume 
a  blue  color  upon  the  addition  of  3  drops  of  potassium  ferrocyanide  T.S.  (iron). 

Shake  5  mils  of  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  150)  with  1  mil  of  chloro- 
form; no  violet  color  is  imparted  to  the  latter  (free  iodine). 

An  aqueous  solution  of  Ammonium  Iodide  does  not  respond  to  the  Test  for 
heavy  metals  (see  Part  II,  Test  No.  3). 

Assay — Proceed  as  directed  under  the  Assay  for  iodides  (see  Part  II,  Test 
No.  5),  using  about  0.5  Gm.  of  Ammonium  Iodide,  previously  dried  to  constant 
weight  at  100°  C.  and  accurately  weighed  in  a  stoppered  weighing-bottle.  It 
shows,  in  the  dried  salt,  not  less  than  99  per  cent,  of  NH4I. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  silver  nitrate  V.S.  corresponds  to  0.014496  Gm.  of 
NH4I.  Each  gramme  of  Ammonium  Iodide,  previously  dried,  corresponds  to 
not  less  than  G8.3  mils  nor  more  than  70.1  mils  of  tenth-normal  silver  nitrate 
V.S. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.3  Gm. — Apothecaries,  5  grains. 


AMMONII  SALICYLAS 

Ammonium  Salicylate 

Ammon.  Salicyl. 

It  contains,  when  dried  for  twenty-four  hours  in  a  desiccator  over 
-sulphuric  acid,  not  less  than  98  per  cent,  of  NH4C7H5O3  or  C6H4(0H) 
COONH4  (155.08).  Preserve  it  in  well-closed  containers,  protected  from 
heat  and  light. 

Ammonium  Salicylate  occurs  in  colorless,  lustrous,  monoclinic  prisms,  or 
plates,  or  as  a  white,  crystalline  powder;  odorless,  and  having  at  first  a  slightly 
saline,  bitter  taste,  with  a  sweetish  after-taste.    Permanent  in  dry  air. 

One  Gm.  of  Ammonium  Salicylate  dissolves  in  1  mil  of  water  and  in  3  mils 
of  alcohol  at  25°  C. 

When  heated,  the  salt  fuses  with  decomposition,  giving  off  inflammable  vapors 
and  an  odor  of  phenol,  and  is  finally  volatilized,  leaving  not  more  than  0.1  per 
cent,  of  ash. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  10)  is  colorless  and  neutral  or  slightly 
acid  to  litmus.     When  heated  with  potassium  hydroxide  T.S.  ammonia  is  evolved. 

Add  a  few  drops  of  ferric  chloride  T.S.  to  an  excess  of  a  concentrated  aqueous 
solution  of  Ammonium  Salicylate  (1  in  4);  a  dark  red  color  and  a  precipitate 
are  produced.    In  dilute  solution  (1  in  100)  a  deep  violet-blue  color  appears. 

Diluted  hydrochloric  or  sulphuric  acid  produces,  in  a  concentrated  aqueous 
solution  of  the  salt,  a  voluminous,  white  precipitate. 

Acidulate  10  mils  of  an  aqueous  solution  of  Ammonium  Salicylate  (1  in  50) 
with  hydrochloric  acid  and  filter;  the  filtrate  does  not  respond  to  the  Test  for 
heavy  metals  (see  Part  II,  Test  No.  3). 

Assay — Dissolve  about  0.5  Gm.  of  Ammonium  Salicylate,  previously  dried 
for  twenty-four  hours  in  a  desiccator  over  sulphuric  acid  and  accurately  weighed, 
in  10  mils  of  distilled  water  in  a  separator.  Add  to  the  solution  5  mils  of  diluted 
sulphuric  acid,  and  extract  the  liberated  .salicylic  acid  by  shaking  out  with  three 
successive  portions  of  25,  15  and  10  mils  respectively  of  chloroform,  passing 
the  chloroform  solution  through  a  filter  previously  moistened  with  chloroform 
and  removing  any  salicylic  acid  adhering  to  the  stem  of  the  funnel  with  a  few 
mils  of  chloroform.  Evaporate  the  chloroform  to  about  5  mils,  add  25  mils 
of  diluted  alcohol  which  has  been  previously  neutralized  with  tenth-normal 


UNITED   STATES  OF  AMERICA  47 

potassium  hydroxide  V.S.,  phenolplithalein  T.S.  being  \ised  as  indicator,  and 
titrate  this  solution  with  tenth-normal  barium  hydroxide  V.S.,  using  phenol- 
phthalein  T.S.  as  indicator.    It  shows,  in  the  dried  salt,  not  less  than  9S  per  cent. 

of  NH4C7H5O3. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  barium  hydroxide  V.S.  corresponds  to  0.015508 
Gm.  of  XH4C7H5O3.  Each  gramme  of  Ammonium  Salicylate,  previously  dried, 
corresponds  to  not  less  than  63.2  mils  of  tenth-normal  barium  hydroxide  V.S. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.5  Gm. — Apothecaries,  8  grains. 


AMMONII  VALERAS 

Ammonium  Valerate 

Ammon.  Valer. — Ammonium  Valerianate 

A  compound  of  ammonia  and  valeric  acid  having  a  somewhat  varying 
composition.    Preserve  it  in  well-closed  containers. 

Ammonium  Valerate  occurs  in  colorless,  or  white,  quadrangular  plates,  emit- 
ting the  odor  of  valeric  acid;  it  is  deUquescent  in  moist  air,  and  has  a  sharp  and 
sweetish  taste. 

One  Gm.  of  Ammonium  Valerate  dissolves  in  0.3  mil  of  water  and  in  0.6 
mil  of  alcohol  at  25°  C;  soluble  in  ether. 

When  heated,  the  salt  fuses,  gives  off  vapors  of  ammonia  and  valeric  acid, 
and  is  finally  volatilized,  leaving  not  more  than  0.05  per  cent,  of  residue. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  20)  is  acid  to  litmus,  and  when  heated 
with  potassium  hydroxide  T.S.  evolves  ammonia. 

Supersaturate  slightly  a  concentrated  aqueous  solution  of  Ammonium  Valer- 
ate with  sulphuric  acid;  an  oily  layer  of  valeric  acid  rises  to  the  surface. 

Precipitate  completely  10  mils  of  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  20) 
with  ferric  chloride  T.S.;  the  filtrate  does  not  possess  a  deep  red  color  (acetate). 

An  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  50),  when  slightly  acidulated  with  hydro- 
chloric acid  and  filtered  through  a  small,  wetted  filter,  does  not  respond  to  the 
Test  for  heavy  metals  (see  Part  II,  Test  No.  3). 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.5  Gm. — Apothecaries,  8  grains. 


AMYGDALA  DULCIS 

Sweet  Almond 

Amygd.  Dulc. 

The  ripe  seeds  of  Prunus  Aniygdalus  dulcis  De  Candolle  (Fam. 
Rosacea).  Preserve  Sweet  Almond  in  tightly-closed  containers,  adding 
a  few  drops  of  chloroform  or  carbon  tetrachloride  from  time  to  time  to 
prevent  attack  by  insects. 

Ovate  or  oblong  lanceolate,  17  to  25  mm.  in  length,  10  to  13  mm.  in  breadth 
and  4  to  7  mm.  in  thickness;  seed-coat  light  brown  with  numerous  parallel  veins, 
thin  and  easily  removed  on  soaking  the  seed  in  water;  embryo  straight,  white, 
and  with  two  plano-convex  cotyledons;  taste  bland,  sweet. 


48  THE    PHARMACOPCEIA    OF   THE 

Triturate  Sweet  Almond  with  water;  a  milk-white  emulsion  is  produced 
which  is  not  acid  to  Utmus,  and  has  no  odor  of  benzaldehyde  or  hydrocyanic 
acid  {bitter  almond). 

The  powder  is  creamy-white,  exhibiting  numerous  very  small  oil  globules, 
0.001  mm.  or  less  in  diameter,  and  larger  oil  globules  and  crystalloids,  the  latter 
sometimes  with  adhering  globoids;  fragments  of  parenchyma  of  endosperm, 
containing  oil  globules  and  aleurone  grains;  also  occasional  fragments  of  seed- 
coat  with  characteristic,  more  or  less  scattered,  large,  elliptical,  thin-walled, 
strongly  lignified  epidermal  cells  and  narrow,  closely  spiral  trachea;.  Starch 
grains  are  absent. 

Sweet  Almond  yields  not  more  than  4  per  cent,  of  ash. 

Preparation — Emulsum  Amygdalae. 


AMYLIS  NITRIS 

Amyl  Nitrite 

Amyl.  Nitris 

A  liquid  containing  not  less  than  80  per  cent,  of  C5HUNO2  (117.10) 
(chiefly  iso-amyl  nitrite).  Preserve  it  in  hermetically  sealed  glass  bulbs, 
or  in  glass-stoppered  vials,  in  a  cool  place,  protected  from  light. 

Amyl  Nitrite  is  a  clear,  yellowish  liquid,  of  a  pecuUar,  ethereal,  fruity  odor 
and  a  pungent,  aromatic  taste. 

It  is  almost  insoluble  in  water,  miscible  with  alcohol  or  ether. 

Specific  gravity:   0.865  to  0.875  at  25°  C. 

Amyl  Nitrite  is  very  volatile,  even  at  a  low  temperature,  and  is  inflammable, 
burning  with  a  yellow,  luminous  and  sooty  flame. 

Add  2  mils  of  sulphuric  acid  to  a  mixture  of  2  drops  of  Amyl  Nitrite  and  2 
drops  of  water;  amyl  valerate  is  produced,  recognizable  by  its  odor  on  dilution 
with  water. 

Add  a  few  drops  of  Amyl  Nitrite  to  a  mixture  of  1  mil  of  ferrous  sulphate  T.S. 
and  5  mils  of  diluted  hydrochloric  acid;  a  greenish-brown  color  is  produced. 

Mix  1  mil  of  normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S.  and  10  mils  of  distilled  water 
in  a  test  tube  with  a  drop  of  phenolphthalein  T.S.  and  add  5  mils  of  Amyl 
Nitrite;  after  inverting  the  tube  a  few  times,  the  red  tint  of  the  aqueous  layer  ia 
still  perceptible  (free  acid). 

A  mixture  of  1.5  mils  of  silver  nitrate  T.S.  and  1.5  mils  of  alcohol  with  a  few 
drops  of  ammonia  water  does  not  become  brown  or  black  on  adding  1  mil  of 
Amyl  Nitrite  and  gently  heating  the  mixture  (aldehyde). 

Assay — -Transfer  about  3  mils  of  Amyl  Nitrite,  which  has  been  previously 
shaken  with  0.5  Gra.  of  potassium  bicarbonate  and  carefully  decanted,  to  a  tared 
100  mil  measuring-flask,  containing  about  20  mils  of  alcohol,  and  weigh  it 
accurately.  Add  sufficient  alcohol  to  bring  the  volume  to  exactly  100  mils  and 
mix  thoroughly.  Introduce  into  a  nitrometer  (see  Part  II,  Test  No.  19)  ex- 
actly 10  mils  of  the  alcoholic  solution,  followed  by  10  mils  of  potassium  iodide 
T.S.,  and  afterwards  by  5  mils  of  diluted  sulphuric  acid.  When  the  volume 
of  gas  has  become  constant  (within  thirty  to  sixty  minutes),  note  Mie  amount 
collected,  multiply  this  volume  in  mils  by  4.8  and  divide  the  product  by  the 
original  weight  in  grammes  of  the  Amyl  Nitrite.  At  standard  temperature 
and  j)ressure,  the  quotient  represents  the  percentage  of  Amyl  Nitrite  in  the 
liquid.  The  temperature  correction  is  one-third  of  one  per  cent,  of  the  total 
percentage  just  found  for  each  degree, — additive  if  the  temperature  is  below 


UNITED   STATES   OF  AMERICA  49 

25°  C.,  and  subtract! ve  if  it  is  above  25°  C.  The  barometric  correction  is  four- 
thirtieths  of  one  per  cent,  of  the  total  percentase  just  found  for  each  milUmeter, 
— additive  if  it  is  above  760  mm.,  and  subtract! ve  if  it  is  below  760  mm. 

Average  dose — By  inhalation,  Metric,  0.2  mil — Apothecaries, 
3  minims. 


AMYLUM 

Starch 

Amyl. — Corn  Starch 

The  starch  separated  from  the  grain  of  Zea  Mays  Linn6   (Fam. 

GraminecE.) . 

In  fine  powder,  or  irregular,  angular,  white  masses;  consisting  chiefly  of 
polygonal,  rounded  or  spheroidal  starch  grains  from  0.003  to  0.035  nun.  in  diam- 
eter, usually  with  a  lenticular  or  3-  to  4-rayed  central  cleft,  or  in  the  rounded 
grains,  with  a  circular  marking;  inodorous;  taste  slight,  characteristic. 

The  indi\-idual  starch  grains  are  colored  a  deep  blue  by  iodine  T.S.  Com 
starch  is  insoluble  in  cold  water  and  in  alcohol;  upon  boiling  1  Gm.  of  Starch 
with  15  mils  of  water  and  cooling,  it  yields  a  translucent,  whitish  jelly. 

Incinerate  about  0.5  Gm.  of  Starch;  not  more  than  0.5  per  cent,  of  ash  remains. 

Triturate  about  0.5  Gm.  of  Starch  with  5  mils  of  distilled  water;  the  mixture 
is  neutral  to  litmus. 

Preparation — Glyceritum  Amyli. 


ANISUM 

Anise 

Anis. — Aniseed 
The  dried  ripe  fruit  of  Pimpinella  Anisum  Linne  (Fam.  Umhelliferce) 
without  the  presence  or  admixture  of  more  than  3  per  cent,  of  foreign 
seeds  or  other  vegetable  matter. 

Cremocarp  broadly  ovoid  or  pyriform,  laterally  compressed,  from  3  to  6  mm.  in 
length  and  from  2  to  3  mm.  in  breadth;  mericarps  usually  cohering  and  attached 
to  a  slender  pedicel  from  2  to  12  mm.  in  length;  summit  with  a  ring-like  disk  and 
2  projecting,  diverging  styles;  externally  grayish  or  greenish-gray,  seldom  grayish- 
brown,  slightly  pubescent ;  each  with  five  light  brown  filiform  ridges  and  in  cross- 
section  with  from  15  to  45  vittae.     Odor  and  taste  agreeable  and  aromatic. 

Under  the  microscope  transverse  sections  of  Anise  show  an  epidermal  layer 
with  numerous  papillae  and  short,  one-celled,  non-glandular  hairs  having  very 
thick  papillose  walls;  primary  ribs  each  with  a  small  fibro-vascular  bundle, 
surroimded  by  a  few  sclerenchymatous  fibers;  vittae  or  oil-tubes  from  15  to  45 
in  number,  extending  as  a  more  or  less  interrupted  circle  in  the  tissues  of  the 
mesocarp  on  the  dorsal  side  of  each  mericarp;  2  large  xiitad  on  the  commissural 
surface,  each  separated  from  the  other  tissues  of  the  mericarp  by  a  large  cavity 
due  to  shrinkage  of  the  seed-coat;  inner  epidermis  of  pericarp  consisting  of  a 
layer  of  narrow,  tangentially  elongated  cells  closely  united  with  the  1-layered 
seed-coat,  the  inner  walls  of  which  are  yellowish-brown  and  considerably  thick- 
ened; endosperm  of  polygonal,  thick-walled  cells  filled  with  spherical  or  ellip- 
soidal aleurone  grains,  each  containing  a  small  rosette  aggregate  of  calcium 
oxalate;  the  aleurone  grains  surroimded  with  an  oily  protoplasm,  the  oil  of  which 
9 


50  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA   OF  THE 

is  liberated  upon  mounting  sections  in  hydrated  chloral  T.S.,  in  the  form  of  small 
globules;  epidermal  layer  near  the  middle  of  the  commissural  surface  composed 
of  2  or  3  rows  of  cells  with  thick  porous  walls,  and  beneath  which  occur  small 
groups  of  thick-walled  cells  resembling  stone  cells. 

The  powder  is  yellowish-brown;  consisting  of  nmnerous  irregular  fragments 
of  pericarp  showing  portions  of  the  yellowish  vitta?,  fragments  with  tracheae  and 
sclerenchymatous  fibers  of  carpophore;  cells  of  endosperm  filled  with  aleurone 
grains  about  0.006  mm.  in  diameter,  each  usually  enclosing  a  rosette  aggregate 
crystal  of  calcium  oxalate  about  0.002  mm.  in  diameter;  non-glandular  hairs 
1-celled,  from  0.025  to  0.2  mm.  in  length,  either  straight  or  curved  and  with 
numerous,  slight,  centrifugal  projections  on  the  outer  surface. 

Heat  1  Gm.  of  the  whole  drug  or  powdered  drug  with  10  mils  of  potassium 
hj'drqxideT.S.;  no  mouse-like  odor  develops  (fruits  of  Conium  maculatum  Linne). 

Anise  yields  not  more  than  9  per  cent,  of  ash. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.5  Gm. — Apothecaries,  8  grains. 

ANTIMONII  ET  POTASSII  TARTRAS 

Antimony  and  Potassium  Tartrate 

Antim.  et  Pot.  Tart. — Antimonyl  Potassium  Tartrate     Tartrated  Antimony 

Tartar  Emetic 

It  contains  not  less  than  98.5  per  cent,  of  K(SbO)C4H406+3^H20 
(332.34).     Preserve  it  in  well-closed  containers. 

Antimony  and  Potassium  Tartrate  occurs  as  colorless,'transparent  crystals  of 
the  rhombic  system,  or  as  a  wlaite  granular  powder;  without  odor,  and  having 
a  sweet,  afterwards  disagreeable,  metalUc  taste.  The  crystals  effioresce  upon 
exposure  to  the  air. 

One  Gm.  of  Antimony  and  Potassium  Tartrate  dissolves  in  12  mils  of  water 
and  in  15  mils  of  glycerm  at  25°  C;  also  in  3  mils  of  boiling  water;  insoluble 
in  alcohol. 

Its  aqueous  solution  (1  in  20)  is  slightly  acid  to  litmus. 

When  heated  to  redness  it  chars,  emits  an  odor  resembling  that  of  burning 
sugar,  and  leaves  a  blackened  residue  having  an  alkaline  reaction  and  imparting 
a  violet  color  when  a  small  fragment  is  held  in  a  non-luminous  flame. 

In  an  aqueous  solution  of  Antimony  and  Potassium  Tartrate  (1  in  20),  acidu- 
lated with  hydrochloric  acid,  hydrogen  sulphide  T.S.  produces  an  orange- 
red  precipitate,  which  is  soluble  in  ammonium  sulphide  T.S.  or  potassium 
hydroxide  T.S. 

Ten  mils  of  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  100),  acidulated  with  acetic 
acid,  does  not  at  once  assume  a  blue  color  on  the  addition  of  5  drops  of  potassium 
ferrocyanide  T.S.  {iron). 

Dissolve  0.2  Gm.  of  Antimony  and  Potassimn  Tartrate  in  5  mils  of  hydro- 
chloric acid;  the  solution  does  not  respond  to  Bettendorf's  Test  for  arsenic  (see 
Part  II,  Test  No.  2). 

Assay — Dissolve  about  0.5  Gm.  of  Antimony  and  Potassium  Tartrate, 
accurately  weighed,  in  30  mils  of  distilled  water,  add  25  mils  of  a  cold,  saturated 
solution  of  sodium  bicarbonate  and  a  few  drops  of  starch  T.S.  and  immediately 
titrate  this  solution  with  tenth-normal  iodine  V.S.,  to  the  production  of  a  perma- 
nent blue  color.   It  shows  not  less  than  98.5  per  cent,  of  K(SbO)C4H406+  3^H20. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  iodine  V.S.  used  corresponds  to  0.016617  Gm. 
of  K(SbO)C4H406  +  3^H20.     Each  gramme  of  Antimony  and  Potassium  Tar- 
trate corresponds  to  not  less  than  59.3  mils  of  tenth-normal  iodine  V.S. 
Preparations — Mistura  Glycyrrhizse  Composita     Syrupus  Scilla)  Compositus. 

Average  dose — Expectorant,    Metric,    0.005     Gm. — Apothe- 
caries, K2  grain. 


UNITED    STATES    OF  AMERICA  51 

ANTIPYRINA 

Antipyrine 

Antipyr. — Phenazone 

Phenyldimethylpyrazolon    [C11H12ON2    or    C3H0N2(CH3)2.C6H6  = 
188.12].     Preserve  it  in  well-closed  containers. 

Antipyrine  occurs  as  a  white,  almost  odorless,  crystalline  powder  or  in  tabular 
crystals,  with  a  slightly  bitter  taste. 

One  Gm.  of  Antipyrine  dissolves  in  less  than  1  mil  of  water,  in  1.3  mils  of 
alcohol,  1  mil  of  chloroform,  and  in  43  mils  of  ether,  at  25°  C 

Its  aqueous  solution  (1  in  20)  is  neutral  to  litmus. 

It  melts  between  111°  and  113°  C. 

The  addition  of  tannic  acid  T.S.  to  an  aqueous  solution  of  Antipyrine  produces 
an  abundant  white  precipitate. 

Mix  0.1  Gm.  of  sodium  nitrite  and  12  mils  of  an  aqueous  solution  of  Anti- 
pjoine  (1  in  100);  a  nearly  colorless  liquid  is  obtained,  which,  upon  the  addition 
of  1  mil  of  diluted  sulphuric  acid,  develops  a  deep  green  color  due  to  the  forma- 
tion of  isonitroso-antip>Tine. 

One  drop  of  ferric  chloride  T.S.  added  to  2  mils  of  a  dilute  aqueous  solution 
of  Antipyrine  (1  in  1000)  produces  a  deep  red  color,  which,  upon  the  addition 
of  10  drops  of  sulphuric  acid,  is  changed  to  light  yellow. 

Incinerate  about  1  Gm.  of  Antipj^rine;  not  more  than  0.1  per  cent,  of  ash 
remains. 

Antipyrine  is  completely  soluble  in  1  part  of  cold  distilled  water,  the  solution 
being  colorless  or  at  most  sUghtly  yellow  when  viewed  crosswise  in  a  test  tube 
of  about  20  mm.  in  diameter. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  Antipyrine  does  not  respond  to  the  Test  for  heavy 
metals  (see  Part  II,  Test  No.  3). 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.3  Gm. — Apothecaries,  5  grains. 


APOMORPHIN^  HYDROCHLORIDUM 

Apomorphine  Hydrochloride 

Apomorph.  Hydrochl. — Apomorphine  Chloride 

The  hydrochloride  [Ci7Hi702NHCl+>^H20  =  312.62]  of  an  alkaloid 
prepared  from  morphine  by  the  abstraction  of  one  molecule  of  water. 
Preserve  it,  protected  from  light,  in  small,  well-stoppered  vials,  which 
have  been  previously  rinsed  with  diluted  hydrochloric  acid  and  dried. 

Apomorphine  Hydrochloride  must  be  rejected  if  it  imparts  at  once 
an  emerald-green  color  to  100  parts  of  distilled  water  when  shaken  with 
it  in  a  test  tube. 

Apomorphine  Hydrochloride  occurs  in  minute,  white  or  grayish-white,  glisten- 
ing, monocUnic  prisms;  odorless,  and  acquiring  a  greenish  tint  upon  exposure 
to  light  and  air. 

One  Gm.  of  Apomorphine  Hydrochloride  dissolves  in  50  mils  of  water  and  in 
60  mils  of  alcohol  at  25°  C;  also  in  17  mils  of  water  at  80°  C;  very  sUghtly 
soluble  in  chloroform  or  ether. 

Its  saturated  aqueous  solution  is  neutral  to  litmus. 


52  THE    PHARMACOPCEIA    OF   THE. 

The  salt  loses  its  water  of  crystallization  slowly  over  sulphuric  acid  and  the 
anhydrous  salt  regains  the  water  lost  when  exposed  to  the  air. 

The  addition  of  a  solution  of  sodium  bicarbonate  to  an  aqueous  solution  of 
the  salt  (1  in  100)  produces  a  white  or  pale  greenish-white  precipitate,  which 
rapidly  becomes  green  on  exposure  to  air  and  then  dissolves  in  ether  with  a 
violet  color  and  in  chloroform  with  a  violet-blue  color.  The  salt  dissolves  in 
nitric  acid  with  a  dark  purple  color. 

Silver  nitrate  T.S.,  added  to  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt,  produces  a  white 
precipitate,  insoluble  in  nitric  acid;  the  precipitate  soon  turns  black  by  reduc- 
tion to  metalhc  silver,  and  is  instantly  reduced  by  the  addition  of  ammonia 
water. 

No  weighable  ash  remains  on  incinerating  0.2  Gm.  of  Apomorphine  Hydro- 
chloride. 

Shake  about  0.1  Gm.  of  the  salt  with  10  mils  of  ether;  the  latter  acquires  not 
more  than  a  pale  reddish  color  {decomposition  products). 

Metric  Apothecaries 

Average  dose — Expectorant,  0.003  Gm. — ^^q  grain. 

Emetic,  by  mouth,     0.01    Gm. — y^    grain. 
Emetic,  hypodermic,  0.005  Gm. — 3^2  grain. 


AQUA 

Water 

Water  is  a  colorless,  limpid  liqmd,  practically  tasteless  and  odorless.  When 
heated  nearly  to  the  boiling  point  and  agitated,  no  disagreeable  odor  is  evolved. 

Water  is  neutral  to  litmus. 

Evaporate  100  mils  of  Water  in  a  platinum  dish;  it  leaves  a  residue  weighing 
not  more  than  0.03  Gm.  {solids)  and  this  residue,  when  carefully  heated  to 
redness,  evolves  no  visible  fumes  and  shows  no  appreciable  charring  {organic 
impurities). 

Add  1  mil  of  hydrochloric  acid  to  100  mils  of  Water  and  then  add  50  mils 
of  hydrogen  sulphide  T.S. ;  it  shows  no  darkening  after  standing  fifteen  minutes 
{lead  or  copper). 

Add  1  mil  of  hydrochloric  acid  to  100  mils  of  Water  and  then  add  1  mil  of 
potassium  ferrocyanide  T.S.;  no  blue  coloration  is  produced  immediately  {iron). 

Add  0.5  mil  of  tenth-normal  silver  nitrate  V.S.  to  200  mils  of  Water,  heat  to 
boiUng,  filter  and  add  to  the  filtrate  3  drops  of  potassium  chromate  T.S.;  a 
red  precipitate  is  produced  {chloride). 

Add  1  drop  of  hydrochloric  acid,  1  mil  of  sulphanilic  acid  T.S.  and  1  mil  of 
naphthylamine  hydrochloride  T.S.  to  100  mils  of  Water  in  a  Nessler  jar,  stirring 
with  a  gla.ss  rod  after  each  addition.  Closely  cover  the  jar  with  a  glass  plate, 
place  it  upon  a  white  surface  and  view  it  from  above;  no  pink  coloration  appears 
within  five  minutes  {nitrite). 

Add  1  mil  of  sodium  carbonate  T.S.  to  100  mils  of  Water  and  evaporate  the 
liquid  in  a  small  porcelain  dish  just  to  dryness.  Moisten  the  residue  thoroughly 
with  2  mils  of  phenolsulphonic  acid  T.S.,  gently  warm  the  dish,  add  20  mils  of 
ammonia  water  and  sufficient  distilled  water  to  measure  100  mils.  Any  yellow 
color  produced  is  not  greater  than  that  obtained  by  evaporating  0.0021  Gm.  of 
pota.ssiimi  nitrate,  dissolved  in  3  mils  of  distilled  water  and  1  mil  of  sodium 
carbonate  T.S.,  to  dryness  and  treating  the  residue  in  the  same  manner  as  the 
residue  from  the  Water.  The  comparison  of  colors  must  be  made  in  Nessler 
jars  of  the  same  diameter  and  size  {nitrate). 

Add  2  mils  of  alkaline  mercuric  potassium  iodide  T.S.  to  100  mils  of  Water 
in  a  Nes.sler  jar  and  mix  thoroughly.  Place  the  jar  on  a  white  surface  and  view 
the  contents  from  above;  the  water  does  not  at  once  assume  a  deep  yellow  or 
orange  color  {ammonium  compounds). 


UNITED   STATES   OF   AMERICA  63 

Mix  100  mils  of  Water  with  10  mils  of  diluted  sulphuric  acid  in  a  clean  porcelain 
dish  and  heat  it  rapidly  to  boiling,  then  add  0.4  mil  of  tenth-normal  potassium 
permanganate  V.S.  and  boil  the  hquid  for  ten  minutes;  the  color  of  the  liquid 
is  not  completely  destroyed  (oxygen  consuming  capacity  as  a  measure  of  organic 
impurities). 

AQUA  AMMONITE 

Ammonia  Water 
Aq.  Ammon. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  ammonia  [NH3  =  17.03]  containing  not  less 
than  9.5  per  cent,  nor  more  than  10.5  per  cent,  by  weight  of  NH3.  This 
solution  deteriorates  on  keeping,  and  must  be  tested  frequently.  Pre- 
serve it  in  a  cool  place  in  glass-stoppered  bottles  made  of  hard  glass  free 
from  lead. 

Ammonia  Water  is  a  colorless,  transparent  liquid,  having  a  very  pungent 
characteristic  odor  and  a  caustic,  alkaline  taste.  Dense  white  fumes  are  produced 
on  bringing  a  glass  rod,  dipped  into  hydrochloric  acid,  near  the  surface  of  Am- 
monia Water. 

Ammonia  Water  is  strongly  alkaline  to  litmus. 

Specific  gravity:    about  0.958  at  25°  C. 

Add  0.1  mil  of  tenth-normal  potassium  permanganate  V.S.  to  10  mils  of 
Ammonia  Water,  which  has  been  slightly  supersaturated  with  diluted  sulphuric 
acid;  the  pink  color  is  not  completely  destroyed  within  ten  minutes  {oxidizable 
and  empyreumatic  substances). 

When  neutrahzed  and  made  slightly  acid  with  hydrochloric  acid,  10  mils  of 
Ammonia  Water  does  not  respond  to  the  Test  for  heavy  metals  (see  Part  II, 
Test  No.  3).  _ 

Twenty-five  mils  of  Ammonia  Water,  when  evaporated  to  dryness  in  a  plati- 
num or  porcelain  dish  and  heated  to  constant  weight  at  120°  C,  leaves  not  more 
than  0.005  Gm.  of  residue. 

Assay — Pour  about  5  mils  of  Ammonia  Water  into  a  tared,  stoppered  weighing- 
bottle  containing  about  10  mils  of  distilled  water  and  weigh  accurately.  Dilute 
the  liquid  with  50  mils  of  distilled  water  and  titrate  with  normal  sulphuric 
acid  V.S.,  using  litmus  or  methyl  orange  T.S.  as  indicator.  It  shows  not  less 
than  9.5  per  cent,  nor  more  th^n  10.5  per  cent.,  by  weight,  of  NH3. 

Each  mil  of  normal  sulphuric  acid  V.S.  used  corresponds  to  0.01703  Gm. 
of  NH3.  Each  gramme  of  Ammonia  Water  corresponds  to  not  less  than  5.57 
mils  nor  more  than  6.16  mils  of  normal  sulphuric  acid  V.S. 

Preparations — Linimentum  Ammonise     Spiritus  Ammoniae  Aromaticus. 
Average  dose — Metric,  1  mil — Apothecaries,  15  minims. 


AQUA  AMMONUE  FORTIOR 

Stronger  Ammonia  Water 
Aq.  Ammon.  Fort. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  ammonia  [NH 3  =  17.03]  containing  not  less 
than  27  per  cent,  nor  more  than  29  per  cent.,  by  weight,  of  NH3.  This 
solution  deteriorates  on  keeping,  and  must  be  tested  frequently.    Pre- 


54  THE   PHAIUIACOPCEIA   OF   THE 

serve  it  in  a  cool  place  in  partially  filled,  strong,  glass-stoppered  bottles 
made  of  hard  glass  free  from  lead.  Great  caution  should  be  used  in  hand- 
ling this  liquid. 

Stronger  Ammonia  Water  is  a  colorless,  transparent  liquid,  having  an  exces- 
sively pungent,  characteristic  odor  and  a  very  caustic  and  alkaline  taste. 
Wronger  Ammonia  Water  tnust  never  be  tasted  unless  greatly  diluted. 

Stronger  Ammonia  Water  is  strongly  alkaline  to  litmus. 

Specific  gravity:    about  0.897  at  25°  C. 

Stronger  Ammonia  Water,  when  diluted  with  twice  its  volume  of  distilled 
water,  responds  to  the  tests  for  identity  and  purity  under  Aqua  Ammonice. 

Assay — Pour  about  2  mils  of  Stronger  Ammonia  Water  into  a  tared  flask  con- 
taining about  50  mils  of  distilled  water,  weigh  accurately,  and  titrate  with  normal 
sulphuric  acid  V.S.,  using  litmus  or  methyl  orange  T.S.  as  indicator.  It  shows 
not  less  than  27  per  cent,  nor  more  than  29  per  cent.,  by  weight,  of  NH3. 

Each  mil  of  normal  sulphuric  acid  V.S.  used  corresponds  to  0.01703  Gm. 
of  XH3.  Each  gramme  of  Stronger  .Ammonia  Water  corresponds  to  not  less 
than  15.8  mils  nor  more  than  17  mils  of  normal  sulphuric  acid  V.S. 

AQUA  AMYGDAL.^  AMAR^ 

Bitter  Almond  Water 

Aq.  Amygd.  Amar. 

Oil  of  Bitter  Almond,  one  milliliter 1  mil 

Distilled  Water,    recently    boiled,    nine    hundred   and 

ninety-nine  milliliters 999  mils 

To  make  one  thousand  milliliters 1000  mils 

Dissolve  the  oil  of  bitter  almond  in  the  recently  boiled  distilled  water 
by  agitation,  and  filter. 

Note — Bitter  Almond  Water  contains  a  mere  trace  of  hydrocyanic 
acid  and  differs  from  the  preparation  of  the  same  name,  recommended 
by  the  International  Protocol,  1906,  which  contains  0.1  per  cent,  of 
hydrocyanic  acid. 

Average  dose — Metric,  4  mils — Apothecaries,  1  fluidrachm. 

AQUA  ANISI 

Anise  Water 

Aq.  Anisi 

Oil  of  Anise,  two  milliliters 2  mils 

Purified  Talc,  Jifteen  grammes 15  Gm. 

Distilled  Water,  recently  boiled,  a  sufficient  quantity, 

To  make  one  thousand  milliliters 1000  mils 


UNITED   STATES   OF  AMERICA  55 

Prepare  the  Anise  Water  by  the  General  Process  described  under 
AgucB  AromaticcB  (page  60). 

Average  dose — Metric,  15  mils — Apothecaries,  4  fluidrachma 

AQUA  AURANTII  FLORUM 

Orange  Flower  Water 

Aq.  Aurant.  Flor. 

Stronger  Orange  Flower  Water, 

Distilled  Water,  recently  boiled,  each,  one  volume. 

Mix  them  immediately  before  use. 

Orange  Flower  Water  complies  with  the  testa  for  identity  and  purity  given 
under  Aqua  Aurantii  Florum  Forlior. 

Preparation — Syrupus  Aurantii  Florum. 

AQUA  AURANTII  FLORUM  FORTIOR 

Stronger  Orange  Flower  Water 

Aq.  Aurant.  Flor.  Fort. 

The  saturated  aqueous  distillate  prepared  by  distilling  the  fresh 
flowers  of  Citrus  Aurantium  amara  Linne  (Fam.  Rutacece)  with  water. 
Preserve  it  in  bottles  stoppered  with  a  pledget  of  purified  cotton  and  in 
a  dark,  cool  place. 

Stronger  Orange  Flower  Water  is  colorless  and  clear  or  only  faintly  opalescent, 
and  possesses  a  strong  and  pleasant  odor  and  taste  of  orange  blossoms,  and 
must  be  free  from  empyreuma,  mustiness,  or  mucoid  growths. 

It  is  neutral  or  only  slightly  acid  to  litmus,  and  100  mils,  when  evaporated 
to  dryness  on  a  water  bath  and  the  residue  subsequently  dried  in  an  oven  to 
constant  weight  at  100°  C,  yields  not  more  than  0.001  Gra.  of  residue.  It 
gives  no  reaction  with  hydrogen  sulphide  T.S.  or  with  sodium  sulphide  T.S. 
(metallic  impurities) . 

Preparation — Aqua  Aurantii  Florum. 

AQUA  CAMPHOR.E 

Camphor  Water 

Aq.  Camph. 

Camphor,  eight  grammes 8  Gm, 

Alcohol,  eight  inilliliters 8  mils 

Purified  Talc,  fifteen  grammes 15  Gm. 

Distilled  Water,  recently  boiled,  a  sufficien'.  quantity,       

To  make  one  thousand  milliliters 1000  mils 


56  THE    PHARMACOPCEL^   OF  THE 

Triturate  the  camphor  with  the  alcohol  in  a  mortar,  add  the  puri- 
fied talc;  continue  the  trituration  until  the  alcohol  has  evaporated  and 
add  the  recently  boiled  distilled  water.  Filter  the  mixture,  and  pass 
the  filtrate  repeatedly  through  the  filter  until  the  Camphor  Water  is 
perfectly  clear. 

Average  dose — ^Metric,  10  mils — Apothecaries,  23^  fluidrachms. 


AQUA  CHLOROFORMI 

Chloroform  Water 

Aq.  Chlorof. 

Chloroform, 

Distilled  Water,  recently  boiled,  each,  a  sufficient  quantity. 

To  a  convenient  quantity  of  recently  boiled  distilled  water,  contained 
in  a  dark  amber-colored  bottle,  add  enough  chloroform  to  maintain 
a  slight  excess  of  the  chloroform  after  the  contents  have  been  repeatedly 
and  thoroughly  shaken.    Preserve  it  in  a  cool,  dark  place. 

When  Chloroform  Water  is  required  for  use,  pour  off  the  needed  quan- 
tity, refill  the  bottle  with  recently  boiled  distilled  water  and  saturate  it 
by  thorough  agitation,  taking  care  that  there  be  always  an  excess  of 
chloroform  present. 

Average  dose — ]\Ietric,  15  mils — Apothecaries,  4  fluidrachms. 


AQUA  CINNAMOMI 

Cinnamon  Water 

Aq.  Cinnam. 

Oil  of  Cinnamon,  two  milliliters 2  mils 

Purified  Talc,  fifteen  grammes 15  Gm. 

Distilled  Water,  recently  boiled,  a  sufficient  quantity, 

To  make  one  thousand  milliliters 1000  mils 

Prepare  the  Cinnamon  Water  by  the  General  Process  described  under 
Aqu/s  AromaticoB  (page  60). 

Average  dose — Metric,  15  mils — Apothecaries,  4  fluidrachms. 


UNITED   STATES    OF   AMERICA  57 

AQUA  CREOSOTI 

Creosote  Water 

Aq.  Creosot. 

Creosote,  ten  milliliters 10  mils 

Distilled  Water,    recently    boiled,    nine    hundred   and 

ninety  milliliters 990  mils 

To  make  one  thousand  milliliters 1000  mils 

Agitate  the  creosote  vigorously  with  the  recently  boiled  distilled  water 
and  filter,  returning  the  filtrate  to  the  filter  until  it  is  perfectly  clear. 
This  preparation  must  not  be  dispensed  unless  it  has  been  recently 
prepared. 

Average  dose — Metric,  10  mils — Apothecaries,  23^^  fluidrachms. 

AQUA  DESTILLATA 

Distilled  Water 

Aq.  Dest 

Water  [H20  =  18.016]  purified  by  distillation. 

Water,  one  thousand  volumes 1000  vol. 


To  make  seven  hundred  and  fifty  volumes 750  vol. 

Distil  the  water  from  a  suitable  apparatus  provided  with  a  block-tin 
or  glass  condenser.  Collect  the  first  one  hundred  volumes  and  reject  this 
portion.  Then  collect  seven  hundred  and  fifty  volumes  and  keep  the 
Distilled  Water  in  glass-stoppered  bottles,  which  have  been  rmsed  with 
hot  distilled  water  immediately  before  being  filled. 

Distilled  Water  is  a  colorless,  limpid  liquid,  without  odor  or  taste,  and  neutral 
to  the  official  indicators  (see  Part  II). 

Separate  portions  of  100  mils  each  of  Distilled  Water  are  not  affected  by 
the  addition  of  barium  chloride  T.S.  (sulphale);  silver  nitrate  T.S.  (chloride); 
ammonium  oxalate  T.S.{  calciurn);  hydrogen  sulphide  T.S.,  or  sodium  sulphide 
T.S.  {ynetals). 

Distilled  Water  shows  no  deep  yellow,  orange  or  brown  coloration  when  1  mil  of 
Nessler's  reagent  is  added  to  100  mils  of  the  Water  {ammonia). 

Add  50  mils  of  calcium  hydi-oxide  T.S.  to  25  mils  of  Distilled  Water;  the 
mixture  remains  clear  and  transparent  (carbon  dioxide). 

Evaporate  100  mils  of  Distilled  Water  to  dryness  on  a  water  bath  and  sub- 
sequently dry  the  residue  in  an  oven  to  constant  weight  at  100°  C;  not  more 
than  0.001  Gm.  of  residue  remains. 

Heat  100  mils  of  Distilled  Water  to  boiling,  acidulate  it  with  10  mils  of 
diluted  sulphuric  acid,  and  subsequently  add  0.1  mil  of  tenth-normal  potassium 
permanganate  V.S.  The  color  of  the  Hquid  is  not  completely  destroyed  by  boil- 
ing it  for  ten  minutes  (organic  or  other  oxidizable  substances). 


58  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA   OF   THE 

AQUA  DESTILLATA  STERILISATA 

Sterilized  Distilled  Water 

Aq.  Dest.  Steril. 

Water,  freshly  distilled,  a  sufficient  quantity. 

Transfer  the  necessary  quantity  of  freshly  distilled  water  to  a  flask 
of  hard  glass  of  sufficient  size  which  has  previously  been  cleansed  and 
sterilized  as  described  under  Sterilization  (see  Part  II).  Close  the  mouth 
of  the  flask  with  a  pledget  of  sterilized  purified  cotton,  boil  the  contents 
for  thirty  minutes  and  allow  the  water  to  cool  without  removing  the 
cotton  plug.  Finally  protect  the  mouth  of  the  flask  and  the  cotton 
pledget  from  infection  through  dust  by  wrapping  the  top  of  the  flask 
tightly  with  paper. 

Sterilized  Distilled  Water  should  be  used  within  forty-eight  hours 
after  its  preparation. 

AQUA  FCENICULI 

Fennel  Water 

Aq.  Fcenic. 

Oil  of  Fennel,  two  milliliters 2  mils 

Purified  Talc,  fifteen  grammes 15  Gm. 

Distilled  Water,  recently  boiled,  a  sufficient  quantity, 

To  make  one  thousand  milliliters 1000  mils 

Prepare  the  Fennel  Water  by  the  General  Process  described  under 
AquoB  Aromaticce  (page  60). 

Average  dose — Metric,  15  mils — Apothecaries,  4  fluidrachms. 

AQUA  HAMAMELIDIS 

Hamamelis  Water 

Aq.  liamam. — Witch  Hazel  Water    Distilled  Extract  of  Witch  Hazel 

A  saturated  aqueous  liquid  obtained  by  distilling  with  steam  or 
water  the  bark,  twigs,  smaller  stems  or  the  entire  shrub  of  Hamamelis 
virginiana  Linne  (Fam.  Hamamelidacece)  collected  in  the  autumn,  and 
adding  one  hundred  and  fifty  mils  of  alcohol  to  each  eight  hundred  and 
fifty  mils  of  distillate.  Preserve  it  in  tightly-closed  containers  in  a 
cool  place. 


UNITED   STATES   OF  AMERICA  59 


Hamamelis  Water  is  a  clear  and  colorless,  or  not  more  than  faintly  opalescent 
or  slightly  yellowish  liquid  having  a  characteristic  odor  and  taste.  It  is 
neutral  or  only  faintly  acid  to  litmus. 

Specific  gravity:    0.979  to  0.982  at  25°  C. 

It  must  be  free  from  mucoid  or  fungous  growths  and  must  not  have  an 
acetous  odor.  It  gives  no  reaction  with  hydrogen  sulphide  T.S.  or  with  sodium 
sulphide  T.S.  (metallic  impurities). 

Evaporate  100  mils  of  Hamamelis  Water  to  dryness  on  a  water  bath;  not 
more  than  0.025  Gm.  of  residue  remains  {disaolved  im-purities) . 

It  contains  not  less  than  14  per  cent,  of  absolute  alcohol,  by  volume,  when 
estimated  as  directed  under  Determination  of  alcohol  in  official  preparations 
(see  Part  II,  Test  No.  14). 

Add  8  drops  of  an  aqueous  solution  of  resorcinol  (1  in  200)  to  5  mils  of  Hama- 
melis Water  and  then  carefully  pour  this  upon  5  mils  of  sulphuric  acid,  con- 
tained in  a  test  tube,  in  such  a  manner  that  the  two  liquids  do  not  mix.  After 
standing  for  three  minutes  a  rose-red  ring  does  not  appear  at  the  line  of  con- 
tact of  the  liquids  nor  does  a  distinct,  white  layer  appear  above  this  zone 
{formaldehyde). 

Ten  mils  of  Hamamelis  Water  gives  no  reaction  for  methyl  alcohol  when 
tested  as  directed  under  Alcohol  for  the  detection  of  methyl  alcohol. 


AQUA  MENTHA  PIPERITA 

Peppermint  Water 

Aq.  Menth.  Pip. 

Oil  of  Peppermint,  two  milliliters 2  mils 

Purified  Talc,  fifteen  gramvies 15  Gm. 

Distilled  Water,  recently  boiled,  a  sufficient  quantity, 

To  make  one  thousand  milliliters 1000  mils 

Prepare  the  Peppermint  M'ater  by  the  General  Process  described  under 
Aqua  Aromaticce  (page  60). 

Average  dose— IMetric,  15  mils — Apothecaries,  4  fluidrachms. 


AQUA  MENTHiE  \  IRIDIS 

Spearmint  Water 
Aq.  Menth.  Vir. 

Oil  of  Spearmint,  two  milliliters 2  mils 

Purified  Talc,  fifteen  grammes '     15  Gm. 

Distilled  Water,  recently  boiled,  a  sufficient  quantity,       

To  make  one  thousand  milliliters 1000  mils 

Prepare  the  Spearmint  Water  by  the  General  Process  described  under 
Aquce  Aromaticce  (page  60). 

Average  dose — INIetric,  15  mils — Apothecaries,  4  fluidrachms. 


60  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA   Or  THE 

AQUA  ROS.E 

Rose  Water 

Aq.  Ros. 

Stronger  Rose  Water, 

Distilled  Water,  recently  boiled,  each,  one  volume. 

Mix  them  immediately  before  use. 

Rose  Water  complies  with  the  tests  for  identity  and  purity  described  under 
Aqua  Rosce  Fortior. 

AQUA  ROS.E  FORTIOR 

Stronger  Rose  Water 

Aq.  Ros.  Fort. 

The  saturated  aqueous  distillate  prepared  by  distilling  the  fresh  flowers 
of  Rosa  centifolia  Linne  (Fam.  Rosaceoe)  with  water.  Preserve  it  in  bot- 
tles stoppered  with  a  pledget  of  purified  cotton,  in  a  cool,  dark  place. 

Stronger  Rose  Water  is  colorless  and  clear,  and  possesses  a  strong  and  pleasant 
odor  and  a  taste  of  fresh  rose  blossoms,  and  must  be  free  from  empyreuma, 
mustiness,  or  mucoid  growths. 

It  is  neutral  or  only  slightly  acid  to  litmus  and  100  mils,  when  evaporated  to 
dryness  on  a  water  bath  and  the  residue  subsequently  dried  in  an  oven  to  con- 
stant weight  at  100°  C,  yields  not  more  than  0.001  Gm.  of  residue.  It  gives 
no  reaction  with  hydrogen  sulphide  T.S.  or  with  sodium  sulphide  T.S.  (metallic 
impurities). 

Preparations — Aqua  Rosae     Unguentum  Aquae  Rosse. 

AQU^  AROMATIC.^ 

Aromatic  Waters 

Aromatic  Waters,  when  prepared  from  volatile  oils,  are  intended  to  be, 
as  nearly  as  practicable,  saturated  solutions,  which  must  be  clear  and 
free  from  solid  impurities,  and,  unless  otherwise  directed,  should  be 
made  by  the  following  general  process: 

General  Process 

Volatile  Oil,  two  milliliters  2  mils 

Purified  Talc,  fifteen  grammes 15  Gm. 

Distilled  Water,  recently  boiled,  one  thousand  milliliters  1000  mils 

Triturate  the  volatile  oil  with  the  purified  talc,  add  the  recently 
boiled  distilled  water  gradually  with  continued  trituration,  filter,  and 
pass  the  filtrate  through  the  filter  repeatedly  until  the  Aromatic  Water 
is  perfectly  clear. 


UNITED   STATES   OF  AMERICA  61 

If  preferred,  the  solution  of  the  volatile  oil  may  be  made  by  replacing 
the  purified  talc  by  purified  siliceous  earth,  or  by  pulped  filter  paper; 
or  a  solution  of  the  volatile  oil  may  be  prepared  with  recently  boiled 
distilled  water,  by  direct  addition  and  filtration,  after  shaking.  Aro- 
matic Waters  may  also  be  made  by  the  distillation  of  a  mixture  of  the 
drug  or  volatile  oil  with  water.  In  each  case  the  method  used  must 
yield  a  finished  product  which  meets  the  official  requirements  and  cor- 
responds with  that  obtained  by  the  general  process.  Aromatic  Waters 
should  not  be  permitted  to  freeze. 

ARGENTI  NITRAS 

Silver  Nitrate 

Arg.  Nit. 

It  contains,  when  finely  powdered  and  dried  to  constant  weight  in  a 
desiccator  over  sulphuric  acid,  in  the  dark,  not  less  than  99.8  per  cent, 
of  AgNOa  (169.89).  Preserve  it  in  dark  amber-colored  vials,  protected 
from  light. 

Silver  Nitrate  occurs  as  colorless,  transparent,  tabular,  rhombic  crj^stals, 
becoming  gray  or  grayish-black  on  exposure  to  light  in  the  presence  of  organic 
matter;  without  odor,  but  having  a  bitter,  caustic  and  strongly  metallic  taste. 

One  Gm.  of  Silver  Nitrate  dissolves  in  0.4  mil  of  water  and  in  30  mils  of 
alcohol  at  25°  C. ;  also  in  slightly  more  than  0. 1  nul  of  boiling  water  and  in  6.5 
mils  of  boihng  alcohol;  slightly  soluble  in  ether. 

When  heated  in  a  porcelain  crucible  to  about  200°  C,  the  salt  melts,  forming 
a  faintly  yellow  liquid,  which,  on  cooling,  congeals  to  a  pure  white,  crystalline 
mass.  At  a  higher  temperature  it  is  gradually  decomposed  with  the  evolution 
of  nitrogen  oxides. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  10)  is  clear  and  colorless  and  is  neutral 
to  litmus. 

Hydrochloric  acid  added  to  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  50)  produces 
a  white,  curdy  precipitate,  insoluble  in  nitric  acid,  but  readily  soluble  in  ammonia 
water. 

Mix  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  10)  in  a  test  tube  with  a  drop  of 
diphenylamine  T.S.  and  then  carefully  pour  on  sulphuric  acid  so  as  to  form  a 
separate  layer;  a  deep  blue  color  appears  at  the  hne  of  contact. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  10)  is  not  colored  even  faintly  blue  by  the 
addition  of  an  excess  of  ammonia  water  (copper). 

Assay — Dissolve  about  0.8  Gm.  of  finely  powdered  Silver  Nitrate,  previously 
dried  in  a  desiccator  over  sulphuric  acid,  in  the  dark,  and  accurately  weighed,  in 
50  mils  of  distilled  water,  add  2  mils  of  nitric  acid  and  2  mils  of  ferric  ammonium 
sulphate  T.S.  and  titrate  the  mixture  with  tenth-normal  potassium  sulphocyanate 
V.S.    It  shows,  in  the  dried  salt,  not  le.ss  than  99.8  per  cent,  of  AgNOa. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  potassium  sulphocyanate  V.S.  used  corresponds  to 
0.016989  Gm.  of  AgNOs.  Each  gramme  of  Silver  Nitrate,  dried  to  constant 
weight,  corresponds  to  not  less  than  58.7  mils  of  tenth-normal  potassium  sul- 
phocyanate V.S. 

Preparation — Argenti  Nitras  Fusus. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.01  Gm. — Apothecaries,  }4  grain. 


62  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA   OF   THE 

ARGENTI  NITRAS  FUSUS 

Moulded  Silver  Nitrate 

Arg.  Nit.  Fus. — Fused  Silver  Nitrate    Lunar  Caustic 

It  contains  not  less  than  94.5  per  cent,  of  AgNOa  (169.89). 

Silver  Nitrate,  one  hundred  grammes 100  Gm. 

Hydrochloric  Acid,  jour  grammes 4  Gm. 

Add  the  hydrochloric  acid  to  the  silver  nitrate,  contained  in  a  porce- 
lain dish,  and  melt  the  mixture  at  as  low  a  temperature  as  possible. 
Stir  it  well,  and  pour  the  melted  mass  into  suitable  moulds.  Preserve 
it  in  dark  amber-colored  vials,  protected  from  light. 

Moulded  Silver  Nitrate  is  a  white,  hard  solid,  generally  in  the  form  of  pencils 
or  cones,  showing  a  fibrous  fracture,  becoming  gray  or  grayish-black  on  exposure 
to  light;  odorless,  and  having  a  bitter,  caustic,  and  strongly  metallic  taste. 

One  Gm.  of  Moulded  Silver  Nitrate,  \vith  the  exception  of  about  5  per  cent, 
which  is  silver  chloride,  dissolves  in  0.4  mil  of  water  and  in  30  mils  of  alcohol 
at  25°  C;  also  in  slightly  more  than  0.1  mU  of  boiling  water  and  in  6.5  mils  of 
boiling  alcohol;  slightly  soluble  in  ether. 

A  filtered,  aqueous  solution  of  Moulded  Silver  Nitrate  (1  in  10)  is  neutral  to 
litmus,  and  responds  to  the  tests  for  identity  and  purity  under  Argenti  Nitras. 

Assay — Add  about  0.8  Gm.  of  Moulded  Silver  Nitrate,  accurately  weighed,  to 
50  mils  of  distilled  water  and,  when  the  silver  nitrate  has  dissolved,  filter  the 
solution.  Thoroughly  wash  the  filter  and  sediment  with  distilled  water,  add 
2  mils  of  nitric  acid  and  2  mils  of  ferric  ammonium  sulphate  T.S.  to  the  mixed 
filtrate  and  washings  and  titrate  this  liquid  with  tenth-normal  potassium  sulpho- 
cyanate  V.S.     It  shows  not  less  than  94.5  per  cent,  of  AgNOs. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  potassium  sulphocyanate  V.S.  used  corresponds  to 
0.016989  Gm.  of  AgNOp.  P^ach  gramme  of  Moulded  Silver  Nitrate  corresponds 
to  not  less  than  55.6  mils  of  tenth-normal  potassium  sulphocyanate  V.S. 


ARGENTI  OXIDUM 

Silver  Oxide 
Arg.  Oxid. 

It  contains,  when  dried  to  constant  weight  at  120°  C.,  not  less  than 
99.6  per  cent,  of  Ag20  (231.76).  Preserve  it  in  well-stoppered,  dark  am- 
ber-colored vials.  It  must  not  be  triturated  with  readily  oxidizable  or  com- 
bustible substances,  and  must  not  be  brought  in  contact  with  ammonia. 

Silver  Oxide  is  a  heavy,  dark  brownish-black  powder,  easily  reduced  by  ex- 
posure to  light;  odorle.ss,  and  having  a  metallic  taste. 

Silver  Oxide  is  very  slightly  soluble  in  water,  to  which,  however,  it  imparts  an 
alkaline  reaction;  insoluble  in  alcohol;  it  is  dissolved  by  nitric  acid. 

When  heated  in  a  porcelain  crucible  to  about  250°  to  300°  C,  Silver  Oxide  is 
rapidly  decomposed,  with  the  evolution  of  oxygen,  leaving  a  residue  of  metallic 
silver. 


\ 


tJNITED   STATES   OF  AMERICA  63 


Dissolve  about  0.2  Gm.  of  the  Oxide  in  a  mixture  of  1  mil  of  nitric  acid  and 
2  mils  of  distilled  water,  add  10  mils  of  ammonia  water  and  dilute  the  liquid 
to  60  mils;  10  mils  of  this  solution  does  not  immediately  become  cloudy  upon 
the  addition  of  1  mil  of  nitric  acid  {chloride). 

A  solution  of  the  Oxide  in  nitric  acid  is  colorless,  and  responds  to  the  tests 
for  identity  and  purity  under  Argenti  Nitras  when  the  tests  are  appUed  to  a 
solution  of  proportionate  strength. 

Assay— Dissolve  about  0.5  Gm.  of  Silver  Oxide,  previously  dried  to  constant 
weight  at  120°  C.  and  accurately  weighed,  in  3  mils  of  nitric  acid  and  50  mils  of 
distilled  water  in  a  flask,  add  2  mils  of  ferric  ammonium  suli)hate  T.S.  and  titrate 
the  mixture  with  tenth-normal  potassium  sulphocyanate  V.S.  It  shows,  in  the 
dried  Silver  Oxide,  not  less  than  99.6  per  cent,  of  Ag20. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  potassium  sulphocyanate  V.S.  used  corresponds  to 
0.011588  Gm.  of  AggO.  Each  gramme  of  Silver  Oxide,  dried  to  constant 
weight,  corresponds  to  not  less  than  86.0  mils  of  tenth-normal  potassium 
sulphocyanate  V.S. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.06  Gm. — Apothecaries,  1  grain. 

ARNICA 

Arnica 

Arnic. — Arnica  Flowers 

The  dried  flower-heads  of  Arnica  montana  Liime  (Fam.  Composite). 

Consisting  chiefly  of  the  tubular  and  ligulate  flowers,  occasionally  with  the 

involucre  and  receptacle  present;  involucral  bracts  narrowly  lanceolate,  about 

1  cm.  in  length,  dark  gi-een  and  pubescent;  receptacle  slightly  convex,  deeply 
pitted  and  densely  short-hairy;  ray  flowers  bright  yellow,  the  ligulate  portion 

2  cm.  in  length,  more  or  less  folded  lengthwise,  3-toothed,  7-  to  12-veined, 
pistillate;  tubular  flowers  perfect,  reddish-3^ellow,  stamens  without  a  tail-like 
appendage  (distinguished  from  anthers  in  flowers  of  Inula  Hiienium  Linne, 
which  have  two  bristles  or  long  tails  at  the  base);  the  achenes  spindle-shaped, 
from  5  to  7  mm.  in  length,  dark  brown,  finely  striate,  glandular-pubescent  and  sur- 
mounted by  a  pappus  a  little  longer  than  the  achene  and  composed  of  a  single 
circle  of  nearly  white  barbellate  bristles;  odor  charactei'istic  and*  agreeable; 
taste  bitter  and  acrid. 

The  powder  is  yellowish-brown;  pollen  grains  numerous,  from  0.025  to  0.035 
mm.  in  diameter,  spherical,  triangular  in  section  and  spinose;  non-glandular 
hairs  of  three  kinds,  either  uniceflular,  4-  to  6-celled,  or  consisting  of  a  pair  of 
unicellular  hairs  with  numerous  pores  on  the  dividing  wall;  glandular  hairs  of 
three  kinds,  either  with  a  large  unicellular  stalk  and  a  unicellular,  glandular 
head,  or  with  a  4-celled  stalk  and  a  unicellular,  glandular  head,  or  a  stalk  of  a 
double  row  of  5  cells  and  a  2-celled,  glandular  head;  pappus  consisting  of  a 
multicellular  axis  with  unicellular  branches. 

Arnica  jnelds  not  more  than  9  per  cent,  of  ash. 

Preparation — Tinctura  ArnicaR. 

ARSENI  lODIDUM 

Arsenous  Iodide 

Arsen.  lod. — Arsenic  Iodide 

It  contains,  when  dried  to  constant  weight  in  a  desiccator  over  sul- 
phuric acid,  not  less  than  99  per  cent,  of  Asia  (455.72).  Preserve  it  in 
amber-colored,  glass-stoppered  vials,  in  a  cool  place,  protected  from  light. 


64  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA   OF  THE 

Arsenous  Iodide  is  an  orange-red,  inodorous,  crystalline  powder,  stable  when 
protected  from  direct  sunlight  and  kept  in  a  cool  place. 

One  Gm.  of  Arsenous  Iodide  dissolves  in  about  12  mils  of  water  at  25°  C, 
with  partial  decomposition;  soluble  in  alcohol,  chloroform,  ether,  or  carbon 
disulphide. 

No  loss  of  iodine  occurs  when  dry  Arsenous  Iodide  is  heated  on  a  water  bath, 
but  at  higher  temperatures  it  volatilizes,  leaving  not  more  than  0.5  per  cent, 
of  residue.  \\Tien  warmed  wath  a  few  drops  of  nitric  acid,  brown  vapors  of  nitro- 
gen oxides  are  evolved,  followed  by  violet  vapors  of  iodine. 

A  freshly  prepared  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  is  colorless,  but  upon  standing 
it  gradually  decomposes  with  the  formation  of  arsenous  and  hydriodic  acids  and 
becomes  yellow. 

Add  hydrogen  sulphide  T.S.  to  an  aqueous  solution  of  Arsenous  Iodide,  acidu- 
lated with  hydrochloric  acid;  a  lemon-yellow  precipitate  of  arsenous  sulphide  is 
produced. 

Add  1  mil  of  chlorine  water  to  5  mils  of  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1 
in  20);  iodine  is  liberated  and  imparts  to  the  solution  a  light  reddish-brown 
color.  Agitate  this  mixture  with  1  mil  of  chloroform;  the  latter  acquires  a 
violet  color. 

Assay — Proceed  as  directed  under  the  Assay  for  iodides  (see  Part  II,  T'"it 
No.  5),  using  about  0.5  Gm.  of  Arsenous  Iodide,  previously  dried  to  const  it 
weight  in  a  desiccator  over  sulphuric  acid  and  accurately  weighed.  It  shows,  in 
the  dried  salt,  not  less  than  99  per  cent,  of  Asia. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  silver  nitrate  V.S.  corresponds  to  0.015191  Gm.  of 
Asia.  Each  gramme  of  Ai'senous  Iodide,  dried  to  constant  weight,  correspoads 
to  not  less  than  65.2  mils  of  tenth-normal  silver  nitrate  V.S. 

Preparation — Liquor  Arseni  et  Hydrarg3Ti  lodidi. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.005  Gm. — Apothecaries,  3^12  grain. 


ARSENI  TRIOXIDUM 

Arsenic  Trioxide 

Arsen.  Triox. — Arsenous  Acid        Arsenous  Oxide        White  Arsenic 

It  contains,  when  dried  to  constant  weight  at  100°  C,  not  less  than 
99.8  per  cent,  of  AS2O3  (197.92). 

Arsenic  Trioxide  occurs  either  as  an  opaque,  white  powder,  or  in  irregular 
masses  of  two  varieties:  one,  amorphous,  transparent,  and  colorless,  like  glass; 
the  other,  crystalline,  opaque,  and  white,  resembling  porcelain.  Frequently 
the  same  piece  has  an  opaque,  white  outer  crust  enclosing  the  glassy  variety. 
Contact  with  moist  air  gradually  changes  the  glassy  into  the  white,  opaque 
variety.    Both  are  odorless. 

Arsenic  Trioxide  is  soluble  in  water,  the  amorphous  or  glassy  variety  being 
somewhat  more  soluble  than  the  crystalline  variety;  it  is  slightly  soluble  in 
alcohol  and  in  ether  and  freely  soluble  in  glycerin  and  is  dissolved  by  hydro- 
chloric acid  and  alkaline  solutions. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  Arsenic  Trioxide  is  faintly  acid  to  litmus. 

When  slowly  heated  in  a  dry  test  tube  of  hard  glass.  Arsenic  Trioxide  yields 
a  sublimate  of  minute,  brilliant,  transparent,  octahedral  crystals  and  does  not 
show  a  yellow  color  (arsenous  sulphide).  When  heated  rapidly  to  about  200°  C, 
the  amorphous  variety  fuses,  then  sublimes,  while  the  crystalline  variety  sub- 
limes without  fusing.     Not  more  than   0.1   per  cent   of  residue  remains  after 


UNITED   STATES   OF   AMERICA  65 

sublimation.  When  covered  with  charcoal  in  an  ignition  tube,  and  strongly 
heated,  Arsenic  Trioxide  is  reduced,  and  metallic  arsenic  is  deposited  on  the 
cooler  portion  of  the  tube  as  a  mirror,  having  a  metallic  luster,  and  this  mirror 
is  readily  dissolved  by  solutions  of  sodium  or  calcium  hypochlorite. 

Hydrogen  sulphide  T.S.  colors  an  aqueous  solution  of  Arsenic  Trioxide  (1  in 
100)  yellow;  on  adding  a  few  drops  of  hydrochloric  acid  to  the  colored  solution, 
a  lemon-j-ellow  precipitate  of  arsenic  trisulphide  is  produced,  w^hich  is  completely 
soluble  in  ammonium  carbonate  T.S.  {antimony,  tin,  and  cadmium). 

Dissolve  1  Gm.  of  Arsenic  Trioxide  in  10  mils  of  ammonia  water  with  the 
aid  of  a  gentle  heat;  a  colorless  solution  is  produced. 

Assay — Dissolve  about  0.2  Gm.  of  Arsenic  Trioxide,  previously  dried  to 
constant  weight  at  100°  C.  and  accurately  weighed,  in  20  mils  of  boiling  dis- 
tilled water  by  the  gradual  addition  of  sodium  hydroxide  T.8.  until  complete 
solution  results.  Neutralize  this  solution  ■svith  diluted  sulphuric  acid  V.S., 
using  phenolphthalein  T.S.  as  indicator,  cool,  dissolve  in  it  2  Gm.  of  sodium 
bicarbonate  and  titrate  the  mixture  with  tenth-normal  iodine  V.S.,  using  starch 
T.S.  as  indicator.  It  shows,  in  the  dried  Arsenic  Trioxide,  not  less  than  99.8 
per  cent,  of  AS2O3. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  iodine  V.S.  used  corresponds  to  0.004948  Gm. 
of  AS2O3.  Each  gramme  of  Arsenic  Trioxide,  dried  to  constant  W'eight,  corre- 
sponds to  not  less  than  201.7  mils  of  tenth-normal  iodine  V.S. 

Preparations — Liquor  Acidi  Arsenosi     Liquor  Potassii  Arsenitis. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.002  Gm. — Apothecaries,  }io  grain. 


ASAFCETIDA 

Asafetida 

Asafoet. — Gum  Asafetida 

The  gum-resin  obtained  by  incising  the  rhizomes  and  roots  of  Ferula 
Asafoetida  Linne  and  Ferula  foetida  Regel  and  of  some  other  species  of 
Ferula  (Fam.  Umhelliferce) ,  indigenous  to  Persia  and  adjacent  countries, 
and  yielding  not  less  than  60  per  cent,  (or  if  powdered  50  per  cent.)  of 
alcohol-soluble  constituents. 

In  a  soft  mass,  sometimes  almost  semi-liquid,  or  in  irregular,  more  or  less 
pliable  masses  composed  of  agglutinated  tears  of  variable  size  imbedded  in  a 
yellowish-brown  or  dark  brown  matrix,  or  in  loose  ovoid  tears,  from  1  to  4  cm. 
in  diameter,  the  surface  sometimes  containing  streaks  of  violet,  yellowish-red 
or  brownish-red  and  with  a  few  vegetable  fragments;  when  fresh  the  mass  is 
either  soft  or  tough,  becoming  hard  and  occasionally  even  brittle  on  drying; 
the  surface  of  the  freshly  fractured  tears  is  milky-white  and  opaque,  changing 
gradually  on  exposure  to  a  pinkish  or  reddish-purple  or  even  reddish-brown ;  on 
moistening  with  water,  the  tears  become  milky-white;  odor  persistent,  aUia- 
ceous;  taste  bitter,  alliaceous  and  acrid. 

Triturate  one  part  of  Asafetida  with  three  parts  of  water;  it  forms  a  milk- 
white  emulsion  which  becomes  yellowish  on  the  addition  of  alkalies.  Heat  a 
fragment  of  one  of  the  tears  of  Asafetida  with  sulphuric  acid;  a  reddish-brown 
solution  is  formed;  greatly  dilute  the  latter  with  water,  filter,  and  add  an  excess 
of  any  of  the  alkalies;  the  solution  acquires  a  blue  fluorescence,  which  becomes 
more  pronoimced  upon  the  addition  of  a  slight  excess  of  ammonia  water.  An 
10 


66  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA   OF   THE 

alcoholic  solution  of  Asafetida,  on  the  addition  of  a  few  drops  of  phloroglucinol 
T.S.  and  a  few  drops  of  hydrochloric  acid,  acquires  a  cherrj'-red  color. 

Add  a  few  drops  of  ferric  chloride  T.S.  to  a  portion  of  the  alcohohc  solution 
of  Asafetida,  obtained  in  the  assay  process  given  below;  an  olive-green  color  is 
produced  {most  foreign  resins). 

Add  hydrochloric  acid  to  another  portion  of  the  same  alcohohc  solution  of 
Asafetida  until  a  faint  turbidity  results;  a  bluish-green  color  is  developed,  which 
fades  on  standing  (galbanum). 

Evaporate  a  quantity  of  the  same  alcoholic  solution,  representing  5  Gm.  of 
Asafetida,  to  25  mils,  mix  it  with  25  mils  of  petroleum  benzin,  in  a  separatory 
funnel,  and  afterwards  add  to  it  twice  its  volume  of  water  and  agitate.  The 
petroleum  benzin  layer,  after  washing  with  water  and  subsequent  separation, 
exhibits  no  green  color  when  shaken  with  30  mils  of  a  freshly  made  aqueous 
solution  of  copper  acetate  (1  in  20)  {rosin). 

Mix  2  mils  of  emulsion,  prepared  as  directed  under  Emvlsum  Asafoetidoe,  with 
5  mils  of  water  and  add  5  mils  of  sodium  hypobromite  T.S.,  so  as  to  form  a 
separate  layer;  a  red  color  is  not  produced  {ammoniac). 

The  yield  of  ash  of  the  gum-resin  does  not  exceed  15  per  cent. 

The  powder  is  prepared  by  dr\ing  the  gum-resin  over  freshly-burnt  hme  or 
by  exposure  to  currents  of  warm  air  until  it  ceases  to  lose  weight  and  then  reducing 
it  to  a  powder  at  a  low  temperature.  Diluents  of  starch  or  magnesium  carbonate 
may  be  added  in  order  to  maintain  the  powdered  form.  The  color  of  powdered 
Asafetida  is  light  brown. 

The  jield  of  ash  of  powdered  Asafetida  does  not  exceed  30  per  cent. 

Assay — Introduce  about  10  Gm.  of  Asafetida  into  a  tared,  250  mil  Erlenmeyer 
flask,  determine  the  exact  w^eight  of  the  drug,  add  100  mils  of  alcohol,  and 
having  connected  the  flask  with  an  upright  condenser,  boil  the  mixture  in  the 
flask  during  one  hour  or  until  the  di-ug  is  completely  disintegrated.  Then 
transfer  the  contents  of  the  flask  to  two  counterpoised,  plainly  folded  filters 
one  within  the  other,  so  that  the  triple  fold  of  the  inner  filter  is  laid  against  the 
single  side  of  the  outer,  and  wash  the  flask  and  filter  with  consecutive,  small  por- 
tions of  boiling  alcohol  until  the  wasliings  no  longer  produce  a  cloudiness  when 
dropped  into  water.  Collect  and  reserve  the  mixed  alcoholic  solutions,  for  the 
qualitative  tests  given  above.  Dry  the  filters  and  flask  to  a  constant  weight 
at  a  temperature  of  about  115"  C.  Now  determine  the  weight  of  the  residue 
on  the  filter  and  in  the  flask  and  calculate  its  percentage  from  the  amount  of 
Asafetida  originally  taken.  This  percentage  of  alcohol-insoluble  material,  when 
subtracted  from  100,  gives  the  percentage  of  alcohol-soluble  constituents  con- 
tained in  the  Asafetida. 

Preparations — Emulsum  Asafoetidae     PiluljE  AsafcEtidae     Tinctura  Asafoetidae. 
Average  dose — Metric,  0.25  Gm. — Apothecaries,  4  grains. 


ASPIDIUM 

Aspidium 

Male  Fern 

The  rhizome  and  stipes  of  Dnjopteris  Filix-mas  (Linn6)  Schott,  or 
of  Dryopteris  marginalis  (Linne)  Asa  Gray  (Fam.  Polypodiaceoe),  col- 
lected in  the  autumn,  freed  from  the  roots  and  dead  portions  of  rhizome 
and  stipes  and  dried  at  a  temperature  not  exceeding  70°  C.  Preserve 
Aspidium  in  tightly-closed  containers  and  protect  from  light. 


UNITED   STATES    OF   AMERICA  67 

Usually  with  the  blackish-brown  outer  layers  removed;  rhizome  1  to  3  cm. 
in  thickness,  cyhndraceous  and  nearly  straight,  or  curved  and  tapering  toward 
one  end,  usually  split  longitudinally,  roughly  scarred  with  remains  of  the  stipe- 
bases,  or  bearing  several  coarse  longitudinal  ridges  and  grooves;  stipes  cylindri- 
cal, 3  to  5  cm.  in  length,  about  6  mm.  in  thickness,  nearly  straight  or  somewhat 
curved,  tapering  toward  one  end,  and  with  occasional  elongated  patches  of  the 
etill-adhering,  blackish-brown  outer  la3'ers;  fracture  short,  pale  green  in  the 
inner  half,  the  texture  rather  spongy,  and  exliibiting,  in  an  interrupted  circle, 
from  6  to  12  vascular  bundles,  each  surrounded  with  an  endodermis;  odor  slight; 
taste  sweetish,  astringent,  bitter,  acrid.  Use  only  such  portions  as  have  retained 
their  green  color. 

Aspidium  yields  not  more  than  3  per  cent,  of  ash. 

Preparation — Oleoresina  Aspidii. 

Average  dose — Metric,  4  Gm. — Apothecaries,  60  grains. 


ASPIDOSPERMA 

Aspidosperma 

Aspidosp. — Quebracho 

The  dried  bark  of  Aspidosperma  Quebracho  bianco  Schlechtendal  (Fam. 
Apocynacece) ,  without  the  presence  or  admixture  of  more  than  2  per 
cent,  of  wood  or  other  foreign  matter. 

In  irregular  chips  or  in  longitudinal  pieces  attaining  a  length  of  14  cm.  and 
a  tliickness  of  35  mm. ;  outer  corky  layer  from  3  to  25  mm.  in  thickness,  brownish- 
gray  or  reddish-bro\\'n  and  deeply  furrowed,  frequently  somewhat  reticulate 
with  longitudinal  and  shallow  transverse  fissm-es,  the  crevices  being  occasionally 
Uned  with  the  mycelia  of  a  grayish  mould;  outer  surface  of  bark,  from  which 
the  cork  has  been  separated,  light  brown  or  reddish-brown  and  usually  more  or 
less  roughened;  inner  surface  occasionally  with  adhering  wood,  otherwise  light 
yellowish-brown  to  light  reddish-brown,  longitudinally  finely  striate  and  finely 
porous;  fracture  short-fibrous  with  projecting  bast-fibers;  nearly  inodorous, 
taste  bitter  and  slightly  aromatic. 

Under  the  microscope,  transverse  sections  of  Aspidosperma  show  a  number 
of  successive  layers  of  cork  separated  by  large  groups  of  stone  cells,  isolated 
bast-fibers  and  parenchyma;  inner  bark  with  starch-bearing  medullary  rays  1  to 
5  cells  in  width,  separating  narrow  wedges  composed  of  large  prominent  groups 
of  stone  cells  in  which  are  occasionally  included  one  or  more  thick-walled  bast- 
fibers;  bast-fibers  usually  single,  very  thick-walled,  strongly  lignified  and  sur- 
rounded with  crystal  fibers  and  starch-bearing  parenchyma. 

The  powder  is  reddish-brown;  bast-fibers  single,  very  long  and  surrounded  by 
crystal  fibers,  the  crystals  being  in  prisms  frequently  terminated  by  pyramids 
and  from  0.008  to  0.03  mm.  in  length;  stone  cells  in  large  thick  groups  composed 
of  nimierous  more  or  less  tabular  cells;  cork  cells  more  or  less  polygonal  in  out- 
line with  thick,  slightly  lignified  walls;  starch  grains  single  or  2-  to  -i-compound, 
the  individual  grains  spherical,  ovoid  or  more  or  less  plano-convex,  from  0.003 
to  0.025  mm.  in  diameter. 

Preparation — Fluidcxtractum  Aspidospermatis. 

Average  dose — Metric,  4  Gm. — Apothecaries,  60  grains. 


68  THE    PHARMACOPCEIA    OF   THE 

ATROPINA 

Atropine 

Atrop. 

An  alkaloid  [Ci7H2303N  =  289.19]  obtained  from  belladonna  and 
from  some  other  plants  of  the  Solanacece.  Preserve  it  in  well-closed 
containers,  protected  from  light. 

Atropine  occurs  in  white  rhombic  prisms;  odorless.  Great  caution  must  he 
used  in  tasting  it  and  then  only  in  very  dilute  solution. 

One  Gm.  of  Atropine  dissolves  in  455  mils  of  water,  2  mils  of  alcohol,  about 
27  mils  of  glycerin,  1  mil  of  chloroform,  and  in  25  mils  of  ether  at  25°  C. ;  also 
in  90  mils  of  water  at  80°  C.  and  in  1.2  mils  of  alcohol  at  60°  C. 

Its  saturated  aqueous  solutions  are  alkaline  to  litmus,  and  to  phenol- 
phthalein  T.S. 

It  melts  between  114°  and  116°  C. 

Gold  chloride  T.S.  yields  in  a  solution  of  Atropine  in  dilute  hydrochloric  acid 
(1  in  50)  a  lusterless  precipitate  (distinction  from  hyoscyamine,  which  yields  a 
lustrous  precipitate). 

Evaporate  about  0.01  Gm.  of  Atropine  to  dryness  in  a  porcelain  dish  on  a 
water  bath  with  a  few  drops  of  nitric  acid;  a  yellow  colored  residue  is  produced. 
Cool  this  residue  and  add  a  few  drops  of  alcohohc  potassium  hydroxide  T.S. 
and  a  fragment  of  pota.ssium  hydroxide;  an  intensely  violet  color  is  produced 
Hyoscyamine  and  hyoscine  produce  the  same  color,  but  the  presence  of  strj'ch- 
nine  or  other  alkaloids  masks  the  reaction. 

No  weighable  ash  remains  on  incinerating  0. 1  Gm.  of  Atropine. 

About  0.1  Gm.  of  Atropine,  dissolved  in  2  mils  of  sulphuric  acid,  does  not 
produce  more  than  a  slightly  yellow  solution  {readily  carbonizable  impurities) 
and  only  a  light  yellow  color  is  produced  upon  the  further  addition  of  0.1  mi/ 
of  nitric  acid  {foreign  alkaloids). 

In  a  solution  of  Atropine  in  dilute  hydrochloric  acid  (1  in  50)  platinic 
chloride  T.S.  produces  no  precipitate  {foreign  alkaloids). 

An  aqueous  solution  of  Atropine  (1  in  60),  made  with  the  aid  of  a  slight  excess 
of  diluted  sulphuric  acid,  is  rendered  turbid  by  the  addition  of  a  slight  excess 
of  sodium  hydroxide  T.S.,  but  no  turbidity  is  produced  immediately  upon  the 
addition  of  2  mils  of  ammonia  water  to  5  mils  of  the  solution  {apoatropine, 
helladonnine). 

Average  DOSE — Metric,  0.0005  Gm. — Apothecaries,  3^120  grain. 


ATROPINE  SULPHAS 

Atropine  Sulphate 

Atrop.  Sulph. 

The  sulphate  [(Ci7H2303N)2H2S04+H20  =  694.49]  of   the  alkaloid 
atropine. 

Atropine  Sulphate  occurs  as  a  white,  crystalline  powder  or  in  microscopical 
needles  and  prisms;  efflorescent  in  dry  air;  odorless.  Great  caution  must  be  u^ed 
in  tasting  it  and  then  only  in  very  dilute  solution. 

One  Gm.  of  Atropine  Sulphate  dissolves  in  0.4  mil  of  water,  5  mils  of  alcohol, 
2.5  mils  of  glycerin,  420  mils  of  chloroform  and  in  3000  mils  of  ether  at  25°  C; 
also  in  2.5  mils  of  boihng  alcohol. 


UNITED   STATES   OF  AMERICA  69 

An  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  20)  is  neutral  to  litmus. 
It  usually  melts  between  188°  and  191°  C,  but  when  anhydrous  and  free 
from  hyoscyamine,  it  melts  between  181°  and  183°  C. 

It  responds  to  the  other  tests  of  identity  and  purity  under  Atropina. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.0005  Gm. — Apothecaries,  K20  grain. 

AURANTII  AMARI  CORTEX 

Bitter  Orange  Peel 
Aurant.  Amar.  Cort. 

The  dried  rind  of  the  fruit  of  Citrus  Aurantium  amara  Linne  (Fam. 
Rutacece). 

In  narrow,  thin  bands  (ribbons),  or  more  often  elliptical,  flattened,  more  or 
less  curved,  pieces  (quarters),  varying  from  3  to  6  cm.  in  length;  outer  surface 
convex,  varying  from  reddish-  or  yellowish-brown  (ribbons)  to  greenish-brown 
(quarters),  coarsely  reticulate  and  with  the  edges  recurved;  inner  surface  con- 
cave, wliitish,  with  numerous  conical  projections  and  yellowish-white,  linear 
more  or  less  anastomosing  fibro-vascular  bundles;  fracture  hard;  transverse 
section  light  brown,  somewhat  spongj',  outer  layer  with  1  or  2  rows  of  oil  reser- 
voirs; odor  fragrant;  taste  aromatic  and  bitter. 

The  powder  is  yellowish-white  or  light  brown;  fragments  of  parenchyma  cells 
numerous,  the  walls  from  0.004  to  0.012  mm.  in  thickness;  few  fragments  of 
trachea?  with  close  spiral  markings  or  simple  pores;  occasional  membrane  crystals 
of  calcium  oxalate  in  monoclinic  prisms,  from  0.02  to  0.035  mm.  in  diameter. 
Powdered  Bitter  Orange  Peel  is  colored  yellowish  upon  the  addition  of  potassium 
hydroxide  T.S. 

Bitter  Orange  Peel  yields  not  more  than  7  per  cent,  of  ash. 
Preparations — Fluidextractum  Aurantii  Amari  Tinctura  Aurantii  Amari 

Tmctura  Cinchonae  Composita        Tinctura  Gentiana)  Composita. 

Average  dose — Metric,  1  Gm. — Apothecaries,  15  grains. 

AURANTII  DULCIS  CORTEX 

Sweet  Orange  Peel 
Aurant.  Dulc.  Cort. 

The  outer  rind  of  the  fresh,  ripe  fruit  of  Citrus  Aurantium  sinensis 
Gallesio  (Fam.  Rutaceoe). 

The  outer,  orange-yellow  layer  recently  separated  by  grating  or  paring  and 
consisting  of  epidermal  cells,  parenchyma  cells  of  the  sarcocarp  with  chromo- 
plastids,  oil  reservoirs  and  globules  of  volatile  oil;    odor  highly  fragrant;    taste 
pungently  aromatic. 
Preparation — Tinctura  Aurantii  Dulcis. 

AURI  ET  SODII  CHLORIDUM 

Gold  and  Sodium  Chloride 
Aur.  et  Sod.  Chlor. 

A  mixture  of  equal  parts  of  anhydrous  gold  chloride  [AuCl3  =  303.58] 
and  anhydrous  sodium  chloride  [NaCl  =  58.46],  representing,  when  dried 


70  THE  PHARMACOPCEIA   OF  THE 

to  constant  weight  in  a  desiccator  over  sulphuric  acid,  not  less  than 
30  per  cent,  of  metallic  gold  [Au].  Preserve  it  in  well-stoppered,  amber- 
colored  vials. 

Gold  and  Sodium  Chloride  occurs  as  an  orange-yellow  powder,  odorless, 
having  a  saline  and  metalhc  taste,  and  deliquescent  when  exposed  to  damp  air. 

Gold  and  Sodium  Chloride  is  very  soluble  in  water;  alcohol  or  ether  dissolves 
the  gold  chloride  lea\'ing  the  sodium  chloride. 

A  fragment  imparts  a  persistent,  intensely  yellow  color  to  a  non-luminous 
flame. 

An  aqueous  solution  (1  in  100)  shows  a  slightly  acid  reaction,  and  yields  with 
silver  nitrate  T.S.  a  wliite  precipitate  insoluble  in  nitric  acid  but  readily  soluble 
in  ammonia  water. 

Hold  a  glass  rod,  moistened  with  ammonia  water,  close  to  a  portion  of  Gold 
and  Sodium  Chloride;  no  white  fumes  appear  {free  hydrochloric  add). 

The  filtrate  from  the  precipitated  gold  in  the  following  assay  process,  after 
acidulation  with  hydrochloric  acid,  is  not  affected  by  hydrogen  sulphide  T.S. 
{metallic  impurities). 

Assay — Dissolve  about  0.5  Gm.  of  Gold  and  Sodium  Chloride,  previously 
dried  to  constant  weight  in  a  desiccator  over  sulphuric  acid  and  accurately 
weighed  in  a  stoppered  flask,  in  10  mils  of  distilled  water  in  a  porcelain  dish. 
Render  the  solution  alkaline  by  the  addition  of  10  mils  of  potassium  hydroxide 
T.S.,  heat  it  for  five  minutes  on  a  water  bath,  add  25  mils  or  an  excess  of  solu- 
tion of  hydrogen  dioxide  and  continue  the  heating  for  an  hour  on  a  water  bath, 
or  until  the  addition  of  a  few  drops  of  solution  of  hydrogen  dioxide  produces  no 
further  precipitation  in  the  clear  liquid.  (During  the  heating  on  the  water  bath 
occasionally  replace  the  liquid  lost  by  evaporation  by  the  addition  of  hot  dis- 
tilled water.)  Wash  the  precipitate  of  metallic  gold  with  distilled  water  slightly 
acidulated  with  h3'drochioric  acid,  dry  and  ignite  it.  Its  weight  corresponds 
to  not  less  than  30  per  cent,  of  the  weight  of  the  dried  Gold  and  Sodium 
Chloride  taken. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.005  Gm. — Apothecaries,  3'{2  grain. 


BALSAMUM  PERUVIANUM 

Balsam  of  Peru 

Bals.  Peruv.— Peru  Balsam 

A  balsam  obtained  from  Toluifera  Pereiroe  (Royle)  Baillon  (Fam. 
Leguminosoe). 

Balsam  of  Peru  is  a  viscid  liquid  of  a  dark  brown  color;  free  from  stringiness 
or  stickiness;  transparent  and  reddish-brown  in  thin  layers;  of  an  agreeable, 
vanilla-like  odor  and  a  bitter,  acrid  taste,  with  a  persistent  after-taste.  When 
swallowed  it  leaves  a  burning  sensation  in  the  throat.  It  does  not  harden  on 
exjiosure  to  the  air. 

It  is  soluble  in  alcohol,  chloroform,  and  glacial  acetic  acid  with  not  more  than 
a  slight  opalescence;   only  partly  soluble  in  ether  or  i)etroleum  benzin. 

Water,  when  agitated  with  the  Balsam,  is  acid  to  litmus. 

Specific  gravity:    1.1.30  to  1.160  at  25°  C. 

One  Gm.  of  the  Balsam  forms  a  clear  solution  when  shaken  with  a  solution 
of  3  Gm.  of  hydrated  chloral  in  2  mils  of  distilled  water  {fixed  oils). 

Shake  about  1  Gm.  of  the  Balsam  with  5  mils  of  purified  petroleum  benzin,  and 
warm  the  mixture  on  a  water  bath  for  10  minutes,  adding  a  sufficient  quantity 


UNITED    STATES   OF   AMERICA  71 

of  the  solvent  to  replace  the  loss  by  evaporation.  On  evaporating  2  mils  of  the 
benzin  solution,  no  odor  of  turpentine  is  noticeable,  and  when  the  residue  is 
treated  with  a  few  drops  of  nitric  acid,  no  green  or  bluish  color  is  produced 
{turpentine  or  rosin). 

Weigh  accurately  about  1  Gm.  of  the  Balsam  and  dissolve  it  in  100  mils 
of  alcohol,  add  1  mil  of  phenolphthalein  T.S.  and  titrate  the  solution  with  half- 
normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S.  The  acid  number  thus  obtained  is  not  less 
than  56  nor  more  than  84. 

Mix  about  3  Gm.  of  the  Balsam,  accurately  weighed,  with  30  mils  of  sodium 
hydroxide  T.S.  and  shake  the  mixture  for  a  few  minutes  with  GO  mils  of  ether. 
Then  add  about  3  Gm.  of  powdered  tragacanth,  filter  and  transfer  50  mils  of 
the  ethereal  filtrate  (representing  five-sixths  of  the  weight  of  the  Balsam  taken) 
into  a  tared,  conical  flask.  Evaporate  the  ether  and  dry  the  residue  to  con.stant 
weight  at  100°  C.  The  weight  of  the  residue.of  cinnamein  so  obtained  is  not  less 
than  50  per  cent,  nor  more  than  56  per  cent,  of  the  weight  of  the  Balsam  repre- 
sented by  the  50  mils  of  ethereal  .solution  taken.  Dissolve  this  residue  in  25 
mils  of  alcohol,  add  25  mils  of  half-normal  alcoholic  potassium  hydroxide  V.S. 
and  heat  the  mixture  carefully  in  a  flask  provided  with  a  reflux  condenser, 
during  half  an  hour  on  a  water  bath.  Then  add  1  mil  of  phenolphthalein  T.S.  and 
titrate  the  excess  of  alkali  with  half-normal  hydrochloric  acid  V.S.  The  amount 
of  half-normal  alcoholic  potassium  hydroxide  V.S.  consumed  corresponds  to 
a  saponification  value  for  the  cinnamein  of  from  235  to  238  (see  Part  II,  Test 
No.  10). 

BALSAMUM  TOLUTANUM 

Balsam  of  Tolu 

Bals.  Tolu. — Tolu  Balsam 

A  balsam  obtained  from  Toluifera  Balsamum  Liime  (Fam.  Legu- 
minosce). 

Balsam  of  Tolu  is  a  yellowish-brown,  or  brown,  plastic  solid,  becoming 
brittle  when  old,  dried,  or  exposed  to  cold.  It  is  transparent  in  thin  layers, 
has  a  pleasant,  aromatic  odor,  resembling  that  of  vanilla,  and  a  mUd,  aromatic 
taste. 

Balsam  of  Tolu  is  nearlj-  insoluble  in  water  and  in  petroleum  benzin.  It  is 
soluble  in  alcohol,  chloroform,  and  ether.  It  is  dissolved  by  solutions  of  the 
fixed  alkalies,  usually  leaving  an  insoluble  residue. 

An  alcoholic  solution  of  the  Balsam  (1  m  20)  is  acid  to  litmus. 

Shake  about  1  Gm.  of  the  Balsam  with  25  mils  of  carbon  disulphide,  allow  it 
to  stand  for  thirty  minutes,  filter  the  liquid  and  evaporate  15  mils  of  the  filtrate 
to  dryness.  The  residue  thus  obtained,  when  dissolved  in  glacial  acetic  acid, 
does  not  show  a  green  color  on  the  addition  of  a  few  drops  of  sulphuric  acid 
(rosin).  The  remaining  portion  of  the  filtrate,  when  shaken  with  an  equal 
volume  of  an  aqueous  solution  of  copper  acetate  (1  in  1000),  does  not  acquire 
a  green  color  [rosin  or  copaiba). 

Dissolve  about  1  Gm.  of  the  Balsam,  accurately  weighed,  in  50  mils  of  alcohol, 
add  1  mil  of  phenolphthalein  T.S.  and  titrate  the  solution  with  half-normal 
alcoholic  potassiimi  hydroxide  V.S.  The  acid  number  thus  obtained  is  not 
less  than  112  nor  more  than  168.  Now  add  sufficient  half-normal  alcoholic 
potassium  hydroxide  V.S.  to  the  neutralized  liquid  to  make  the  total  amount  of 
the  volumetric  alkali  solution  exactly  20  mils;  heat  the  liquid  on  a  water  bath  for 
half  an  hour,  under  a  reflux  conden,ser,  and  allow  it  to  cool.  Mix  this  hquid  with 
200  mils  of  distilled  water,  or  more  if  necessary',  and  titrate  the  excess  of  potas- 
sium hydroxide  with  half-normal  sulphuric  acid  V.S.;  the  total  amount  of  half- 
normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S.  consumed  corresponds  to  a  saponification 
value  of  not  less  than  151  nor  more  than  220  (see  Part  II,  Test  No.  10). 
Preparations — Syrupus     Tolutanus     (from    Tincture)         Tinctura     Benzoini 

Composita        Tinetura  Tolutana. 


72  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA   OF   THE 


BELLADONN.^  FOLIA 

Belladonna  Leaves 

Bellad.  Fol. — Deadly  Nightshade  Leaves      Belladonnse  foUum  P.  I. 

The  dried  leaves'and  tops  of  Atropa  Belladonna  Linne  (Fam.  Solana- 
cece),  without  the  presence  or  admixture  of  more  than  10  per  cent,  of 
its  stems  or  other  foreign  matter,  and  yielding  not  less  than  0.3  per 
cent,  of  the  total  alkaloids  of  Belladonna  Leaves. 

Usually  much  twisted  and  matted  together;  leaves  much  crumpled;  when 
Boaked  in  water  and  spread  out,  the  entire  leaves  from  6  to  20  cm.  in  length,  4  to 
12  cm.  in  breadth,  broadly  ovate,  summits  acute,  margins  entire,  narrowed  into 
the  long  petioles;  upper  surfaces  brownish-green,  lower  surfaces  grayish-green, 
epidermis  more  or  less  papillose  and  shghtly  hairy;  flowers  with  yellowish- 
purple,  campanulate  corollas;  fruits  globular,  subtended  by  the  calyx,  dark  green 
or  greenish-brown,  and  with  numerous  small  seeds;  odor  distinct,  especially  on 
moistening;  taste  somewhat  bitter  and  acrid. 

Stems  of  variable  length  not  exceeding  7  mm.  in  diameter,  longitudinally 
wrinkled,  older  parts  smooth  and  usually  hollow,  younger  parts  flattened  and 
finely  hairy. 

The  powder  is  dark  green,  consisting  of  irregular  fragments  of  leaf  tissues 
and  woody  elements;  calcium  oxalate  in  sphenoidal  micro-crystals;  hairs  few, 
the  non-glandular  being  simple,  2-  to  5-celled,  the  glandular  with  stalks  of  1  to 
3  cells;  trachege  with  annular,  spiral,  scalariform  or  reticulate  thickenings  and 
with  bordered  pores;  starch  grains  and  pollen  grains  few;  occasional  fragments 
of  the  stems  of  Belladonna  with  long,  thin-walled  and  shghtly  lignified  bast- 
fibers. 

Raphides  must  not  be  present  (leaves  and  stems  of  Phytolacca  decandra  Linn6). 

Belladonna  Leaves  yield  not  more  than  20  per  cent,  of  ash. 

Assay — Proceed  as  directed  under  BelladonncB  Radix  (page  73),  using  15  Gm. 
of  Belladonna  Leaves,  in  No.  60  powder,  increasing  the  amount  of  water  added 
after  maceration  to  25  mils  and,  before  titration,  treating  the  final  residue  twice 
with  5  mils  of  ether,  evaporating  to  dryness  each  time. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  sulphuric  acid  V.S.  consumed  corresponds  to  28.92 
milligrammes  of  the  total  alkaloids  of  Belladonna  Leaves. 

Preparations  —  Extractum    Belladonnse    Fohorum  Tinctura    Belladonnas 

Foliorum      Unguentum  Belladonna;  (from  Extract). 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.06  Gm. — Apothecaries,  1  grain. 


BELLADONNA  RADIX 

Belladonna  Root 

Bellad.  Rad.— Deadly  Nightshade  Root 

The  dried  root  of  Atroya  Belladonna  Linnd  (Fam.  Solanacece),  without 
the  presence  or  admixture  of  more  than  10  per  cent,  of  its  stem-bases 
or  other  foreign  matter,  and  yielding  not  less  than  0.45  per  cent,  of  the 
total  alkaloids  of  Belladonna  Root.  Preserve  Belladonna  Root  in 
tightly-closed  containers  adding  a  few  drops  of  chloroform  or  carbon 
tetrachloride  from  time  to  time  to  prevent  attack  by  insects. 


UNITED   STATES    OF   AMERICA  73 

Cylindrical  or  somewhat  tapering,  usually  split  into  longitudinal  pieces, 
from  0.5  to  2.5  cm.  in  thickness;  externally  pale  brownish-gray,  longitudinally 
wrinkled,  outer  layers  of  the  periderm  rather\soft,  frequently  abraded,  and  thus 
showing  lighter  patches;  fracture  nearly  smooth,  mealy,  on  breaking,  emitting 
a  pulT  of  dust  consisting  chiefly  of  starch  grains;  internally  whitish,  with.a  distinct 
cambium  zone  and  yellowish  wood  wedges;  nearly  inodorous;  taste  sweetish, 
afterwards  bitterish  and  strongly  acrid. 

Transverse  sections  of  Belladonna  Root  when  moistened  with  iodine  T.S. 
are  colored  bluish-black  and  by  transmitted  light  show  an  imperfectly  radiate 
structure  within  and  near  a  conspicuous  cambium  line.  Under  the  microscope, 
sections  exhibit  a  bark  and  wood  composed  mainly  of  parenchyma,  the  cells 
being  filled  with  starch  grains,  single  and  2-  to  6-  or  more  compound,  the  indi- 
vidual grains  being  somewhat  spherical  and  from  0.003  to  0.03  mm.  in  diameter. 
A  section  cleared  with  hydrated  chloral  T.S.  shows  in  both  bark  and  wood 
occasional  cells  of  parenchyma  filled  with  sphenoidal  micro-crystals  of  calcium 
oxalate;  bark  free  from  b:ist-fibers;  wood  containing  scattered  groups  of  large 
trachea;  with  simple  and  bordered  pores  or  reticulated  tliickenings,  and  associated 
in  older  roots  with  wood-fibers. 

Stem  fragments  of  Atropa  Belladonna  occur  either  separate  or  attached  to 
the  roots;  light  brown  or  greenish-brown;  finely,  longitudinally  wrinkled,  with 
transverse  leaf-scars;   pith  frequently  hollow. 

Under  the  microscope,  sections  of  Belladonna  stem  show  beneath  the  endo- 
dermis  an  interrupted  circle  of  bast-fibers  either  singly  or  in  small  groups,  the 
walls  of  which  are  relatively  thin  and  shghtly  lignified.  In  the  internal  phloem 
also  occur  isolated  small  groups  of  bast-fibers  similar  to  those  found  in  the  inner 
bark. 

The  powder  is  light  brown;  starch  grains  numerous,  from  0.003  to  0.030  mm. 
in  diameter,  spherical,  plano-convex,  polygonal,  and  2-  to  6-  or  more  compound; 
sphenoidal  micro-crystals  numerous,  from  0.003  to  0.010  mm.  in  length; 
fragments  of  cork  cells  and  tracheae  with  wood-fibers  few;  occasional  frag- 
ments of  stems  of  Belladonna  showing  long,  thin-walled  and  shghtly  Ugnified 
bast-fibers. 

Belladonna  Root  j-ields  not  more  than  7  per  cent,  of  ash. 

Assa> — Introduce  15  Gm.  of  Belladonna  Root,  in  No.  60  powder,  into  a  250  mil 
flask  and  add  150  mils  of  a  mixture  of  chloroform,  1  volume,  and  ether,  2  volumes. 
Stopper  the  flask,  shake  it  well  and  allow  it  to  stand  ten  minutes,  then  add  5  mils  of 
ammonia  water  and  shake  the  flask  vigorously  every  ten  minutes  during  two  hours. 
Now  add  15  mils  of  distilled  water,  again  shake  the  flask  well,  and,  when  the 
drug  has  settled,  decant  100  mils  of  the  solution,  representing  10  Gm.  of  Bella- 
donna Root.  Filter  the  solution  through  a  pledget  of  purified  cotton  into  a 
separator,  and  rinse  the  graduate  and  cotton  with  a  little  ether.  Completely 
extract  the  alkaloids  from  the  solution  by  shaking  out  repeatedly  with  weak 
sulphuric  acid.  Collect  the  acid  wasliings  in  a  separator,  add  ammonia  water 
until  the  solution  is  decidedly  alkaline  to  litmus,  and  completely  extract  the 
alkaloids  by  shaking  out  repeatedly  with  cliloroform.  Evaporate  the  combined 
chloroform  washings  to  dryness,  dissolve  the  alkaloids  from  the  residue  in 
exactly  5  mils  of  tenth-normal  sulphuric  acid  V.S.,  and  titrate  the  excess  of 
acid  with  fiftieth-normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S.,  using  cochineal  T.S.  as 
indicator. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  sulphuric  acid  V.S.  consumed  corresponds  to  28.92 
milligrammes  of  the  total  alkaloids  of  Belladonna  Root  (see  Proximate  Assays, 
Part  II). 

Preparations — Fluidextractum  BeUadonnse  Radicis        Linimentum  Belladonnae 

(from  Fluidextract). 

Average  dose — ]\Ietric,  0.045  Gm. — Apothecaries,  %  grain. 


74  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA   OF   THE 

BENZALDEHYDUM 

Benzaldehyde 
Benzaldehyd. 

An  aldehyde  produced  synthetically  or  obtained  from  oil  of  bitter 
almond  and  containing  not  less  than  85  per  cent,  of  CvHeO  or 
CeHs.CHO  (106.05).  Preserve  it  in  small,  well-stoppered  bottles,  pro- 
tected from  light. 

Benzaldehyde  is  a  colorless,  or  yellowish,  strongly  refractive  liquid,  having  a 
bitter-almond-like  odor,  and  a  burning,  aromatic  taste. 

It  is  slightly  soluble  in  water,  miscible  with  alcohol,  ether,  or  fixed  or  vola- 
tile oils. 

Specific  gravity:   about  1.045  at  25°  C. 

Shake  10  drops  of  Benzaldehyde  with  5  mils  of  distilled  water,  add  0.5  mil 
of  potassium  hydroxide  T.S.  and  0.1  mil  of  ferrous  sulphate  T.S.,  and  warm  the 
mixture  gently.  Now  add  a  slight  excess  of  hydrochloric  acid  to  the  mixture; 
no  greenish-blue  color  nor  blue  precipitate  is  produced  within  fifteen  minutes 
{hydrocyanic  acid). 

Hold  the  looped  end  of  a  piece  of  clean  copper  wire  in  a  non-luminous  flame 
until  it  glows,  without  coloring  the  flame  green,  cool  the  wire,  dip  the  loop 
into  Benzaldehyde,  ignite  the  latter  and  hold  it  so  that  the  liquid  bums  out- 
side of  the  non-luminous  flame.  On  slowly  bringing  the  flame  from  the  burn- 
ing Benzaldehyde  on  the  loop  in  contact  with  the  lower  outer  edge  of  the  non- 
luminous  flame,  no  green  tinge  is  discernible  {chlorinated  products). 

Dissolve  1  mil  of  Benzaldehyde  in  20  mils  of  alcohol,  add  distilled  water 
until  a  slight  turbidity  is  produced,  and  maintain  a  brisk  evolution  of  hydrogen 
for  one  hour  by  the  addition  of  zinc  and  diluted  sulphuric  acid.  Filter  and 
evaporate  the  liquid  to  about  20  mils  and  boil  10  mils  of  the  evaporated  liquid 
with  1  drop  of  potassivun  dichromate  T.S.;  no  violet  color  is  produced  {nitro- 
benzene). 

Assay — Dissolve  about  3  mils  of  freshly  redistilled  phenylhydrazine  in  60 
mils  of  alcohol  and  titrate  25  mils  of  the  solution,  which  must  always  be  freshly 
prepared,  with  half-normal  hydrochloric  acid  V.S.,  using  methyl  orange  T.S. 
as  indicator.  To  about  1  Gm.  of  the  Benzaldehyde,  accurately  weighed,  add  25 
mils  of  the  phenylhydrazine  solution  just  prepared  and  allow  it  to  stand  for 
thirty  minutes.  Add  a  drop  of  methyl  orange  T.S.,  and  acidify  the  mixture 
by  adding  a  measured  excess  of  half -normal  hydrochloric  acid  V.S.  Filter  the 
mixture  and  wash  the  precipitate  with  small  portions  of  distilled  water  until  the 
washings  cease  to  redden  blue  litmus  paper.  Then  titrate  the  excess  of  hydro- 
cliloric  acid  in  the  filtrate  with  half-normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S.  Subtract 
the  number  of  mils  of  half-normal  hydrochloric  acid  V.S.  consumed,  from  the 
number  of  mils  of  half-normal  hydrochloric  acid  V.S.  used  in  titrating  the  25 
mils  of  phenylhydrazine  solution;  the  difference  multiplied  by  0.053,  gives  the 
weight  of  the  Benzaldehyde  present. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.03  mil — Apothecaries,  j^  minim. 

BENZINUM  PURIFICATUM 

Purified  Petroleum  Benzin 

Benzin.  Purif.— Petroleum  Ether 
A  purified  distillate  from  American  petroleum  consisting  of  hydro- 
carbons, ciiiefly  of  the  marsh-gas  series.    Preserve  it  carefully  in  well- 
closed  containers,  in  a  cool  place,  remote  from  fire. 


UNITED   STATES   OF  AMERICA  75 

Purified  Petroleum  Benzin  is  a  clear,  colorless,  non-fluorescent,  volatile  liquid, 
of  an  ethereal  or  faint,  petroleum-like  odor,  and  having  a  neutral  reacition.  It  is 
highly  inflammable  and  its  vapor,  when  mixed  with  air  and  ignited,  explodes 
violently. 

It  is  practically  insoluble  in  water;  freely  soluble  in  alcohol,  and  miscible 
with  ether,  chloroform,  benzene,  volatile  oils,  and  fixed  oils,  with  the  exception 
of  castor  oil. 

Specific  gravity:   0.638  to  0.660  at  25°  C. 

It  distils  completely  between  40°  and  80°  C. 

Evaporate  10  mils  of  Purified  Petroleum  Benzin  from  a  piece  of  clean  filter 
paper;  no  greasy  stain  remain.s,  and  the  odor  is  not  disagreeable  nor  notably 
sulphuretted.  Not  more  than  0.0015  Gm.  of  residue  remains  on  evaporating 
50  mils  of  Purified  Petroleum  Benzin  at  a  temperature  not  exceeding  40°  C. 

Boil  10  mils  of  Purified  Petroleum  Benzin  for  a  few  minutes  with  one-fourth 
its  volume  of  an  alcoholic  solution  of  ammonia  (1  in  10)  and  a  few  drops  of  silver 
nitrate  T.S.;  the  liquid  does  not  turn  brown  {pyrogenous  -products  and  sulphur 
compounds). 

Add  5  drops  of  Purified  Petroleum  Benzin  to  a  mixture  of  40  drops  of  sul- 
phuric acid  and  10  drops  of  nitric  acid  in  a  test  tube,  warm  the  liquid  for  about 
ten  minutes,  set  it  aside  for  half  an  hour,  and  chlute  it  in  a  shallow  dish  with 
water;  no  odor  of  nitrobenzene  is  evolved  {benzene). 


BENZOINUM 

Benzoin 

Benzoin. — Gum  Benjamin 

A  balsamic  resin  obtained  from  Styrax  Benzoin  Dryander  and  some 
other  species  of  Styrax  (Fam.  Styracacece)  growing  in  the  East  Indies 
and  known  in  commerce  as  Sumatra  Benzoin  and  Siam  Benzoin. 

Sumatra  Benzoin — In  blocks  or  lumps  of  var>-ing  size,  made  up  of  tears, 
compacted  together  with  a  reddish-brown,  reddish-gray,  or  grayish-brown 
resinous  mass;  tears  externally  yellowish  or  rusty-brown,  milky-white  on  fresh 
fracture;  hard  and  brittle  at  ordinary  temperatures,  but  softened  by  heat  and 
becoming  gritty  on  chewnng;  odor  aromatic  and  upon  digesting  with  boiUng 
water  suggesting  the  odor  of  cinnamic  acid  or  storax;  taste  aromatic  and  slightly 
acrid. 

Heat  a  few  fragments  of  Sumatra  Benzoin  in  a  test  tube;  a  sublimate  is  formed 
consisting  of  plates  and  small,  rod-hke  crystals  that  strongly  polarize  light. 

Add  carefully  an  ethereal  solution  of  Sumatra  Benzoin  to  a  small  quantity  of 
sulphuric  acid  contained  in  a  porcelain  di.sh;  the  solution  is  colored  a  brownish- 
red.  Not  less  than  75  per  cent,  of  Sumatra  Benzoin  dissolves  in  alcohol;  the 
alcoholic  solution,  upon  the  addition  of  water,  becomes  milky  and  is  acid  to 
litmus. 

Sumatra  Benzoin  does  not  yield  more  than  2.5  per  cent,  of  ash. 

Siam  Benzoin — In  pebble-Uke  tears  of  variable  size,  compressed,  yellowish- 
brown  to  rusty-brown  externally,  milkj'-white  on  fracture,  separate  or  very 
slightly  agglutinated;  hard  and  brittle  at  ordinary  temperatures  but  softened 
by  heat  and  becoming  plastic  on  chewing;  odor  agreeable,  balsamic,  vanilla-like; 
taste  slightly  acrid. 

Heat  a  few  fragments  of  Siam  Benzoin  in  a  test  tube;  a  sublimate  is  formed 
directly  above  the  melted  mass  consisting  of  numerous  long,  rod-shaped  crystals, 
which  do  not  strongly  polarize  Ught. 


76  THE    PHARMACOPCEIA   OF   THE 

Add  carefully  an  ethereal  solution  of  Siam  Benzoin  to  a  small  quantity  of 
sulphuric  acid  contained  in  a  porcelain  dish;  the  solution  is  colored  purplish-red. 
Not  less  than  90  per  cent,  of  Siam  Benzoin  dissolves  in  alcohol;  the  alcoholic 
solution  upon  the  addition  of  water  becomes  milky  and  is  acid  to  litmus. 

Siam  Benzoin  does  not  yield  more  than  2  per  cent,  of  ash. 

The  tests  irhich  follow  apply  to  Sumatra  and  Siam  Benzoin: 

Heat  gently  1  to  2  Gm.  of  Benzoin  with  15  mils  of  purified  petroleum  benzin, 
and,  after  cooling,  transfer  the  supernatant  liquid  to  a  .separatory  funnel,  wash 
once  with  10  mils  of  saturated  sodium  bicarbonate  solution  and  then  with  water 
until  free  from  bicarbonate;  on  the  addition  of  20  mils  of  a  copper  acetate  solu- 
tion (1  in  200)  and  vigorously  shaking  the  mixture  no  green  color  is  noticeable 
in  the  petroleum  benzin  laj^er  {rosin  and  foreign  resins). 

Treat  about  1  Gm.  of  powdered  Benzoin  with  15  mils  of  warm  carbon  di- 
sulphide,  filter  the  solution,  wa.sh  the  filter  uith  an  additional  5  mils  of  carbon 
disulphide  and  allow  the  mixed  liquids  to  evaporate  spontaneously;  not  le.ss 
than  12.5  per  cent,  of  residue  remains,  which  corresponds  to  the  tests  for  identity 
under  Acidum  Benzoicum. 

Preparations — Adeps  Benzoinatus       Tinctura  Benzoini       Tinctura  Benzoini 
Composita. 

Average  dose — Metric,  1  Gm. — Apothecaries,  15  grains. 


BENZOSULPHINIDUM 

Benzosulpliinide 

Benzosulphinid.— Saccharin        Glusidum 

The  anhydride  [C7H5O3NS  or  C6H4S02.C0NH  =  183.12]  of  ortho- 
sulphamide-benzoic  acid. 

Benzosulphinide  occurs  as  white  crystals  or  as  a  white,  crystalline  powder; 
odorless,  or  having  a  faint,  aromatic  odor;  its  solutions  have  an  intensely 
sweet  taste. 

One  Gm.  of  Benzosulphinide  dissolves  in  290  mils  of  water  and  in  31  mils 
of  alcohol  at  25°  C.;  also  in  about  25  mils  of  boiling  water;  slightly  soluble  in 
chloroform  or  ether.  It  is  easily  dissolved  by  ammonia  water,  by  alkali  hydroxide 
solutions,  also  by  a  solution  of  sodium  bicarbonate,  with  the  evolution  of  carbon 
dioxide. 

A  saturated  aqueous  solution  of  Benzosulphinide  is  acid  to  litmus. 

It  melts  between  219°  and  222°  C. 

When  Benzosulphinide  is  fused  at  a  low  temperatm-e  with  about  5  times  its 
weight  of  sodium  hydroxide,  ammonia  vapors  are  evolved;  continue  the  heating 
until  the  evolution  of  ammonia  has  ceased,  treat  the  residue  with  10  mils  of 
distilled  water,  neutralize  the  solution  with  diluted  hydrochloric  acid,  and  filter; 
the  filtrate  becomes  violet  on  the  addition  of  a  dro])  of  ferric  chloride  T.S. 

Incinerate  about  1  Gm.  of  Benzosulphinide;  not  more  than  0.5  per  cent,  of 
a.sh  remains. 

A  solution  of  0.2  Gm.  of  Benzosulphinide  in  10  mils  of  sulphuric  acid  kept  at 
a  temperature  of  from  48°  to  50°  C.,  on  a  water  bath,  develops  not  more  than 
a  brown  color  within  ten  minutes  {carbonizable  impurities). 

A  solution  of  about  0.2  Gm.  of  Benzosulphinide  in  5  mils  of  potassium  hydrox- 
ide T.S.  remains  clear,  and,  when  mixed  with  5  mils  of  alkaline  cupric  tartrate 
\'.S.,  does  not  depo.sit  cuprous  oxide  on  heating  (glucose,  milk-sugar). 

Add  ferric  chloride  T.S.,  drop  by  drop,  to  10  mils  of  a  hot,  saturated  aqueous 
solution  of  Benzosulphinide;  no  precipitate  nor  violet  color  appears  {benzoic  or 
salicylic  acid). 


UNITED   STATES    OF   AMERICA  77 

An  aqueous  solution  of  Benzosulphinide  (1  in  10,000)  lias  a  distinctly  sweet 
taste,  comiJarable  with  that  of  an  aqueous  solution  of  sugar  (1  in  20). 

No  odor  of  ammonia  is  noticeable  on  warming  about  0.5  Gm.  of  Benzosul- 
phinide with  about  1  Gm.  of  magnesia  and  10  mils  of  distilled  water  {ammonium 
compounds). 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.2  Gm. — Apothecaries,  3  grains. 


BETAEUCAIN.E  HYDROCHLORIDUM 

Betaeucaine  Hydrochloride 
Betaeucain.  Hydrochl.— Eucaine  Chloride        Eucaine 

A  synthetic  derivative  of  piperidine,  containing,  when  dried  to  con- 
stant weight  at  100°  C,  not  less  than  99  per  cent,  of  the  hydrochloride 
of  2,  6,  6-trimethyl-4  benzoyl-oxy-piperidine  [C16H21O2NHCI  or  C5H7N 
(CH3)30(C6H5CO)HCl  =  283.65]. 

Betaeucaine  Hydrochloride  occurs  as  a  white,  crystalline  powder;  odorless. 
It  is  permanent  in  the  air. 

One  Gm.  of  Betaeucaine  Hydrochloride  is  soluble  in  30  mils  of  water,  35  mils 
of  alcohol  and  6  mils  of  chloroform  at  25°  C;  it  is  more  soluble  in  boiling  water 
and  boiling  alcohol. 

Its  saturated  aqueous  solution  is  neutral  to  htmus. 

Silver  nitrate  T.S.  produces  in  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  100)  a 
white  precipitate,  insoluble  in  nitric  acid. 

About  0.1  Gm.  of  Betaeucaine  Hydi-o chloride  dissolved  in  20  mils  of  distilled 
water  yields  with  one  drop  of  ammonia  water  a  white  precipitate,  which  dissolves 
on  agitation.  On  now  adding  three  more  drops  of  ammonia  water  to  this  solu- 
tion, a  white  precipitate  is  again  produced,  which  is  dissolved  on  the  addi- 
tion of  an  equal  volume  of  distilled  water.  The  further  addition  of  ammonia 
water  again  produces  a  precipitate,  which  dissolves  on  adding  10  mils  of  dis- 
tilled water,  but  this  solution  is  not  affected  by  the  further  addition  of  am- 
monia water. 

Separate  portions  of  10  mils  each  of  a  saturated  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt 
yield  a  white,  curdy  precipitate  on  the  addition  of  a  few  drops  of  mercuric 
chloride  T.S.,  and  a  yellow,  curdy  precipitate  on  the  addition  of  a  few  drops  of  a 
mixture  of  equal  volumes  of  potassium  chromate  T.S.  and  diluted  sulphuric 
acid. 

No  color  is  produced  when  0.1  Gm.  of  Betaeucaine  Hydrochloride  is  dis- 
solved in  1  mil  of  sulphuric  acid  {readily  carbonizable  impurities). 

Five  mils  of  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  100)  gives  no  permanent 
precipitate  on  the  addition  of  5  mils  of  mercuric  chloride  T.S.  {cocaine  and 
alphaeucaine) . 

No  weighable  ash  remains  on  incinerating  0.5  Gm.  of  Betaeucaine  Hydro- 
cliloride. 

Assay — Dissolve  about  0.5  Gm.  of  Betaeucaine  Hydrochloride,  previously 
dried  to  constant  weight  at  100°  C.  and  accurately  weighed,  in  100  mils  of 
alcohol,  winch  must  be  previously  neutraUzed  with  tenth-normal  potassium 
hydroxide  \".S.,  using  phenolphthalein  T.S.  as  indicator,  and  titrate  this  alco- 
holic solution  ^\-ith  tenth-normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S.  until  the  pink 
color  is  restored.  It  shows,  in  the  dried  salt,  not  less  than  99  per  cent,  of  C15H21 
O2NHCI. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S.  used  corresponds  to 
0.028365  Gm.  of  C15H21O2NHCI.  Each  gramme  of  Betaeucaine  Hydrochloride, 
previously  dried,  corresponds  to  not  less  than  34.9  mils  of  tenth-normal  potassium 
hydroxide  V.S. 


78  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA   OF   THE 


BETANAPHTHOL 

Betanaphtliol 

Betanaph.— Naphthol 

A  monohydroxyphenol  [CioIl70H  =  144.06]  of  the  naphthalene  series. 
Preserve  it  in  well-closed  containers  protected  from  light. 

Betanaphthol  occurs  in  colorless  or  pale  buff-colored,  shining  crystalline 
lamina;,  or  as  a  white  or  yellowish-white,  crystalline  powder,  having  a  faint, 
phenol-like  odor  and  a  pungent  taste.     Permanent  in  the  air. 

One  Gm.  of  Betanaphthol  dissolves  in  about  1000  mils  of  water,  0.8  mil  of 
alcohol,  17  mils  of  chloroform  and  in  1.3  mils  of  ether  at  25°  C;  also  in  80  mils 
of  boiling  water;  soluble  in  glycerin  and  olive  oil  and  easily  dissolved  by  alkali 
hydroxide  solutions. 

A  hot,  saturated  aqueous  solution  of  Betanaphthol  is  neutral  to  litmus. 

Betanaphthol  melts  between  120°  and  122°  C. 

Betanaphthol  subUmes  readily  when  heated  and  volatilizes  with  the  vapors 
of  alcohol  or  water. 

A  cold,  saturated  aqueous  solution  of  Betanaphthol,  when  mixed  with  ammonia 
water,  exhibits  a  faint,  bluish  fluorescence. 

Add  about  0.1  Gm.  of  Betanaphthol  to  5  mils  of  an  aqueous  solution  of  potas- 
sium hydroxide  (1  in  4),  then  add  1  mil  of  chloroform,  and  gently  warm  the 
mixture;  the  aqueous  layer  acquires  a  blue  color,  changing  afterwards  to  green 
and  brown. 

Ferric  chloride  T.S.  colors  a  cold,  saturated  aqueous  solution  of  Betanaphthol 
greenish,  and  after  some  time  causes  the  separation  of  whitish  flakes,  which 
turn  brown  upon  the  apphcation  of  heat. 

Incinerate  about  2  Gm.  of  Betanaphthol;  not  more  than  0.05  per  cent,  of  ash 
remains. 

Dissolve  0.5  Gm.  of  Betanaphthol  in  25  mils  of  ammonia  water;  no  residue 
remains  (naphthalene),  and  the  solution  does  not  have  a  deeper  color  than  pale 
yellow  (other  organic  impurities). 

A  cold,  saturated  aqueous  solution  of  Betanaphthol,  on  the  addition  of  a 
few  drops  of  iodine  T.S.,  followed  by  sodium  hydroxide  T.S.  in  excess,  shows 
no  violet  color  (alphanaphthol) . 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.25  Gm. — Apothecaries,  4  grains. 


BISMUTHI  BETANAPHTHOLAS 

Bismuth  Betanaphtliol 

Bism.  Betanaph. 

A  compound  of  bismuth  and  betanaphthol  of  somewhat  varying  com- 
position, yielding  not  less  than  15  per  cent,  of  betanaphthol  [C10H7OH] 
and,  upon  ignition,  not  less  than  73  per  cent,  nor  more  than  78  per 
cent,  of  bismuth  oxide  [Bi203]. 

Bismuth  Betanaphthol  is  a  buff-colored  to  grayish-brown,  amorphous  powder; 
odorless  or  having  a  faint  odor  of  betanaphthol;  tasteless;  permanent  in  the  air. 

Bismuth  Betanaphtliol  is  nearly  insoluble  in  water,  alcohol,  chloroform  or 
ether;  partially  dissolved  by  mineral  acids  with  the  formation  of  the  corre- 
sponding bismuth  salts  and  the  liberation  of  betanaphthol. 


UNITED   STATES   OF  AMERICA  79 

When  strongly  heated  Bismuth  Betanaphthol  chars  and  finally  leaves  a 
grayish-yellow  residue,  which  is  blackened  by  hydrogen  sulphide  T.S. 

Shake  about  1  Gm.  of  Bismuth  Betanai)hthol,  accurately  weighed,  with 
20  mils  of  chloroform,  filter  the  mixture,  allow  the  filtrate  to  evaporate  spon- 
taneously and  dry  the  residue  in  a  desiccator  over  sulphuric  acid;  the  weight 
of  this  residue  does  not  exceed  1  i)er  cent,  {free  helanaphthol) . 

Shake  about  0.5  Gm.  of  Bi.smuth  Betanaphthol  with  10  mils  of  distilled 
water  and  filter;  the  filtrate  is  colorless  and  neutral  to  litmus. 

Heat  gently  a  mixture  of  about  0.2  Gm.  of  Bismuth  Betanaphthol  with  5  mils 
of  potassium  hydroxide  T.S.  and  about  0.2  Gm.  of  aluminum  wire;  the  vapors 
evolved  do  not  turn  red  litmus  blue  (nitrates). 

Incinerate  about  2  Gm.  of  Bismuth  Betanaphthol  in  a  porcelain  crucible,  cool 
the  residue  and  add  just  sufficient  nitric  acid  to  form  a  solution  with  the  aid  of 
heat.  This  solution,  when  poured  into  100  mils  of  distilled  water,  produces  a 
white,  crystalline  precipitate.  Now  filter  the  mixture,  evaporate  the  filtrate  to 
30  mils  and  again  filter  if  not  clear;  the  clear  filtrate  does  not  respond  to  the 
tests  for  lead,  copper,  sulphate,  or  silver  given  under  Bismuthi  Subcarbonas. 

The  bismuth  oxide  obtained  in  the  following  assay  does  not  respond  to  Betten- 
dorf's  Test  for  arsenic  (see  Part  II,  Test  No.  2). 

Assay  for  Betanaphthol — Dissolve  about  2  Gm.  of  Bismuth  Betanaphthol, 
accurately  weighed,  in  20  mils  of  hydrochloric  acid  with  the  aid  of  heat,  cool 
the  liquid  and  then  shake  it  in  a  separator  ^ith  successive  portions  of  chloro- 
form until  the  extraction  of  the  betanaphthol  is  complete.  Combine  the  chloro- 
form solutions,  allow  the  liquid  to  evaj^orate  spontaneously  and  dry  the  residue 
in  a  desiccator;  the  weight  of  the  residue  corresponds  to  not  less  than  15  per 
cent,  of  the  weight  of  Bismuth  Betanaphthol  taken.  This  residue,  crystallized 
from  a  solution  in  boiling  distilled  water,  responds  to  the  tests  for  identity 
under  Betanaphthol. 

Assay  for  Bismuth  Oxide — Incinerate  about  2  Gm.  of  Bismuth  Betanaphthol, 
accurately  weighed,  in  a  porcelain  crucible,  cool  the  residue  and  di.s.solve  it  in 
nitric  acid.  Evaporate  the  solution  to  dryness  and  carefully  ignite  the  residue 
until  of  constant  weight;  the  bismuth  oxide  (Bi203)  so  obtained  corresponds  to 
not  less  than  73  per  cent,  nor  more  than  78  per  cent,  of  the  original  weight 
of  the  Bismuth  Betanaphthol  taken. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.5  Gm. — Apothecaries,  8  grains. 


BISMUTHI  ET  AMMONII  CITRAS 

Bismuth  and  Ammonium  Citrate 

Bism.  et  Ammon.  Cit. — Bismuth  Ammonio-Citrate 
Bismuth  citrate  rendered  soluble  by  the  presence  of  ammonium 
citrate;  when  dried  to  constant  weight  in  a  desiccator  over  sulphuric 
acid,  it  yields,  upon  ignition,  not  less  than  46  per  cent,  nor  more 
than  52  per  cent,  of  bismuth  oxide  [BiaOa].  Preserve  it  in  well-closed 
containers  protected  from  light. 

Bismuth  and  Ammonium  Citrate  occurs  in  shining,  pearly  or  translucent 
scales,  or  white  powder,  becoming  opaque  with  loss  of  ammonia  on  exposure 
to  the  air;  it  is  odorless  and  has  a  metallic  taste. 

Bismuth  and  Ammonium  Citrate  is  very  soluble  in  water  and  sparingly 
soluble  in  alcohol. 

When  strongly  heated,  the  Bismuth  and  Ammonium  Citrate  fuses  and 
finally  leaves  a  blackened  residue,  having  a  yellow  surface.    A  solution  of  this 


80  THE    PHARMACOPCEIA    OF   THE 

residue  in  a  slight  excess  of  nitric  or  hydrochloric  acid  produces  a  white 
turbiditj-  when  added  to  25  volumes  of  distilled  water. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  Bismuth  and  Ammonium  Citrate  (1  in  20)  is  neutral 
or  faintly  acid  to  litmus. 

Ammonia  is  evolved  when  Bismuth  and  Ammonium  Citrate  is  boiled  with  a 
slight  excess  of  sodium  hydroxide  T.8. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  the  Bismuth  and  Ammonium  Citrate,  when  treated 
with  an  excess  of  hydrogen  sulphide,  yields  a  black  precipitate.  The  filtrate 
from  the  latter,  when  deprived  by  heat  of  the  excess  of  hydrogen  sulphide  and 
boiled  with  an  excess  of  lime  water,  yields  a  white  precipitate. 

Dissolve  about  0.05  Gm.  of  Bismuth  and  Ammonium  Citrate  in  1  mil  of  dis- 
tilled water,  in  a  test  tube,  add  5  mils  of  sulphuric  acid  (free  from  nitrous  com- 
pounds), cool  the  mixture  and  carefully  pour  over  it  5  mils  of  ferrous  sulphate 
T.S.  without  mixing;  no  red  or  brown  zone  appears  immediately  {nitrate). 

Dissolve  1  Gm.  of  Bismuth  and  Ammonium  Citrate  in  50  mils  of  distilled  water, 
precipitate  the  bismuth  completely  with  hydrogen  sulphide,  filter,  evaporate 
the  filtrate  to  dryness  and  ignite.  The  weight  of  the  residue  does  not  exceed 
0.005  Gm.  (alkalies  or  alkali  earths). 

Ignite  3  Gm.  of  the  Bismuth  and  Ammonium  Citrate,  dissolve  the  residue  in 
just  a  sufficient  quantity  of  warm  nitric  acid,  and  pour  the  solution  into  100  mils 
of  distilled  water;  a  wliite  precipitate  is  produced.  Filter  this  mixture, 
evaporate  the  filtrate  on  a  water  bath  to  30  mils,  again  filter  the  liquid  and 
divide  the  new  filtrate  into  portions  of  5  mils  each.  These  portions  do  not  respond 
to  the  tests  for  lead,  copper,  sulphate,  or  silver  given  under  Bismulhi  Subcarbonas. 

The  residue  resulting  from  the  ignition  and  subsequent  treatment  of  2  Gm. 
of  Bismuth  and  Ammonium  Citrate,  as  described  in  the  following  test,  does 
not  respond  to  Bettendorf's  Test  for  arsenic  (see  Part  II,  Test  No.  2). 

Assay — Take  about  1  Gm.  of  Bismuth  and  Ammonium  Citrate,  previously 
dried  to  constant  weight  in  a  desiccator  over  sulphuric  acid,  and  weigh  accurately. 
Ignite  it  in  a  porcelain  crucible  and,  after  cooling,  add  5  mils  of  nitric 
acid  to  the  residue,  drop  by  drop,  warming  until  solution  is  effected. 
Evaporate  this  solution  to  dryness,  and  carefully  ignite  it  at  red  heat.  It  leaves 
a  residue  of  bismuth  oxide  (Bi203)  corresponding  to  not  less  than  46  per  cent, 
nor  more  than  52  per  cent,  of  the  original  weight  of  Bismuth  and  Ammonium 
Citrate  taken. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.125  Gm. — Apothecaries,  2  grains. 


BISMUTHI  SUBCARBONAS 

Bismuth  Subcarbonate 

Bism.  Subcarb. 

A  basic  bismuth  carbonate  of  varying  chemical  composition,  which, 
when  dried  to  constant  weight  at  100°  C,  yields,  upon  ignition,  not 
less  than  90  per  cent,  of  bismuth  oxide  [Bi203]- 

Bismuth  Subcarbonate  is  a  white  or  pale  yellowish- white  powder;  odorless 
and  tastele.sK,  and  permanent  in  the  air. 

Bismuth  Subcarbonate  is  insoluble  in  water  or  alcohol;  completely  dissolved 
by  nitric  or  hydrochloric  acid  with  cojiious  effervescence. 

Its  solution  in  a  .slight  excess  of  nitric  acid,  when  added  to  25  volumes  of 
distilled  water,  produces  a  white  turbiditj'. 

When  heated  to  redness,  the  salt  loses  water  and  carbon  dioxide,  and  leaves 
a  yellowish  residue,  which  is  soluble  in  nitric  or  hydrochloric  acid  and  blackened 
by  hydrogen  sulphide  T.S. 


UNITED    STATES   OF   AMERICA  81 

Dissolve  1  Gm.  of  the  salt  in  2  mils  of  nitric  acid,  add  distilled  water  to  make 
the  solution  measure  25  mils,  then  add  0.35  mil  of  tenth-normal  silver  nitrato 
V.S.  and  remove  the  i)recipitate,  if  any,  by  filtration;  the  clear  filtrate  remains 
unaffected  by  tlie  further  addition  of  a  few  droi)s  of  silver  nitrate  T.S.  {chloride). 

Dissolve  3  Gm.  of  the  salt  in  just  a  sufhcicnt  quantity  (about  4  mils)  of  warm 
nitric  acid,  and  pour  the  solution  into  100  mils  of  distilled  water;  a  white  pre- 
cipitate is  produced.  Filter,  and  evaporate  the  filtrate  on  a  water  bath  to  30 
mils,  again  filter  the  liquid,  divide  the  latter  filtrate  into  portions  of  5  mils  eact 
and  subject  these  several  portions  to  the  following  tests: 

Mix  one  portion  with  an  equal  volume  of  diluted  sulphuric  acid;  it  does 
not  become  cloudy  (lead). 

Precipitate  another  portion  with  a  slight  excess  of  ammonia  water;  the 
supernatant  liquid  does  not  exhibit  a  bluish  tint  (copper). 

Another  portion  is  not  immediately  affecled  by  bariiun  nitrate  T.S.  (sulphate). 
In  another  jxjrtion  hydrochloric  acid  does  not  produce  a  precipitate  which  is 
insoluble  in  a  sHght  excess  of  hj-drochloric  acid,  but  soluble  in  ammonia  water 
(silver) . 

Boil  1  Gm.  of  the  salt  with  20  mils  of  a  mixture  of  equal  parts  of  acetic  acid 
and  distilled  water,  cool  the  solution  and  filter.  Free  the  filtrate  from  bismuth 
by  the  addition  of  hydrogen  sulphide,  boil  the  mixture  and  again  filter.  The 
latter  filtrate  leaves  not  more  than  0.003  Gm.  of  residue  on  evaporation  and  gentle 
ignition  (alkalies  or  alkali  earths). 

Agitate  about  0.05  Gm.  of  Bismuth  Subcarbonate  with  5  mils  of  a  solution 
of  equal  parts  of  distilled  water  and  ferrous  sulphate  T.S.,  and  cautiously  pour 
the  mixture  over  5  mils  of  sulphuric  acid  (free  from  nitrous  compounds),  so 
as  to  form  a  layer  above;  no  brownish-red  zone  forms  at  the  line  of  contact 
of  the  two  liquids  (nitrate). 

The  residue  resulting  from  the  ignition  of  2  Gm.  of  Bismuth  Subcarbonate 
does  not  respond  to  Bettendorf's  Test  for  arsenic  (see  Part  II,  Test  No.  2). 

Assay — Ignite  thoroughly  at  red  heat  in  a  porcelain  crucible  about  1  Gm.  of 
Bismuth  Subcarbonate,  previously  dried  to  constant  weight  at  100°  C.  and 
accuratel}^  weighed.  The  residue  of  bismuth  oxide  (Bi203)  corresponds  to  not 
less  than  90  per  cent,  of  the  original  weight  of  Bismuth  Subcarbonate  taken. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.5  Gm. — Apothecaries,  8  grains. 


BISMUTHI  SUBGALLAS 

Bismuth  Subgallate 

Bism.  Subgal. — Dermatol 

A  basic  bismuth  gallate  of  varying  chemical  composition  which,  when 
dried  to  constant  weight  at  100°  C,  yields,  upon  ignition,  not  less  than 
52  per  cent,  nor  more  than  57  per  cent,  of  bismuth  oxide  [Bi203]. 

Bismuth  Subgallate  is  an  amorphous,  bright  yellow  powder,  odorless;  tasteless, 
and  permanent  in  the  air. 

Bismuth  Subgallate  is  insoluble  in  water,  alcohol,  or  ether;  readily  soluble, 
with  decomposition,  in  warm  hydrochloric,  nitric  or  sulphvu-ic  acid;  insoluble  in 
very  dilute  mineral  acids ;  readih'  soluble  in  alkali  hj'droxide  solutions,  forming 
a  clear,  yellow  solution  which  rapidly  changes  to  a  deep  red. 

When  heated  to  redness  it  at  first  chars,  leaving  finally  a  yellow  residue, 
which  is  blackened  by  hydrogen  sulphide  T.S.  A  solution  of  this  residue  in 
a  shght  excess  of  warm  nitric  or  hj-drochloric.acjd  produces  a  white  turbidity 
when  added  to  25  volumes  of  distilled  water. 

Agitate  thoroughly  about  0. 1  Gm.  of  Bismuth  Subgallate  with  an  excess  of 
hydrogen  sulphide  T.S.;  a  brownish-black  precipitate  results.  Filter  this 
n 


82  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA   OF   THE 

mfocture,  boil  the  filtrate  to  remove  the  dissolved  gas,  and  then  cool;  the  addi- 
tion of  1  drop  of  ferric  chloride  T.S.  produces  a  blue-black  coloration  in  the 
liquid. 

Shake  1  Gm.  of  the  salt  with  20  mils  of  alcohol  for  one  minute,  filter  and 
evaporate  the  filtrate  to  dryness  on  a  water  bath;  not  more  than  0.005  Gm. 
of  residue  remains  {free  gallic  acid). 

Boil  1  Gm.  of  Bismuth  Subgallate  with  20  mils  of  a  mixtiu-e  of  equal  parts 
of  acetic  acid  and  distilled  water,  cool  the  solution  and  filter.  Free  the  filtrate 
from  bismuth  by  the  addition  of  hydrogen  sulphide,  boil  the  mixture  and 
again  filter.  The  latter  filtrate  leaves  not  more  than  0.005  Gm.  of  residue 
on  evaporation  and  gentle  ignition  (alkalies  or  alkali  earths). 

Mix  thoroughly  about  0.05  Gm.  of  Bismuth  Subgallate  with  5  mils  of  diluted 
sulphuric  acid  and  5  mils  of  ferrous  sulphate  T.S.,  filter  the  mixture  and  then 
cautiously  pour  the  filtrate,  wdthout  mixing,  over  5  mile  of  sulphiu-ic  acid  (free 
from  nitrous  compounds),  contained  in  a  test  tube;  no  brownish-red  zone 
forms  immediately  (nitrate). 

Ignite  3  Gm.  of  Bismuth  Subgallate  in  a  porcelain  crucible,  cool  and  cautiously 
add  just  sufficient  nitric  acid,  drop  by  drop,  warming  until  the  residue  is  dissolved. 
Evaporate  the  solution  to  dryness,  again  ignite  and  cool.  Cautiously  dissolve 
this  residue  in  just  sufficient  nitric  acid  by  the  aid  of  gentle  heat,  concentrate 
the  solution  to  about  4  mils,  pom-  it  into  100  mils  of  distilled  water,  filter,  evap- 
orate the  filtrate  on  a  water  bath  to  30  mils,  again  filter  and  divide  this  filtrate 
into  portions  of  5  mils  each.  These  portions  do  not  respond  to  the  tests  for 
lead,  copper,  sulphate,  or  silver  given  under  Bismuthi  Subcarbonas. 

The  residue  resulting  from  the  ignition  and  subsequent  treatment  of  2  Gm. 
of  Bismuth  Subgallate  as  described  in  the  following  test  does  not  respond  to 
Bettendorf's  Test  for  arsenic  (see  Part  II,  Test  No.  2). 

Assay — Take  about  1  Gm.  of  Bismuth  Subgallate,  previously  dried  to 
constant  weight  at  100°  C,  and  weigh  accurately.  Ignite  in  a  porcelain 
crucible  and,  after  cooling,  add  5  mils  of  nitric  acid  to  the  residue,  drop  by 
drop,  warming  until  complete  solution  has  been  effected.  Evaporate  this  solu- 
tion to  drjTiess  and  carefully  ignite  at  red  heat;  it  leaves  a  residue  of  bismuth 
oxide  (BiaOs)  corresponding  to  not  less  than  52  per  cent,  nor  more  than  57 
per  cent,  of  the  original  weight  of  Bismuth  Subgallate  taken. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.5  Gm. — Apothecaries,  8  grains. 


BISMUTHI  SUBNITRAS 

Bismuth  Subnitrate 

Bism.  Subnit. 

A  basic  bismuth  nitrate  of  varying  chemical  composition,  which, 
when  dried  for  twenty-four  hours  in  a  desiccator  over  sulphuric  acid, 
yields,  upon  ignition,  not  less  than  79  per  cent,  of  bismuth  oxide  [Bi203]. 

Bismuth  Subnitrate  is  a  white  powder;  odorless,  almost  tasteless,  and  slightly 
hygroscopic. 

Bismuth  Subnitrate  is  almost  insoluble  in  water,  insoluble  in  alcohol,  and 
readily  dissolved  by  hydrochloric  or  nitric  acid. 

Its  solution  in  a  slight  excess  of  warm  nitric  or  hydrochloric  acid  produces  a 
white  turbidity  when  added  to  25  volumes  of  distilled  water. 

When  heated  to  redness  it  evolves  nitrous  vapors,  leaving  a  yellow  residue, 
which  is  blackened  by  hydrogen  sulphide  T.S. 

When  brought  in  contact  with  moistened  blue  litmus  paper,  the  salt  shows 
a  slightly  acid  reaction. 


UNITED   STATES   OF  AMERICA  83 

Boil  1  Gm.  of  Bismuth  Subnitrate  with  20  mils  of  a  mixture  of  equal  parts  of 
acetic  acid  and  distilled  water,  cool  the  solution  and  filter.  Free  the  filtrate  from 
bismuth  by  the  addition  of  hydrogen  sulphide,  boil  the  mixture  and  again  filter. 
The  latter  filtrate  leaves  not  more  than  0.003  Gm.  of  residue  on  evaporation 
and  gentle  ignition  {alkalies  or  alkali  earths). 

Boil  about  0.1  Gm.  of  the  salt  with  5  mils  of  potas.sium  hydroxide  T.S.;  no 
odor  of  ammonia  is  perceptible  nor  does  the  vapor  turn  moistened  red  litmus 
paper  blue. 

The  residue  resulting  from  the  ignition  of  2  Gm.  of  the  salt  does  not  respond 
to  Bettendorf's  Test  for  arsenic  (see  Part  II,  Test  No.  2). 

Add  3  Gm.  of  the  salt  to  3  mils  of  warm  nitric  acid;  no  effervescence  occurs 
(carbonate),  and  no  residue  remains  {insoluble  foreign  salts).  Pour  this  solution 
into  100  mils  of  distilled  water,  a  white  precipitate  is  produced.  Filter,  evapo- 
rate the  filtrate  on  a  water  bath  to  30  mils,  again  filter  the  liquid  and  divide  the 
new  filtrate  into  portions  of  5  mils  each.  These  portions  do  not  respond  to  the 
tests  for  lead,  copper,  sulphate,  or  silver  given  under  Bismuthi  Subcarbonas. 

Assay — Ignite  thoroughly  at  red  heat  in  a  porcelain  crucible  about  1  Gm. 
of  Bismuth  Subnitrate,  previously  dried  for  twenty-four  hours  in  a  desiccator 
over  sulphuric  acid  and  accurately  weighed.  The  residue  of  bismuth  oxide 
(Bi203)  corresponds  to  not  less  than  79  per  cent,  of  the  original  weight  of  Bis- 
muth Subnitrate  taken. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.5  Gm. — Apothecaries,  8  grains. 


BISMUTHI  SUBSALICYLAS 

Bismuth  Subsalicylate 

Bism.  Subsalicyl. 

A  basic  bismuth  salicylate  of  varying  chemical  composition,  which, 
when  dried  to  constant  weight  at  100°  C,  yields,  upon  ignition,  not 
less  than  62  per  cent,  nor  more  than  66  per  cent,  of  bismuth  oxide 
[BiaOa].    Protect  it  from  light. 

Bismuth  Subsalicj^late  is  a  white,  or  nearly  white,  amorphous  or  crystalline 
powder;    odorless,  tasteless,  and  permanent  in  the  air. 

Bismuth  Subsahcylate  is  almost  insoluble  in  cold  water;  upon  prolonged 
boiling  with  water  a  portion  of  the  salicylic  acid  passes  into  solution  with  the 
formation  of  a  more  basic  bismuth  subsahcylate.  It  is  partly  soluble,  with 
decomposition,  in  hydrochloric  or  nitric  acid,  a  white,  flocculent  precipitate  of 
salicylic  acid  separating. 

When  heated  to  redness  it  at  first  chars,  finally  leaving  a  yellow  residue, 
which  is  blackened  by  hydrogen  sulphide.  A  solution  of  this  residue  in  a  slight 
excess  of  warm  nitric  or  hydrochloric  acid  produces  a  white,  turbidity  when 
added  to  25  volumes  of  distilled  water. 

Agitate  about  0.1  Gm.  of  Bismuth  Subsalicylate  with  a  solution  of  5  drops 
of  ferric  chloride  T.S.  in  10  mils  of  distilled  water;  a  deep  violet-blue  coloration 
is  produced. 

Agitate  1  Gm.  of  the  salt  with  20  mils  of  ctiioroform,  filter  the  liquid  and 
evaporate  the  filtrate  to  dryness;  not  more  than  0.00^^  Gm.  of  residue  remains 
{free  salicylic  acid). 

Ignite  3  Gm.  of  Bismuth  Subsalicylate  in  a  porcelain  crucible,  cool  and  cau- 
tiously add  just  sufficient  nitric  acid  to  the  residue,  drop  by  drop,  warming 
until  it  is  dissolved.      Pour   this  solution  into   100  mils  of  distilled  water, 


84  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA    OF   THE 

filter,  evaporate  the  filtrate  on  a  water  bath  to  30  mils,  again  filter  and  divide 
the  filtrate  into  portions  of  5  mils  each.  These  portions  do  not  respond  to  the 
tests  for  lead,  copper,  sulphate,  or  silver  given  under  Bismuthi  Subcarbonas. 

Boil  1  Gm.  of  Bismuth  SubsaHcylate  with  20  mils  of  a  mixture  of  equal  parts 
of  acetic  acid  and  distilled  water,  cool  the  solution  and  filter.  Free  the  filtrate 
from  bismuth  by  the  addition  of  hydrogen  sulphide,  boil  the  mixture  and  again 
filter.  The  latter  filtrate,  on  evaporation  and  ignition,  leaves  not  more  than 
0.005  Gm.  of  residue  (alkalies  or  alkali  earths). 

Triturate  about  0.05  Gm.  of  Bismuth  Subsalicylate  with  0.1  Gm.  of  sodium 
Balicylate  and  5  mils  of  distilled  water,  and  carefully  pour  it  without  mixing 
over  5  mils  of  sulphuric  acid  (free  from  nitrous  compounds)  contained  in  a 
test  tube;   no  pink  to  brownish-red  zone  forms  immediately  {nitrate). 

The  residue  resulting  from  the  ignition  and  subsequent  treatment  of  2  Gm. 
of  Bismuth  Subsalicylate,  as  described  in  the  test  below,  does  not  respond  to 
Bettendorf's  Test  for  arsenic  (see  Part  II,  Test  Xo.  2). 

Assa>  Take  about  1  Gm.  of  Bismuth  Subsalicylate,  previously  dried  to 
constant  weight  at  100°  C,  and  weigh  accurately.  Ignite  in  a  porcelain  crucible, 
and,  after  cooling,  add  5  mils  of  nitric  acid  to  the  residue,  drop  by  drop,  warm- 
ing until  solution  has  been  effected.  Evaporate  this  solution  to  dryness  and 
carefully  ignite  it  at  red  heat.  It  leaves  a  residue  of  bismuth  oxide  (Bi203) 
corresponding  to  not  less  than  62  per  cent,  nor  more  than  66  per  cent,  of  the 
original  weight  of  Bismuth  SubsaUcylate  taken. 

Average  dose — IVIetric,  0.5  Gm. — Apothecaries,  8  grains. 

BPiO:MOFORMUM 

Bromoform 
Bromof. 

A  liquid  consisting  of  about  96  per  cent.,  by  weight,  of  CHBrs 
(252.77)  and  about  4  per  cent,  of  dehydrated  alcohol.  Preserve  it  in 
glass-stoppered  bottles,  in  a  cool  place,  protected  from  light. 

Bromoform  is  a  heavy,  transparent,  colorless,  mobile  liquid,  with  an  ethereal 
odor,  and  a  penetrating,  sweet  taste,  resembling  that  of  chloroform. 

Bromoform  is  slightly  soluble  in  water;  miscible  with  alcohol,  chloroform, 
ether,  benzene,  petroleum  benzin  or  fixed  or  volatile  oils. 

Specific  gravity:   2.595  to  2.620  at  25°  C. 

Bromoform  is  slightly  volatile  at  ordinary  temperatures. 

Bromoform  is  not  inflammable,  but  when  vaporized  by  the  application  of 
heat,  its  vapors  may  be  ignited. 

Evaporate  10  mils  of  Bromoform  from  a  porcelain  dish  on  a  water  bath;  not 
more  than  0.006  Gm.  of  residue  remains  after  drying  it  at  100°  C. 

Shake  10  mils  of  Bromoform  with  10  mils  of  distilled  water,  and  allow  the 
liquids  to  separate  completely.  The  water  removed  from  the  layer  of  Bromoform 
is  neutral  to  litmus  (free  acid);  5  mil  portions,  tested  separately,  show  not  more 
than  a  slight  opalescence  on  the  addition  of  a  few  drops  of  silver  nitrate  T.S. 
(bromides  or  brominated  compounds),  and  no  blue  color  on  the  addition  of  a 
few  drops  each  of  potassium  iodide  T.S.  and  of  starch  T.S.  (free  bromine). 

Agitate  10  mils  of  Bromoform  with  10  mils  of  distilled  water,  and  allow  the 
liquids  to  separate  completely.  Remove  the  aqueous  layer  from  the  Bromoform, 
treat  it  with  an  excess  of  ammonia  water,  and  then  with  a  solution  of  iodine  and 
ammonium  iodide,  until  the  black  precii^itate  of  nitrogen  iodide,  which  some- 
times forms,  slowly  disappears;  it  does  not  bec^ome  milky  in  appearance,  due 
to  the  separation  of  iodoform,  recognizable  by  its  odor  (acetone). 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.2  mil — Apothecaries,  3  minims. 


UNITED    STATES   OF   AMERxCA 


BUCHU 

Buchu 

The  dried  leaves  of  Barosma  betulina  (Thunberg)  Bartling  and  Wend- 
land,  kno\\Tn  in  commerce  as  Short  Buchu;  or  of  Barosma  serratifulia 
(Curtis)  Willdenow,  known  in  commerce  as  Long  Buchu  (Fam.  Rutaceoe), 
without  the  presence  or  admixture  of  more  than  10  per  cent,  of  stems 
or  other  foreign  matter. 

Short  Buchu — Rhomboidally  oval  or  obovate;  from  0  to  25  mm.  in  length 
and  from  4  to  13  mm.  in  breadth;  summit  obtuse,  and  recurved;  margin  .some- 
what serrate  or  finely  dentate  with  an  oil  gland  at  the  base  of  each  tooth;  the 
base  more  or  less  wedge-shaped;  color  varj'ing  from  vivid  green  to  yellowish- 
green,  occasionally  a  few  olive-gray  leaves;  glandular-punctate;  both  surfaces 
papillose;  under  surface  longitudinally  striate;  texture  coriaceous;  petiole  1  mm. 
in  length;  odor  and  taste  characteristic,  aromatic  and  mint-like. 

Long  Buchu — Linear-lanceolate,  from  2.5  to  -1  cm.  in  length  and  from  4  to  6 
mm.  in  breadth;  summit  somewhat  rounded  or  truncate  with  an  oil  gland  at 
the  apex;  margin  sharply  serrate  and  glandular;  otherwise  resembling  Short 
Buchu. 

Stems  in  both  Short  and  Long  Buchu  about  1  mm.  in  diameter,  yellowish- 
green  or  brownish-red,  cylindrical,  ■  longitudinally  furrowed,  with  prominent 
leaf-scars  nearly  opposite  to  each  other  giving  the  stems  a  jointed  character. 

The  yield  of  ash  does  not  exceed  4  per  cent. 

Preparation — Fluidextractum  Buchu. 

Average  dose — INIetric,  2  Gm. — Apothecaries,  30  grains. 


CAFFEINA 

Caffeine 

Caffein.— Theine 

A  feebly  basic  substance  [C8H10O2X4+H2O  or  C5H(CH3)302N4+H20 
=  212.14]  obtained  from  the  leaves  of  Thea  sinensis  Liime  (Fam.  Tern- 
stroemiacece) ,  or  from  the  seeds  of  Coffea  arabica  Linne  (Fam.  Ruhiacece); 
also  occurring  in  some  other  plants;  or  prepared  synthetically. 

Caffeine  occurs  in  white,  flexible,  silky,  glistening  needles,  usually  matted 
together  in  fleecy  masses;  odorless,  and  having  a  bitter  taste;  efflorescent  in 
dry  air. 

One  Gm.  of  CafTeine  dissolves  in  46  mils  of  water,  66  mils  of  alcohol,  5.5  mils 
of  chloroform  and  in  530  mils  of  ether  at  25°  C;  also  in  o.b  mils  of  water  at  80°  C. 
and  in  22  mils  of  alcohol  at  60°  C. 

A  saturated  aqueous  solution  of  CafTeine  is  neutral  to  Htmus. 

Caffeine,  rendered  anhydrous,  melts  between  235°  and  237°  C. 

Dissolve  about  0.01  Gm.  of  Caffeine  in  1  mil  of  hydrochloric  acid  in  a  porcelain 
dish,  add  0.1  Gm.  of  potassium  chlorate  and  evaporate  the  solution  to  dryness 
on  a  water  bath.  Invert  the  dish  over  a  vessel  containing  a  few  drops  of  ammonia 
water;   the  residue  acquires  a  purple  color,  which  is  destroyed  by  fixed  alkalies. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  Caffeine  yields  a  precipitate  with  tannic  acid  T.S., 
soluble  in  an  excess  of  the  reagent. 


86  THE    PHARMACOPOELA.   OF   THE 

Caffeine  loses  not  more  tban  9  per  cent,  of  its  weight  when  dried  to  constant 
weight  at  80°  C. 

Incinerate  about  2  Gm.  of  Caffeine;  not  more  than  0.05  per  cent,  of  ash 
remains. 

About  0.5  Gm.  of  Caffeine  dissolves  in  5  mils  of  sulphuric  or  nitric  acid  without 
producing  more  than  a  faint,  yellowish  color  {organic  impurities). 

Its  aqueous  solution  is  not  precipitated  by  mercuric  potassiima  iodide  T.S. 
(alkaloids). 

Preparations — Caffeina  Citrata       Caffeina  Citrata  Effervescens  (from  Citrated 
Caffeine). 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.15  Gm. — Apothecaries,  23^^  grains. 


CAFFEINA  CITRATA 

Citrated  Caffeine 

Caffein.  Cit. 

Citrated  Caffeine  contains,  when  dried  to  constant  weight  at  80°  C, 
not  less  than  48  per  cent,  of  anhydrous  caffeine  [C8Hio02N4=  194.12]. 

Caffeine,  fifty  grammes 50  Gm. 

Citric  Acid,  fifty  grammes 50  Gm. 

Distilled  Water,  hot,  one  hundred  milliliters 100  mils 

Dissolve  the  citric  acid  in  the  hot  distilled  water,  add  the  caffeine, 
and  evaporate  the  resulting  solution  to  dryness  on  a  water  bath,  con- 
stantly stirring  toward  the  end  of  the  operation.  Reduce  the  product 
to  a  fine  powder  and  transfer  it  to  well-closed  containers. 

Citrated  Caffeine  occurs  as  a  white  powder,  odorless  and  having  a  slightly 
bitter,  acid  taste. 

Citrated  Cat! erne  gives  a  clear,  syrupy  solution  with  a  small  quantity  of  water, 
but  caffeine  precipitates  on  dilution.  This  precipitate  redissolves  on  the  further 
addition  of  water. 

Its  aqueous  solution  (1  in  30)  is  acid  to  litmus. 

Dissolve  about  0.02  Gm.  of  Citrated  Caffeine  in  1  mil  of  hydrochloric  acid  in 
a  porcelain  dish,  add  0.1  Gm.  of  potassium  chlorate,  evaporate  the  mixture  od 
a  water  bath  and  invert  the  dish  over  a  vessel  containing  a  few  drops  of  ammonia 
water;    the  residue  acquires  a  purple  color,  which  is  destroyed  by  alkalies. 

About  2  mils  of  a  filtered  aqueous  solution  of  Citrated  Caffeine  (1  in  10)  mixed 
with  50  mils  of  lime  water  remains  clear  in  the  cold,  but  becomes  turbid  when 
heated  to  boiling. 

When  dried  to  constant  weight  at  80°  C.  it  loses  not  more  than  5  per  cent, 
of  its  weight. 

Incinerate  about  1  Gm.  of  Citrated  Caffeine;  not  more  than  0.1  per  cent,  of 
ash  remains. 

Heat  a  mixture  of  0.25  Gm.  of  Citrated  Caffeine  and  5  mils  of  sulphuric  acid 
in  a  porcelain  dish  on  a  water  bath  for  fifteen  minutes,  protecting  it  from  dust; 
it  may  become  yellow  in  color  but  not  brown  or  black  (tartaric  acid). 

An  aqueous  solution  of  Citrated  Caffeine  does  not  respond  to  the  Test  for 
heavy  metals  (see  Part  II,  Test  No.  3). 


UNITED   STATES   OF  AMERICA  87 

The  addition  of  a  few  drops  of  barium  chloride  T.S.  to  10  mils  of  an  aqueous 
solution  of  Citrated  Caffeine  (1  in  100),  previously  treated  with  a  few  drops  of 
hydrochloric  acid,  produces  no  turbidity  {sulphuric  acid). 

Assay — Dissolve  about  0.5  Gm.  of  Citrated  Caffeine,  previously  dried  to  con- 
stant weight  at  80°  C.  and  accurately  weighed,  in  10  mils  of  hot  distilled  water, 
add  an  excess  of  sodium  hydroxide  T.S.,  cool  the  solution,  and  shake  it  in  a  sepa- 
rator with  three  successive  portions  of  20  mils,  10  mils,  and  5  mils,  respectively, 
of  chloroform,  or  more  if  necessary  to  complete  the  extraction.  Evaporate  the 
combined  chloroform  solutions  on  a  water  bath  and  dry  the  residue  to  constant 
weight  at  80°  C.  The  weight  of  anhydrous  caffeine  (C8H10O2N4)  so  obtained 
corresponds  to  not  less  than  48  per  cent,  of  the  weight  of  Citrated  Caffeine 
taken.  This  residue,  when  recrystallized  from  hot  water,  and  dried  to  constant 
weight  at  80°  C,  has  the  melting  point  given  under  Caffeina. 

Preparation — Caffeina  Citrata  Effervescens. 

Average  dose — IMetric,  0.3  Gm. — Apothecaries,  5  grains. 


CAFFEINA  CITRATA  EFFERVESCENS 

Effervescent  Citrated  Caffeine 
Caff.  Cit.  Eff. 

It  contains  not  less  than  1.9  per  cent,  of  anhydrous  caffeine  [CsHio 
02N4=  194.12]. 

Citrated  Caffeine,  forty  grammes 40  Gm. 

Sodium  Bicarbonate,  dried  and  powdered,  ^ve  hundred  and 

seventy  grammes 570  Gm. 

Tartaric  Acid,  dried  and  powdered,  three  hundred  grammes  300  Gm. 

Citric  Acid,  uneffloresced  crystals,  one  hundred  and  ninety- 
five  grammes 195  Gm. 

To  make  about  one  thousand  grammes 1000  Gm. 

Powder  the  citric  acid  and  mix  it  intimately  with  the  citrated  caffeine 
and  tartaric  acid,  then  thoroughly  incorporate  the  sodium  bicarbonate. 
Place  the  mixed  powders  on  a  plate  of  glass  or  in  a  suitable  dish,  in  an 
oven  heated  to  between  93°  and  104°  C.  Manipulate  the  mixture 
carefully  with  a  wooden  spatula,  and,  when  it  has  become  moist,  rub  it 
through  a  No.  6  tinned-iron  sieve,  and  dry  the  granules  at  a  temperature 
not  exceeding  54°  C.  Immediately  transfer  the  product  to  suitable 
containers,  and  seal  them  tightly.  Care  must  be  used  to  prevent  the 
preparation  from  coming  in  contact  with  air  containing  moisture. 

Assay — Dissolve  about  5  Gm.  of  Effervescent  Citrated  Caffeine,  accurately 
weighed,  in  10  mils  of  hot  distilled  water.  When  effervescence  has  ceased,  add 
an  excess  of  sodium  hydroxide  T.S.,  cool  the  mixture  and  shake  it  in  a  separator 
with  three  successive  portions  of  20  mils,  10  mils,  and  5  mils,  respectively,  of 
chloroform,  or  more  if  necessary  to  complete  the  extraction.  Evaporate  the 
combined  chloroform  solutions  on  a  water  bath  and  dry  the  residue  to  constant 
weight  at  80°  C.     The  weight  of  anhydrous  caffeine  (CsHioOaNi)  so  obtained 


THE    PHARMACOPCEIA   OF   THE 


corresponds  to  not  less  than  1.9  per  cent,  of  the  weight  of  Effervescent  Citrated 
Caffeine  taken.  This  residue,  when  recrystalUzed  from  hot  water,  responds  to 
the  tests  for  identity  and,  when  dried  to  constant  weight  at  80°  C,  has  the  melting 
point  given  under  Caffeina. 

Average  dose — Metric,  4  Gm. — Apothecaries,  1  drachm. 

CAFFEINiE  SODIO-BENZOAS 

Caffeine  Sodio-Benzoate 
Caff.  Sod.  Benz. 

•  A  mixture  of  caffeine  and  sodium  benzoate.  It  contains,  when  dried 
to  constant  weight  at  80°  C,  not  less  than  46  per  cent,  nor  more  than 
50  per  cent,  of  anhj^drous  caffeine  [C8Hio02N4  =  194.12],  the  remainder 
being  sodium  benzoate  [NaC?!!  502  =  144.04].  Preserve  it  in  well-closed 
containers. 

Caffeine  Sodio-Benzoate  occurs  as  a  white  powder;  it  is  odorless  and  has  a 
slightly  bitter  taste. 

One  Gm.  of  Caffeine  Sodio-Benzoate  dissolves  in  1.1  mils  of  water,  some 
caffeine  separating  on  standing,  and  in  30  mils  of  alcohol,  at  25°  C;  partly 
soluble  in  chloroform. 

An  aqueous  solution  (1  in  20)  may  be  neutral,  slightly  acid,  or  slightly  alkaline 
to  litmus,  but  is  not  reddened  by  phenolphthalein  T.S. 

On  heating  the  compound,  it  is  decomposed  with  the  evolution  of  white 
vapors,  leaving  a  carbonaceous  residue  wliich  effervesces  with  acids  and  colors 
a  non-luminous  flame  intensely  yellow. 

Ferric  chloride  T.S.  produces  a  salmon-colored  precipitate  in  an  aqueous 
solution  of  the  compound.  The  addition  of  diluted  hydrochloric  acid  produces 
a  white  precipitate  of  benzoic  acid. 

About  0.1  Gm.  of  Caffeine  Sodio-Benzoate  dissolves  in  2  mils  of  sulphuric 
acid  without  producing  more  than  a  slight,  yellow  color  {readily  carhonizahle 
organic  matter). 

An  aqueous  solution  (1  in  50),  acidulated  with  hydrochloric  acid  and  filtered, 
does  not  respond  to  the  Test  for  heavy  metals  (see  Part  II,  Test  No.  3). 

When  dried  to  constant  weight  at  80°  C,  it  loses  not  more  than  5  per  cent, 
of  its  weight. 

Assay  for  Caffeine — Dissolve  about  1  Gm.  of  Caffeine  Sodio-Benzoate,  pre- 
viously dried  to  constant  weight  at  80°  C.  and  accurately  weighed,  in  5  mils  of 
distilled  water  in  a  .separator,  add  5  mils  of  so(hum  hydroxide  T.S.  and  .shake  the 
mixture  with  four  successive  portions  of  20  mils,  10  mils,  10  mils,  and  5  mils, 
respectively,  of  rhloroform.  Evaporate  the  combined  chloroform  solutions  on 
a  water  bath  and  dry  the  residue  to  constant  weight  at  80°  C.  The  weight  of 
anhydrous  caffeine  (C8H10O2N4)  so  obtained  corresponds  to  not  less  than  46  per 
cent,  nor  more  than  50  per  cent,  of  the  weight  of  dried  Caffeine  Sodio-Benzoate 
taken. 

This  residue,  when  recrystallized  from  hot  water,  responds  to  the  tests  of 
identity  and,  when  dried  to  constant  weight  at  80°  C,  has  the  melting  point 
given  under  CajJeirM. 

Assay  for  Sodium  Benzoate — When  dried  to  constant  weight  at  80°  C.  and 
estimated  as  directed  under  the  A.ssay  for  alkali  salts  of  organic  acids  (see 
Part  II,  Test  No.  6)  it  shows,  in  the  dried  mixture,  not  less  than  50  per  cent, 
nor  more  than  54  per  cent,  of  sodium  benzoate  (NaC7il502). 

Metric  ApothccarifiB 

Average  dose — By  mouth,      0.3  Gm. — 5  grains. 
Hypodermic,  0.2  Gm. — 3  grains. 


UNITED   STATES    OF   AMERICA  89 

CALcii  bromidu:m 

Calcium  Bromide 
Calc.  Brom. 

A  hydrated  form  of  Calcium  Bromide  containing  not  less  than  84 
per  cent,  of  CaBr2  (199.91).    Preserve  it  in  well-closed  containers. 

Calcium  Bromide  is  a  white,  granular  salt;  odorless,  of  a  sharp,  saline  taste, 
and  very  deliquescent. 

One  Gm.  of  Calcium  Bromide  dissolves  in  0.7  mil  of  water  and  in  1.3  mils 
of  alcohol  at  25°  C;  also  in  0.4  mil  of  boiling  water;  insoluble  in  chloroform 
or  ether. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  20)  is  neutral  or  slightly  alkaline  to 
litmus. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  20)  yields  with  ammonium  oxalate 
T.S.  a  white  precipitate,  insoluble  in  acetic  acid  but  soluble  in  hydrochloric 
acid. 

Silver  nitrate  T.S.  added  to  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  10)  produces 
a  yellowish-white  precipitate,  insoluble  in  nitric  acid  or  in  a  moderate  excess 
of  ammonia  water. 

Add  1  mil  of  cUoroform  to  10  mils  of  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  20) 
and  cautiously  introduce  chlorine  water,  which  has  been  diluted  with  an  equal 
volume  of  distilled  water,  drop  by  drop,  with  constant  agitation.  The  liberated 
bromine  dissolves  in  the  cliloroform  and  imparts  to  it  a  yellow  to  orange  color, 
which  is  free  from  any  violet  tint  (iodide). 

Drop  1  mil  of  diluted  sulphuric  acid  upon  about  1  Gm.  of  the  powdered  salt; 
no  yellow  color  appears  at  once  (bromate). 

Dissolve  about  0.1  Gm.  of  the  salt  in  5  mils  of  distilled  water,  add  an  excess 
of  silver  nitrate  T.S.  and  a  few  drops  of  nitric  acid,  filter,  wash  the  precipitate 
with  distilled  water,  digest  it  for  ten  minutes  with  5  mils  of  ammonium  carbonate 
T.S.  and  filter.  On  supersaturating  the  filtrate  with  nitric  acid  not  more  than 
a  slight  turbidity  is  produced  at  once  (chlorides). 

Twenty  mils  of  an  aqueous  solution  (1  in  250)  does  not  at  once  assume  a  blue 
color  with  potassium  ferrocj^anide  T.S.  (iron). 

Five  mils  of  an  aqueous  solution  (1  in  20),  when  acidulated  with  1  drop  of 
hydrochloric  acid,  shows  no  immediate  turbidity  with  1  mil  of  barium  chloride 
T.S.  (sulphate). 

Dissolve  1  Gm.  of  Calcium  Bromide  and  1  Gm.  of  sodium  acetate  in  5  mils 
of  distilled  water  and  render  the  solution  slightly  acid  by  the  addition  of  a  suffi- 
cient quantity  (from  3  to  5  drops)  of  diluted  acetic  acid.  After  boihng  and 
thoroughly  cooling  the  solution,  it  does  not  become  cloudy  within  five  minutes 
after  the  addition,  with  agitation,  of  5  drops  of  potassium  dichromate  T.S. 
(barium). 

Precipitate  the  calcium  completely  from  10  mils  of  an  aqueous  solution  of 
the  salt  (1  in  20)  by  adding  ammonium  oxalate  T.S.  and  filtering.  The  filtrate 
on  evaporation  and  ignition  leaves  not  more  than  0.004  Gm.  of  fixed  residue 
(magnesium  and  alkalies). 

An  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  does  not  respond  to  the  Test  for  heavy  metals 
(see  Part  II,  Test  No.  3). 

Assay — Proceed  as  directed  under  the  Assay  for  bromides  (see  Part  II,  Test 
No.  5),  using  about  0.4  Gm.  of  Calcium  Bromide,  accurately  weighed  in  a  stop- 
pered weigliing-bottle.     It  shows  not  less  than  84  per  cent,  of  CaBr2. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  silver  nitrate  V.S.  used  corresponds  to  0.0099955 
Gm.  of  CaBr2.  Each  gramme  of  Calcium  Bromide  corresponds  to  not  less  than 
84.0  mils  of  tenth-normal  silver  nitrate  V.S. 

Average  dose — Metric,  1  Gm. — Apothecaries,  15  grains. 


90  THE   PHARIVLA.COPCEIA    OF   THE 

CALCII  CARBONAS  PR.ECIPITATUS 

Precipitated  Calcium  Carbonate 

Calc.  Carb.  Praec— Precipitated  Chalk 
It  contains,  when  dried  to  constant  weight  at  200*^  C,  not  less  than 
98  per  cent,  of  CaCOg  (100.07). 

Precipitated  Calcium  Carbonate  is  a  fine,  white,  micro-crystalline  powder, 
without  odor  or  taste,  and  permanent  in  the  air. 

Precipitated  Calcium  Carbonate  is  nearly  insoluble  in  water;  the  solubility 
is  increased  by  the  presence  of  ammonium  salts  and  especially  by  carbon  dioxide; 
alkali  hj'droxides  diminish  its  solubility;  insoluble  in  alcohol;  dissolved  with 
effervescence  by  diluted  acetic,  hydrochloric,  or  nitric  acid. 

When  heated  to  full  redness,  the  salt  gradually  loses  carbon  dioxide,  and  a 
residue  of  calcium  oxide  remains. 

For  applying  tests  of  identity  and  purity,  mix  1  Gm.  of  Calcium  Carbonate 
with  50  mils  of  distilled  water,  and  add  hydrochloric  acid,  drop  by  drop,  with 
agitation,  until  solution  takes  place.  The  resulting  solution,  after  boihng  and 
coohng,  should  be  acid,  and  should  not  impart  a  green  or  crimson  color  to  a  non- 
luminous  flame,  nor  leave  more  than  0.002  Gm.  of  insoluble  matter. 

Neutralize  a  portion  of  this  acid  solution  with  ammonia  water,  and  add 
ammonium  oxalate  T.S. ;  a  white  precipitate  is  produced  which  is  insoluble  in 
acetic  acid,  but  soluble  in  hydrochloric  acid. 

Another  portion  of  the  solution,  as  prepared  above,  does  not  respond  to  the 
Test  for  heavy  metals  (see  Part  II,  Test  No.  3). 

Agitate  1  Gm.  of  the  salt  with  50  mils  of  distilled  water,  which  has  previously 
been  boiled  and  cooled,  and  then  filter;  the  filtrate  is  not  alkaline  to  htmus,  and, 
on  evaporation,  leaves  not  more  than  0.005  Gm.  of  residue  (soluble  ijnpurities). 

Assa) — Dissolve  about  0.3  to  0.4  Gm.  of  Calcium  Carbonate,  previously 
dried  to  constant  weight  at  200°  C.  and  accurately  weighed,  in  10  mils  of 
distilled  water  and  10  mils  of  diluted  hj-drocliloric  acid  and  boil  the  solution  to 
expel  all  carbon  dioxide.  Transfer  this  solution  to  a  200  mil  graduated  flask, 
add  100  mils  of  tenth-normal  oxalic  acid  V.S.,  render  it  alkaline  with  ammonia 
water,  shake  the  mixture  well  and  allow  to  stand  for  three  hours  at  from  60°  to 
70°  C.  or  over  night  at  room  temperature.  Cool  the  liquid  if  necessary,  fill  the 
flask  with  distilled  water  to  the  mark,  mix  it  well,  filter  through  a  dry  filter  into 
a  dry  flask,  reject  the  first  20  mils  of  the  filtrate,  and  proceed  as  follows:  Add 
diluted  .sulphuric  acid  to  100  mils  of  the  filtrate  (representing  one-half  of  the 
Calcium  Carbonate  taken)  until  of  acid  reaction,  then  add  25  mils  more  of  the 
diluted  sulphuric  acid,  warm  the  solution  to  from  60°  to  70°  C,  and  titrate  wnth 
tenth-normal  potassium  permanganate  V.S.  It  shows,  in  the  dried  salt,  not  less 
than  98  per  cent,  of  CaCOa. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  oxalic  acid  V.S.  used  corresponds  to  0.0050035  Gm. 
of  CaCOa.  Each  gramme  of  dried  Calcium  Carbonate  corresponds  to  not  less 
than  195.9  mils  of  tenth-normal  oxalic  acid  V.S. 

Average  dose — Metric,  1  Gm. — Apothecaries,  15  grains. 

CALCII  CHLORIDUM 

Calcium  Chloride 

Calc.  Chlor. 

A  hydrated  form  of  Calcium  Chloride  containing  not  less  than  75  per 

cent,  of  CaCla  (110.99).    Preserve  it  in  well-stoppered  bottles. 

Calcium  Chloride  occurs  in  white,  slightly  translucent,  hard  fragmen'.,s,  granules, 
or  sticks;  odorless,  having  a  sharp,  saline  taste.    It  is  very  deliquectcent. 


UNITED   STATES   OP  AMERICA  91 

One  Gm.  of  Calcium  Chloride  dissolves  in  1.2  mils  of  water  and  in  about 
10  mils  of  alcohol  at  25°  C;  also  in  0.7  mil  of  boiling  water  and  about  2  mils 
of  boiling  alcohol. 

Its  aqueous  solution  (1  in  20)  is  neutral  or  slightly  alkaline  to  litmus. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  20)  yields,  with  ammonium  oxalate 
T.S.,  a  white  precipitate  insoluble  in  acetic  acid,  but  soluble  in  hydrochloric 
acid. 

Silver  nitrate  T.S.  added  to  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  10)  pro- 
duces a  white  precipitate  insoluble  in  nitric  acid  but  readily  soluble  in  ammonia 
water. 

Add  ammonia  water  to  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  20)  until  of 
alkaline  reaction;  no  turbidity  or  precipitation  occurs  either  before  or  after 
boiling  (iron,  aluminum,  phosphates,  etc.). 

Precipitate  the  calcium  completely  from  10  mils  of  an  aqueous  solution  of 
the  salt  (1  in  20)  by  adding  ammonium  oxalate  T.S.  and  filtering.  The  filtrate 
on  evaporation  and  ignition  leaves  not  more  than  0.004  Gm.  of  fixed  residue 
{magnesium  and  alkalies). 

An  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  does  not  respond  to  the  Test  for  heavy  metals 
(see  Part  II,  Test  No.  3). 

Assay — Proceed  as  directed  under  the  Assay  for  chlorides  (see  Part  II,  Test 
No.  5),  using  about  0.3  Gm.  of  Calcium  Chloride,  accurately  weighed  in  a  stop- 
pered weighing-bottle.    It  shows  not  less  than  75  per  cent,  of  CaCl2. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  silver  nitrate  V.S.  used  corresponds  to  0.00555  Gm. 
of  CaCl2.  Each  gramme  of  Calcium  Chloride  corresponds  to  not  less  than 
135.1  mils  of  tenth-normal  silver  nitrate  V.S. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.5  Gm. — Apothecaries,  8  grains. 


CALCII  GLYCEROPHOSPHAS 

Calcium  Glycerophosphate 

Calc.  Glycerophos. — Calcium  Glycerinophosphate 

The  normal  calcium  salt  of  glycerophosphoric  acid  [C3H5(0H)2P04H2 
=  172.11],  containing,  when  dried  to  constant  weight  at  130°  C,  not  less 
than  98  per  cent,  of  CaCgH^POe  or  C3H5(0H)2P04Ca  (210.17).  Pre- 
serve it  in  well-closed  containers. 

Calcium  Glycerophosphate  occurs  as  a  fine  white  powder;  odorless  and  almost 
tasteless,  somewhat  hygroscopic. 

One  Gm.  of  Calcium  Glycerophosphate  dissolves  in  about  50  mils  of  water 
at  25°  C;  soluble  in  less  water  at  a  lower  temperature;  citric  acid  increases  its 
solubility;  insoluble  in  alcohol. 

A  saturated  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  is  alkaline  to  litmus  and  to  phenol- 
phthalein.  • 

A  cold,  saturated  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  yields  white,  iridescent  scales 
of  anhydrous  calcium  glycerophosphate  when  heated  to  boiling. 

When  heated  above  170°  C.  the  salt  is  decomposed,  evolving  inflammable 
vapors,  and  at  a  red  heat  it  is  converted  into  calcium  pyrophosphate. 

A  saturated  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  yields  with  ammonium  oxalate  T.S. 
a  white  precipitate,  insoluble  in  acetic  acid  but  soluble  in  hydrochloric  acid. 
With  lead  acetate  T.S.  the  saturated  solution  yields  a  white  curdy  precipitate 
which  is  soluble  in  nitric  acid. 


92  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA   OF   THE 

Dissolve  1  Gm.  of  Calcium  Glycerophosphate  in  10  mils  of  diluted  nitric  acid 
and  add  an  equal  volume  of  cold  ammonium  molybdate  T.S.;  no  precipitate 
is  formed  within  one  hour  (phosphates)  but  on  heating  the  mixture  a  yellow 
precipitate  is  formed. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  does  not  respond  to  the  Test  for  hea-vy  metals 
(see  Part  II,  Test  No.  3). 

Dissolve  0.1  Gm.  of  the  salt  in  10  mils  of  diluted  nitric  acid  and  add  1  mil  of 
silver  nitrate  T.S.;  an  opalescence  but  no  precipitate  may  appear  within  one 
minute  (chloride). 

Dissolve  0.1  Gm.  of  the  salt  in  10  mils  of  diluted  hydrochloric  acid  and  add 
1  mil  of  barium  chloride  T.S.;  no  distinct  turbidity  appears  within  one  minute 
(sulphate). 

shake  1  Gm.  of  finely  powdered  Calcium  Glycerophosphate  with  25  mils  of 
dehydrated  alcohol,  filter  the  mixture,  evaporate  the  filtrate  on  a  water  bath 
and  dry  the  residue  for  an  hour  at  a  temperature  not  exceeding  70°  C.  The 
resulting  residue  weighs  not  more  than  0.01  Gm.  (alcohol-soluble  impurities,  etc.). 

Dry  a  portion  of  the  finely  powdered  salt  to  constant  weight  at  130°  C;  the 
loss  does  not  exceed  10  per  cent,  (water). 

Assay — Di.ssolve  about  0.4  Gm.  of  the  salt,  pre\aously  dried  to  constant 
weight  at  130°  C.  and  accurately  weighed,  in  20  mils  of  a  5  per  cent,  solution  of 
acetic  acid  and  add  30  mils  of  distilled  water.  Heat  the  mixture  to  boiling  and 
add  an  excess  of  ammonium  oxalate  T.S.  Collect  the  resulting  precipitate,  wash, 
dry,  and  then  ignite  it  until  of  constant  weight.  This  residue  of  calcium  oxide 
corresponds  to  not  less  than  26.1  per  cent,  of  the  weight  of  Calcium  Glycerophos- 
phate taken. 

Dry  a  portion  of  Calcium  Glycerophosphate  to  constant  weight  at  130°  C, 
and  ignite  it  to  constant  weight;  the  weight  of  calcium  pyrophosphate  corre- 
sponds to  not  less  than  59.2  per  cent,  of  the  weight  of  Calcium  Glycerophos- 
phate taken. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.25  Gm. — Apothecaries,  4  grains. 


CALCII  HYPOPHOSPHIS 

Calcium  Hypophospliite 

Calc.  Hypophos. 

It  contains,  when  dried  to  constant  weight  in  a  desiccator  over  sul- 
phuric acid,  not  less  than  98  per  cent,  of  Ca(PH202)2  (170.18).  Pre- 
serve it  in  well-closed  containers.  Caution  should  be  observed  in 
dispensing  Calcium  Hypophosphite  as  an  explosion  is  liable  to  occur 
when  it  is  triturated  or  heated  with  nitrates,  chlorates,  or  other  oxi- 
dizing agents. 

Calcium  Hypophosphite  occurs  as  colorless,  transparent,  monoclinic  prisms, 
as  small  lustrous  scales,  or  as  a  white,  crystallinei  powder;  odorless,  having  a 
nauseous  and  bitter  taste,  permanent  in  the  air. 

One  Gm.  of  Calcium  Hypophosphite  is  slowly  soluble  in  6.5  mils  of  water  at 
25°  C;  insoluble  in  alcohol. 

When  heated  the  salt  decrepitates  and  begins  to  decompose,  giving  off  water 
and  evolving  spontaneously  inflammable  hydrogen  phosphide,  and  on  complete 
ignition  leaving  a  residue  of  calcium  pyrophosphate. 

When  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  20),  acidulated  with  hydrochloric 
acid,  is  added,  drop  by  drop  with  agitation,  to  an  excess  of  mercuric  chloride  T.S., 


UNITED   STATES    OF   AMERICA  93 

a  white  precipitate  of  mercurous  chloride  is  formed.  Upon  the  further  addition 
of  the  solution  of  Calcium  Hypophosphite  the  precipitate  becomes  gray  from 
reduction  to  metallic  mercury. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  Calciimi  Ilypophospliite  (1  in  20)  yields  with  ammo- 
nium oxalate  T.S.  a  white  precipitate,  insoluble  in  acetic  acid,  but  soluble  in 
hydrochloric  acid. 

Dissolve  1  Gm.  of  the  salt  in  20  mils  of  distilled  water;  it  requires  not  more 
than  1  mil  of  tenth-normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S.  to  produce  a  pink  color, 
phenolphthalein  T.S.  being  used  as  indicator. 

When  1  Gm  of  the  salt  is  dissolved  in  20  mils  of  distilled  water,  not  more  than 
0.005  Gm.  of  residue  remains  (phosphate). 

Mix  5  mils  of  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  10)  in  a  test  tube  with  0.5 
mil  of  diluted  hydrochloric  acid  and  heat  on  a  water  bath;  no  offensive  odor 
develops  within  thirty  minutes. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  does  not  respond  to  the  Test  for  heavy  metals 
(see  Part  II,  Test  No.  3). 

Pour  5  mils  of  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  25)  into  a  beaker  containing 
3  mils  of  nitric  acid,  diluted  with  about  10  mils  of  distilled  water,  and  evaporate 
it  to  dryness  on  a  water  bath.  The  residue  meets  the  requirements  of  the  Test 
for  arsenic  (see  Part  II,  Test  No.  1). 

Assay — Dissolve  about  0.75  Gm.  of  Calcium  Hypophosphite,  previously 
dried  to  constant  weight  in  a  desiccator  over  sulphuric  acid  and  accurately 
weighed,  in  10  mils  of  distilled  water,  add  10  mils  of  nitric  acid  and  evaporate  to 
dryne.ss  on  a  water  bath.  .\dd  5  mils  of  nitric  acid  to  the  residue,  again  evaporate 
to  dryness  on  a  water  bath  and  dissolve  the  residue  in  sufficient  distilled  water 
to  measure  100  mils.  Transfer  10  mils  of  this  solution  to  a  100  mil  graduated 
flask,  add  sodium  hydroxide  T.S.  (free  from  chloride)  until  a  slight,  perma- 
nent precipitate  is  produced;  then  add  50  mils  of  tenth-normal  silver  nitrate  V.S. 
and  proceed  as  directed  in  the  assay  under  Sodii  Phosphas.  Wlien  calculated 
to  the  amount  originally  taken  it  shows  not  less  than  98  per  cent,  of  Ca(PHo02)2. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  silver  nitrate  V.S.  used  corresponds  to  0.002836 
Gm.  of  Ca(PH202)2.  Each  gramme  of  Calcium  Hypophosphite,  dried  to 
constant  weight,  corresponds  to  not  less  than  345.5  mils  of  tenth-normal  silver 
nitrate  V.S. 

Preparation — Syrupus  Hypophosphitum. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.5  Gm. — Apothecaries,  8  grains. 


CALCII  LACTAS 

Calcium  Lactate 
Calc.  Lact. 

The  hydrated  form  of  Calcium  Lactate  [Ca(C3H503)2+5H20  = 
308.23].  It  contains,  when  dried  to  constant  weight  at  120°  C,  not 
less  than  98  per  cent,  of  Ca(C3H 503)2  (218.15).  Preserve  it  in  well- 
closed  containers. 

Calcium  Lactate  occurs  in  white,  granular  masses  or  powder;  odorless  and 
nearly  tasteless. 

It  is  somewhat  efflorescent;  at  120°  C.  it  becomes  anhydrous.  When  dried 
to  a  constant  weight  at  that  temperature  the  loss  is  not  more  than  29.2  per  cent, 
(corresponding  to  5  molecules  of  water  of  crystallization)  nor  less  than  25  per 
cent. 


94  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA   OF  THE 


One  Gm.  of  Calcium  Lactate  dissolves  in  20  mils  of  water  at  25°  C;  almost 
insoluble  in  alcohol. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  Calcium  Lactate  (1  in  20)  is  neutral,  slightly  acid,  or 
slightly  alkaline  to  litmus,  but  is  not  reddened  by  phenolphthalein  T.S. 

Acidulate  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  20)  with  sulphuric  acid,  add 
potassium  permanganate  and  heat  the  mixture;  the  odor  of  acetaldehyde  is 
developed.  With  ammonium  oxalate  T.S.  an  aqueous  solution  (1  in  20)  yields 
a  wliite  precipitate,  insoluble  in  acetic  acid  but  soluble  in  hydrochloric  acid. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  does  not  respond  to  the  Test  for  heavy  metals 
(see  Part  II,  Test  No.  3). 

Add  ammonium  oxalate  T.S.  to  20  mils  of  a  hot  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt 
(1  in  20)  until  no  further  precipitate  is  produced,  filter  the  mixtiu-e  after  three 
hours,  and  wash  the  precipitate  with  50  mils  of  distilled  water.  The  combined 
filtrate  and  washings  leave  not  more  than  0.01  Gm.  of  residue  on  evaporation 
and  subsequent  ignition  {magnesium  and  alkalies). 

Stir  about  0.5  Gm.  of  the  salt  with  1  mil  of  sulphuric  acid;  the  mixture  does 
not  emit  an  odor  of  volatile  fat-acids,  even  on  warming. 

Assay — Incinerate  in  a  crucible  about  2  Gm.  of  the  salt,  pre\'iously  dried  to 
constant  weight  at  120°  C.  and  accurately  weighed,  dissolve  the  residue  in  50 
mils  of  half-normal  hj'drochloric  acid  V'.S.  and  titrate  the  excess  of  acid  with 
half-normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S.,  using  methyl  orange  T.S.  as  indicator. 
It  shows,  in  the  dried  salt,  not  less  than  98  per  cent,  of  Ca(C3H503)2. 

Each  mil  of  half-normal  hydrochloric  acid  V.S.  used  corresponds  to  0.05454 
Gm.  of  Ca(C3H503)2.  Each  gramme  of  dried  Calcium  Lactate  corresponds  to 
not  less  than  17.97  mils  of  half-normal  hydrochloric  acid  V.S. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.5  Gm. — Apothecaries,  8  grains. 


CALCII  SULPHIDUM  CRUDUM 

Crude  Calcium  Sulphide 

Calc.  Sulphid.  Crud.— Cak  Sulphurata,  U.S.P.  VIII        Sulphurated  Lime 

It  contains  not  less  than  55  per  cent,  of  CaS  (72.14).    Preserve  it  in 
well-closed  containers. 

Crude  Calcium  Sulphide  is  a  pale  gray  or  yellowish  powder,  having  a  faint 
odor  of  hydrogen  sulphide  and  a  nauseous  and  alkaline  taste.  It  gradually 
decomposes  on  exposiu-e  to  moist  air. 

Crude  Calcium  Sulphide  is  very  sUghtly  soluble  in  cold  water;  more  readily 
soluble  in  boiling  water  with  partial  decomposition;  readily  dissolved  by  solutions 
of  ammonium  salts;  insoluble  in  alcohol. 

When  Crude  Calcium  Sulphide  is  decomposed  by  diluted  acetic  acid,  hydrogen 
sulphide  is  evolved  and  a  residue  of  calcium  sulphate  and  carbon  frequently 
remains.  The  filtered  solution  j-ields  with  ammonium  oxalate  T.S.  a  white 
precipitate  insoluble  in  acetic  acid,  but  soluble  in  hydrochloric  acid. 

Assay — Introduce  about  0.2  Gm  of  Crude  Calcium  Sulphide,  accurately 
weighed,  into  a  gla.ss-stoppered  bottle  ov  flask;  add  50  mils  of  distilled  water,  mix. 
and  quickly  introduce  30  mils  of  a  10  per  cent,  ammonium  chloride  solution  ana 
immediately  stopper  the  flask.  Agitate  the  contents  for  a  few  minutes,  add 
quickly  20  mils  of  a  10  per  cent,  cadmium  chloride  solution,  immediately  insert 
the  stopper  and  again  agitate  well  for  a  few  minutes.  Then  add  5  mils  of  acetic 
acid,  heat  the  mixture  on  a  water  bath  for  fifteen  minutes,  decant  the  superna- 
tant liquid  through  a  filter,  agitate  the  remaining  precipitate  with  10  mils  of  di- 
luted acetic  acid,  transfer  the  precipitate  to  the  filter  and  wash  with  10  mils  of 
diluted  acetic  acid.    Return  the  filter  and  precipitate  to  the  original  flask,  add 


UNITED    STATES   OF  AMERICA  95 

50  mils  of  tenth-normal  iodine  V.S.  and  20  mils  of  a  mixture  of  equal 
volumes  of  hydrochloric  acid  and  water.  Stopper  the  flask  and  agitate  it 
vigorously  for  a  few  minutes,  and  then  titrate  the  excess  of  iodine  with  tenth- 
normal sodium  thiosulphate  V.S.    It  shows  not  less  than  55  per  cent,  of  CaS. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  iodine  V.S.  used  corresi)ond.s  to  0.003607  Gm.  of 
CaS.  Each  gramme  of  Crude  Calcium  Sulphide  corresjjonds  to  not  less  than 
152.5  mils  of  tenth-normal  iodine  V.S. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.06  Gm. — Apothecaries,  1  grain. 

CALUMBA 

Calumba 

Caiumb. — Columba        Columbo        Colombo 

The  dried  root  of  Jateorhiza  palmata  (Lamarck)  Miers  (Fam.  Meni- 
spermacece). 

In  circular  or  oval  disks  attaining  a  diameter  of  9  cm.  and  seldom  exceeding 
2  mm.  in  thickness,  or  in  longitudinal  or  in  oblique  slices  attaining  a  length  of  30 
cm.,  a  breadth  of  35  mm.  and  a  thickness  of  16  mm.;  externally  brown  and 
roughly  wrinkled;  cut  surface  varying  from  yellowish-brown  to  grayish-yellow, 
the  transverse  slices  distinctly  radiate  in  the  outer  portion  and  with  a  dark  cam- 
bium; central  portion  often  depressed;  fracture  short,  mealy;  odor  shght; 
taste  shghtly  aromatic,  very  bitter. 

The  powder  is  greenish-brown  to  grayish-yellow;  starch  grains  numerous, 
mostly  single,  occasionally  2-  to  3-compound,  the  individual  grains  from  0.003 
to  0.085  mm.  in  the  long  diameter,  ovoid,  ellipsoidal,  frequently  very  irregular, 
slightly  lamellated,  with  an  excentral  hnear  x-shaped  or  brandling  cleft;  stone 
cells  few  with  irregularly  thickened,  strongly  hgnified,  coarsely  porous  walls 
and  containing  one  or  more  prisms  of  calcium  oxalate  from  0.01  to  0.03  mm. 
in  length,  or  numerous  sphenoidal  micro-crystals;  fragments  with  trachea;  few. 
the  latter  with  reticulate  thickenings  or  bordered  pores,  and  associated  with 
wood-fibers  having  long,  obUque,  slit-like  pores. 

Calumba  yields  not  more  than  8  per  cent,  of  ash. 

Preparation — Tinctura  Calumbse. 

Average  dose — Metric,  2  Gm. — Apothecaries,  30  grains. 

CALX 

Calcium  Oxide 

Lime  Quicklime 

It  contains,  when  freshly  ignited  to  constant  weight  with  a  blast 
lamp,  not  less  than  95  per  cent,  of  CaO  (56.07).  It  loses  not  more  than 
10  per  cent,  of  its  weight  on  ignition.  Preserve  it  in  air-tight  containers 
in  a  dry  place. 

Calcium  Oxide  occurs  in  hard,  wliite  or  grayish-white  masses  or  granules,  or 
as  a  white  powder;  odorless  and  having  a  caustic  taste. 

One  Gm.  of  Calcium  Oxide  dissolves  in  840  mils  of  water  at  25°  C. ;  also  in  1740 
mils  of  boiling  water;  soluble  in  glycerin  and  syrup;  insoluble  in  alcohol. 

When  moistened  with  water,  Calcium  Oxide  becomes  heated,  and  is  gradually 
converted  into  a  white  powder  (calcium  hydroxide  or  slaked  lime).    When  this 


96  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA   OF   THE 

is  mixed  with  about  3  or  4  times  its  weight  of  water,  it  forms  a  smooth  magma 
(milk  of  lime). 

Water,  when  agitated  with  Calcium  Oxide,  becomes  alkaline  to  litmus. 

Slake  1  Gm.  of  Calcium  Oxide,  thoroughly  mix  it  with  50  mils  of  water,  and 
decant  the  greater  portion  of  the  milky  liquid;  the  addition  of  an  excess  of 
diluted  hydrochloric  acid  to  the  re.sidue  does  not  cause  more  than  a  slight  effer- 
vescence (carbonate). 

Mix  5  Gm.  of  Calcium  Oxide,  after  slaking,  with  100  mils  of  distilled  water, 
followed  by  hydrochloric  acid,  drop  by  drop,  with  agitation  imtil  solution  takes 
place.  The  resulting  solution,  after  boiling  and  cooling,  should  be  acid  and 
should  not  deposit  more  than  0.05  Gm.  of  insoluble  matter. 

Ammonium  oxalate  T.S.  added  to  a  portion  of  this  solution,  after  neutralizing 
it  with  ammonia  water,  yields  a  white  precipitate,  insoluble  in  acetic  acid,  but 
soluble  in  hydrochloric  acid. 

Ignite  to  constant  weight  with  a  blast  lamp  in  a  tared  platinum  crucible  a 
portion  of  Calcium  Oxide;  it  loses  not  more  than  10  per  cent,  in  weight  of  the 
Calcium  Oxide  taken  (volatile  substances). 

Assay — Dissolve  about  1  Gm.  of  Calcium  Oxide,  previously  ignited  to  con- 
stant weight  over  a  blast  lamp  and  accurately  weighed,  in  20  mils  of  diluted 
hj^drochloric  acid,  cool  the  solution,  dilute  with  distilled  water  to  100  mils  and 
mix  well.  Transfer  20  mils  of  this  solution  to  a  200  mil  graduated  flask  and 
proceed  with  the  assay  as  directed  under  Calcii  Carbonas  Prcecipitatus. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  oxalic  acid  V.S.  corresponds  to  0.0028035  Gm.  of 
CaO.  Each  gramme  of  freshly  ignited  Calcium  Oxide  corresponds  to  not  less 
than  338.9  mils  of  tenth-normal  oxalic  acid  V.S. 

Preparation — Liquor  Calcis. 


CALX  CHLORINATA 

Chlorinated  Lime 

Calx  Chlorin.— "Chloride  of  Lime" 

A  product  resulting  from  the  action  of  chlorine  upon  calcium  hydrox- 
ide, and  containing  not  less  than  30  per  cent,  of  available  chlorine 
[CI  =  35.46].    Preserve  it  in  air-tight  containers,  in  a  cool  and  dry  place. 

Chlorinated  Lime  occurs  as  a  white,  or  grayi.sh-white,  granular  powder,  having 
the  odor  of  chlorine.  It  becomes  moist  and  gradually  decomposes  on  exposure 
to  the  air  and  when  in  such  condition  must  not  be  used  or  dispensed. 

It  is  partially  soluble  in  water  or  alcohol.  The  insoluble  portion  settles 
readily  when  it  is  mixed  with  water.  If  lumps  are  present  they  readily  break 
down  and  leave  no  core. 

Shake  1  Gm.  of  Chlorinated  Lime  with  50  mils  of  distilled  water  and  filter; 
the  filtrate  at  first  colors  red  litmus  blue,  and  then  bleaches  it. 

Dissolve  Chlorinated  Lime  in  diluted  acetic  acid;  an  abundance  of  chlorine 
gas  is  evolved,  and  only  a  trifling  residue  remains  undissolved. 

Ammonium  oxalate  T.S.  added  to  this  solution  yields  a  white  precipitate, 
insoluble  in  acetic  acid,  but  soluble  in  hydrochloric  acid. 

Assay — Introduce  into  a  tared,  stoppered  weighing-bottle,  containing  10  mils 
of  distilled  water,  between  3  and  4  Gm.  of  Chlorinated  Lime  and  weigh  accu- 
rately. Triturate  this  thoroughly  with  50  mils  of  distilled  water,  transfer  the  mix- 
ture to  a  graduated  liter  flask,  rin.se  the  mortar  with  di.stilled  water,  add  the 
rinsings  to  the  mixture  and  then  sufficient  distilled  water  to  make  1000  mils, 
etopper  the  flask  and  allow  it  to  stand  for  ten  minutes.  Shake  it  thoroughly, 
add  to  100  mils  of  the  mixture  1  Gin.  of  potassium  iodide  and  5  mils  of  acetic 
acid,  and  titrate  with  tenth-normal  sodium  thiosuljjhate  V.S.,  starch  T.S.  being 


UNITED   STATES   OF   AMERICA  97 

used  as  indicator.     When  calculated  to  the  weight  of  Chlorinated  Lime  taken, 
it  shows  not  less  than  30  per  cent,  of  available  chlorine. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  sodium  thiosulphate  V.S.  used  corresponds  to 
0.003546  Gm.  of  available  chlorine  (CI).  Each  gramme  of  Chlorinated  Lime 
corresponds  to  not  less  than  84.6  mils  of  tenth-normal  sodium  thiosulphate  V.S. 


CAMBOGIA 

Gamboge 

Cam  bog. — Pipe  Gamboge 

A  gum-resin  obtained  from  Garcinia  Hanhurii  Hooker  filius  (Fam. 
Guttiferce). 

In  hard,  brittle,  cylindrical  pieces,  usually  hollow  in  the  center,  from  2  to  5  cm. 
in  diameter,  from  10  to  20  cm.  in  length,  externally  grayish-orange-brown, 
longitudinally  striate;  fracture  conchoidal,  smooth,  orange-red;  odorless;  taste 
very  acrid. 

When  rubbed  with  water  it  yields  a  yellow  emulsion  which  becomes  darker 
and  almost  transparent  upon  the  addition  of  ammonia  water.  The  emulsion 
turns  green  upon  the  addition  of  iodine  T.S.  (starch). 

The  powder  is  bright  yellow,  containing  few  or  no  starch  grains.  \Mien 
mounted  in  hydrated  chloral  T.S.  and  examined  under  the  microscope  the 
particles,  for  the  most  part,  slowly  dissolve,  leaving  scattered  fragments  of 
vegetable  tissues. 

Not  less  than  65  per  cent,  of  Gamboge  is  soluble  in  alcohol. 

Gamboge  yields  not  more  than  2  per  cent,  of  ash. 

Preparation — Pilulae  Catharticae  Compositae. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.125  Gm. — Apothecaries,  2  grains. 


CAMPHORA 

Camphor 
Camph. 

A  ketone  [CioHieO  or  C9Hi6C0  =  152.13]  obtained  from  Cinnamomum 
C amphora  (Linne)  Nees  et  Ebermaier  (Fam.  Lauracece);  it  is  dextro- 
rotatory.   Preserve  it  in  well-closed  containers,  in  a  cool  place. 

Camphor  occurs  in  white,  translucent  masses  or  granules  of  a  tough  con- 
sistence and  having  a  penetrating,  characteristic  odor,  and  a  pungent,  aromatic 
taste.  It  is  readily  pulverizable  in  the  presence  of  a  Uttle  alcohol,  ether  or 
chloroform . 

Camphor  is  slightly  soluble  in  water  and  freely  soluble  in  alcohol,  chloroform, 
ether,  carbon  disulphide,  petroleum  benzin,  or  in  fixed  or  volatile  oils. 

Specific  gravity:    about  0.990  at  25°  C. 

Camphor  melts  between  174°  and  177°  C. 

The  specific  rotation  [«]d  of  Camphor  in  a  solution  in  alcoiiol  at  25°  C.  is 
between  +41°  and  +42°  in  a  200  mm.  tube,  containing  10  Gm.  of  Camphor  in 
each  100  mils  of  solution.  The  alcohol  must  be  of  the  strength  of  about  95  per 
cent,  by  volume. 

It  volatilizes  at  ordinary  temperatures.    On  gradually  heating  about  2  Gm.  of 
Camphor,   it  sublimes  without  carbonization  and  without  leaving  more  than 
0.05  per  cent,  of  ash. 
12 


98  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA    OF   THE 

A  solution  of  Camphor  in  petroleum  benzin  (1  in  10)  is  clear  {moisture). 

Hold  the  looped  end  of  a  piece  of  clean  copper  wire  in  a  non-luminous  flame 
until  it  glows,  without  coloring  the  flame  green,  then  dip  the  loop  into  Camphor, 
ignite  the  adhering  Camphor,  and  hold  it  so  that  the  liquid  burns  outside  of 
a  non-luminous  flame.  On  slowly  bringing  the  flame  from  the  burning  Camphor 
on  the  loop  in  contact  with  the  lower  outer  edge  of  the  non-luminous  flame,  no 
green  tinge  is  discernible  {chlorinated  products). 

Preparations — Aqua  Camphorae  Linimentum  Belladonnse  Linimentum 
Camphorte  Linimentum  Chloroformi  Linimentum  Saponis  Spiritus 
Camphorae     Tinctura  Opii  Camphorata. 

Metric  Apothecaries 

Average  dose — By  mouth,      0.2  Gm. — 3      grains. 
Hypodermic,  0.1  Gm. — 1^  grains. 


CAMPHORA  MONOBROMATA 

Monobromated  Camphor 
Camph.  Monobrom. 

Ortho-monobromcamphor  [doHisOBr  or  C9Hi5Br.C0  =  231.04].  Pre- 
serve it  in  well-closed  containers,  protected  from  light. 

Monobromated  Camphor  occurs  in  colorless,  prismatic  needles  or  scales,  or 
as  a  powder  having  a  mild  but  characteristic,  camphoraceous  odor  and  taste; 
permanent  in  the  air.     It  is  decomposed  by  prolonged  exposure  to  sun-light. 

One  Gm.  of  Monobromated  Camphor  dissolves  in  6.5  mils  of  alcohol,  0.5 
mil  of  chloroform,  and  in  1.6  mils  of  ether  at  25°  C;  almost  insoluble  in  water. 

It  melts  between  74°  and  76°  C. 

Heat  a  mixture  of  about  0.1  Gm.  each  of  Monobromated  Camphor  and  silver 
nitrate  and  2  mils  each  of  nitric  acid  and  sulphuric  acid  until  nitrous  vapors 
are  no  longer  evolved;  a  yellowish  precipitate  of  silver  bromide  is  obtained. 

Incinerate  about  2  Gm.  of  Monobromated  Camphor  ;  not  more  than  0.05  per 
cent,  of  ash  remains. 

Shake  about  0.5  Gm.  of  powdered  Monobromated  Camphor  with  10  mils  of 
distilled  water  and  filter.  The  filtrate  is  neutral  to  litmus  and  is  not  rendered 
more  than  slightly  opalescent  by  the  addition  of  a  few  drops  of  silver  nitrate  T.S. 
(soluble  bromide). 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.125  Gm. — Apothecaries,  2  grains. 


CANNABIS 

Cannabis 

Cannab. — Cannabis  Indica,  U.S.P.  VIII        Guaza       Ganjah 

The  dried  flowering  tops  of  the  pistillate  plants  of  Cannabis  saliva 
Linn6,  or  of  the  variety  indica  Lamarck  (Fam.  Moraceoe),  freed  from 
the  thicker  stems  and  large  foliage  leaves  and  without  the  presence  or 
admixture  of  more  than  10  per  cent,  of  fruits  or  other  foreign  matter. 
Carmabis,  made  into  a  fluidextract  in  which  one  hundred  mils  represent 


UNITED    STATES    OF   AMERICA  99 

one  hundred  grammes  of  the  drug,  when  assayed  biologically,  produces 
incoordination  when  administered  to  dogs  in  a  doso  of  not  more  than 
0.03  mil  of  fluidextract  per  kilogramme  of  body  weight. 

In  dark  green  or  grcenish-brovm  and  more  or  less  agglutinated  fragments, 
consisting  of  the  short  stems  with  their  leaf-like  bracts  and  pistillate  flowers, 
some  of  the  latter  being  replaced  with  more  or  less  developed  fruits;  stems 
cylindrical,  of  varying  length,  not  more  than  3  mm.  in  diameter,  longitudinally 
furrowed,  light  green  to  light  brown,  strigose- pubescent;  leaves  digitately  com- 
pound; leaflets,  when  soaked  in  water  and  s])read  out,  linear-lanceolate,  nearly- 
sessile,  margin  deeply  serrate;  bracts  ovate,  pubescent,  each  enclosing  one  or 
two  pistillate  fiowers,  or  more  or  less  develojied  fruits;  calyx  dark  green,  pubes- 
cent and  somewhat  folded  around  the  ovary  or  fruit;  st3-les  two,  fihform  and 
pubescent;  ovarj'  with  a  single  campylotropous  ovule;  fruit  light  green  to  light 
brown,  broadly  ellipsoidal,  about  3.5  mm.  in  length,  finely  wrinkled  and  slightly 
reticulated;  odor  agreeabh'  aromatic;  taste  characteristic. 

The  powder  is  dark  green,  giving  a  strong  effervescence  on  the  addition  of 
dilute  hydrochloric  acid;  numerous  sharp  pointed  fragments  of  upper  portion 
of  non-glandular  hairs  and  fragments  of  bracts  and  leaves  showing  yellowish- 
brown  laticiferous  vessels,  rosette  aggregates  of  calcium  oxalate  from  0.005  to 
0.025  mm.  in  diameter;  non-glandular  hairs  unicellular,  with  a  very  slender 
pointed  apex  and  a  considerably  enlarged  base  containing,  usually  in  the  lumen, 
some  calcium  carbonate;  glandular  hairs  of  two  kinds,  one  with  a  short,  one- 
celled  stalk  and  the  other  with  a  multicellular,  long,  tongue^shaped  stalk,  the 
glandular  portion  being  globular  and  consisting  of  from  8  to  16  cells,  fragments 
of  fruits  with  palisade-like,  non-lignified  sclerenchymatous  cells,  walls  yellowish- 
brown,  finely  porous,  the  lumina  usually  containing  air;  tissues  of  embryo  and 
endosperm  with  numerous  oil  globules  and  aleurone  grains,  the  latter  from 
0.005  to  0.01  mm.  in  diameter  and  consisting  of  large  crystalloids  and  globoids. 

The  yield  of  alcohol  extractive  is  not  less  than  8  per  cent,  and  the  alcoholic 
solution  is  of  a  bright  green  color. 

Cannabis  yields  not  more  than  15  per  cent,  of  ash. 

Assa> — Prepare  a  fluidextract  and  proceed  as  directed  under  Biological 
Assays  (Part  II). 

Preparations — Extractum  Cannabis        Fluidextractum  Cannabis       Tinctura 
Cannabis. 

CANTHARIS 

Cantharides 

Canthar.— Spanish  Flies  Russian  Flies 
The  dried  beetles,  Cantharis  vesicatoria  (Linn6)  De  Geer  (Fam. 
Meloidece,  Order  Coleopiera),  yielding  not  less  than  0.6  per  cent,  of 
cantharidin.  Preserve  Cantharides  in  tightly-closed  containers,  adding 
a  few  drops  of  chloroform  or  carbon  tetrachloride,  from  time  to  time, 
to  prevent  attack  by  insects. 

From  15  to  25  mm.  in  length,  5  to  8  mm.  in  breadth,  oblong,  somewhat  com- 
pressed above;  of  a  brilliant  green  or  bluish-green,  metaUic  luster,  changing  in 
different  parts,  especially  beneath,  to  a  golden-green;  head  triangular,  separated 
into  two  lateral  lobes  by  a  faint  median  Une;  mandibles  stout  and  partly  con- 
cealed; antennae  filiform,  of  11  conical  joints,  the  upper  ones  being  black;  eyes 
comparatively  small;  prothorax  angulate;  legs  with  five  tarsal  joints;  wings 
membranous  and  brownish;  elytra  or  wing  sheaths  each  with  two  parallel  hnea 
and  finely  wrinkled;   odor  strong,  disagreeable;   taste  shght,  afterwards  acrid. 

Cantharides  with  an  ammoniacal  odor  must  not  be  used. 


100  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA   OF  THE 

The  powder  is  gra3dsh-brown,  with  shining  green  particles  and  a  number  of 
long,  pointed,  1-celled  hairs  0.5  mm.  in  length  and  0.02  mm.  in  width. 

Cantharides  does  not  contain  more  than  10  per  cent,  of  moisture. 

Cantharides  yields  not  more  than  9  per  cent,  of  ash. 

Assay — Introduce  15  Gm.  of  Cantharides,  in  No.  40  powder,  into  a  stout 
bottle  of  not  less  than  250  mils  capacity,  add  150  mils  of  a  mixture  of  benzene, 
two  volumes,  and  purified  petroleum  benzin,  one  volume,  and  then  add  2  mils 
of  hydrochloric  acid.  Stopper  the  bottle  tightly,  shake  it  well,  and  allow  it  to 
stand  about  ten  hours.  Now  gradually  warm  the  bottle  and  its  contents  to  about 
40°  C.  and  maintain  it  at  that  temperature  with  frequent  shaking  during  three 
hours.  Cool  the  mixture,  decant  or  filter  off  100  mils  of  the  clear  solution  and 
evaporate  this  rapidly  in  a  tared  beaker  or  wide-necked  flask  to  a  volume  of 
about  5  mils.  Now  add  5  mils  of  chloroform  to  the  residue  and  set  it  aside  in  a 
moderately  warm  place.  When  the  solvent  has  all  evaporated,  add  to  the  crystals 
10  mils  of  a  mixture  of  equal  volumes  of  dehydrated  alcohol  and  purified  petro- 
leum benzin,  which  has  previously  been  saturated  with  pure  cantharidin,  allow 
the  mixture  to  stand  during  fifteen  minutes  and  then  decant  the  liquid  through 
a  pellet  of  purified  cotton.  Wash  the  crystals  with  successive  portions  of  a 
saturated  solution  of  cantharidin,  similar  to  that  directed  above,  until  it  is  free 
from  fat  and  coloring  matter,  and  pass  the  washings  through  the  same  pellet  of 
purified  cotton.  Then  wash  the  cotton  with  a  very  small  quantity  of  warm 
chloroform  to  dissolve  any  adhering  crystals,  collect  the  chloroform  in  the 
tared  flask  or  beaker  containing  the  washed  crystals,  evaporate  the  solvent  with 
the  aid  of  a  blast  of  air,  dry  the  crystals  at  60°  C.  for  one-half  hour  and  weigh. 
The  resulting  weight  will  be  the  amount  of  cantharidin  obtained  from  ten 
grammes  of  Cantharides. 

Preparations — Ceratum    Cantharidis      Collodium    Cantharidatum      Tinctura 
Cantharidis. 

CAPSICUM 

Capsicum 

Capsic. — Cayenne  Pepper    African  Chillies 
The  dried  ripe  fruits  of  Capsicum  frutescens  Linne  (Fam.  Solanacece), 
without  the  presence  or  admixture  of  more  than  2  per  cent,  of  stems, 
calyxes  or  other  foreign  matter. 

Oblong-conical,  from  8  to  20  mm.  in  length  and  from  2  to  15  mm.  in  diameter; 
pericarp  brownish-red  or  orange,  shining,  membranous  and  translucent;  2-  or 
3-locular,  united  below,  and  containing  6  to  17  flat,  reniform,  yellowish  seeds 
attached  to  the  placenta  or  frequently  separated  from  it;  odor  characteristic, 
sternutatory;   taste  intensely  pungent. 

The  calyx,  when  present,  light  greenish-brown,  inferior,  inconspicuous, 
5-toothed,  usually  attached  to  a  long  straight  peduncle. 

The  powder  is  yellowish-brown;  mounts  made  with  hydrated  chloral  T.S. 
and  examined  under  the  microscope  show  yellowish-red  oil  globules;  stone  cells 
of  two  kinds,  those  of  the  endocarp  being  more  or  less  elongated,  walls  yellowish, 
uniformly  and  moderately  thickened,  wavy  in  outline,  porous  and  slightly 
lignified,  those  of  the  seed-coat  being  yellowish,  irregular  and  strongly  thickened, 
wavy  in  outline  and  strongly  lignified. 

Capsicum  yields  not  less  than  15  per  cent,  of  non-volatile  extractive,  soluble 
in  ether  (see  Part  II,  Test  No.  13). 

Capsicum  yields  not  more  than  7  per  cent,  of  ash.  The  amount  of  ash,  insoluble 
in  hydrochloric  acid,  does  not  exceed  1  per  cent,  of  the  weight  of  Capsicum  taken. 

Preparations — Oleoresina  Capsici     Tinctura  Capsici. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.06  Gm. — Apothecaries,  1  grain. 


UNITED   STATES   OF   AMERICA  101 

CARBO  LIGNI 

Wood  Charcoal 

Car  bo  Lig.— Charcoal 

Charcoal  prepared  from  soft  wood,  and  very  finely  powdered.  Pre- 
serve it  in  well-closed  vessels. 

Wood  charcoal  is  a  black,  odorless,  and  tasteless  powder,  free  from  gritty 
matter. 

It  burns  without  a  luminous  flame.  Incinerate  about  1  Gm.  of  Charcoal;  not 
more  than  7.5  per  cent,  of  ash  remains. 

Boil  about  1  Gm.  of  Charcoal  with  a  mixture  of  3  mils  of  potassium  hydroxide 
T.S.  and  10  mils  of  distilled  water  for  one-half  minute;  the  filtrate  shows  only 
a  slight  brown  color. 

Average  dose — Metric,  1  Gm. — Apothecaries,  15  grains. 

CARDAMOMI  SEMEN 

Cardamom  Seed 

Cardam.  Sem.— Cardamomum,  U.S.P.  VIII    Cardamon 

The  dried  seeds  of  Elettaria  Cardamomum  White  et  Maton  (Fam. 
Zingiheracem),  recently  removed  from  the  capsules. 

Mostly  agglutinated  in  groups  of  from  2  to  7,  the  individual  seeds,  oblong- 
ovoid  in  outline,  3-  or  irregularly  4-sided,  convex  on  the  dorsal  surface,  strongly 
longitudinally  grooved  on  one  side,  from  3  to  4  mm.  in  length;  externally  red- 
dish-gray-browTi,  coarsely  tuberculated,  and  with  more  or  less  adhering  por- 
tions of  the  membranous  aril;  in  section  showing  a  thin  reddish-brown  seed- 
coat,  a  large  white  perisperm  and  a  central,  greenish  endosperm  enclosing 
a  small  straight  embryo;   odor  aromatic;    taste  aromatic,  pungent. 

The  powder  is  greenish-brown ;  consisting  chiefly  of  coarse  angular  fragments 
of  cells  of  the  reserve  layers  and  seed-coat ;  cells  of  endosperm  and  perisperm 
filled  with  compound  starch  grains,  the  individual  grains  from  0.001  to  0.004  mm. 
in  diameter;  fragments  of  seed  with  dark  brown  stone  cells,  which  are  polygonal 
in  surface  view  and  about  0.02  mm.  in  diameter;  in  mounts  made  with  hydrated 
chloral  T.S.  single  prisms  or  crystals  in  rosette  aggregates  may  separate  in  the 
cells  of  the  endosperm  and  perisperm;  fragments  of  spiral  tracheae  with  accom- 
panying slightly  lignified  bast-fibers  relatively  few. 

Cardamom  Seed  yields  not  more  than  8  per  cent,  of  ash. 

Preparations — Tinctura  Cardamomi    Tinctura  Cardamomi  Composita. 
Average  dose — Metric,  1  Gm. — Apothecaries,  15  grains. 

CARUM 

Caraway 

Carawayseed    Caraway  Seed 

The  dried  fruit  of  Varum  Carvi  Linne  (Fam.  Umbelliferce) .  Without 
the  presence  or  admixture  of  more  than  3  per  cent,  of  other  fruits, 
seeds  or  foreign  matter.  Preserve  Caraway  in  tightly-closed  containers, 
adding  a  few  drops  of  chloroform  or  carbon  tetrachloride,  from  time  to 
time,  to  prevent  attack  by  insects. 


102  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA    OF   THE 

Mericarps  usually  separated,  crescent-shaped,  3  to  7  mm.  in  length,  1.5  mm, 
in  diameter;  externally  dark  brown  with  5  yellowish  filiform  ribs;  in  transverse 
section  nearly  equilateraliy  pentagonal,  the  commissural  surface  with  two  vittae, 
the  dorsal  surface  with  a  vitta  between  each  of  the  primary  ribs;  oily  endosperm 
large,  enclosing  a  small  embryo;    odor  and  taste  agreeably  aromatic. 

Under  the  microscope,  transverse  sections  of  Caraway  show  an  epidermal  layer 
of  slightly  tangentially  elongated  cells  with  thick  outer  walls;  a  layer  of  several 
rows  of  tangentially  elongated  parenchyma  cells,  frequently  more  or  less  col- 
lapsed; a  single,  large,  elliptical,  brown  vitta  or  oil-tube  between  each  of  the 
ribs  and  surrounded  by  small  epithelial  or  secretion  cells;  in  each  of  the  ribs  a 
single  fibro-vascular  bundle  surrounded  by  a  layer  of  thick-walled  sclerenchy- 
matous  fibers;  inner  epidermis  of  broadly  elongated  cells  with  very  thin  side 
walls,  being  very  frequently  broken  and  closely  coherent  with  the  more  or  less 
brownish  collapsed  cells  of  the  seed-coat;  commissural  surface  with  2  large 
vittae  and  at  the  middle  portion  2  large  transverse  hollow  spaces  formed  by  the 
separation  of  the  tissues  of  the  seed-coat  on  one  side  and  the  pericarp  on  the 
other,  otherwise  the  cells  resemble  those  on  the  dorsal  surface;  endosperm 
large,  cells  polygonal  with  thick  walls  and  containing  a  fixed  oil  and  aleurone 
grains,  the  latter  not  infrequently  containing  a  small  rosette  aggregate  or  prism 
of  calcium  oxalate. 

The  powder  is  yellowish-brown,  mostly  of  irregular,  angular  fragments;  cells 
of  endosperm  with  aleurone  grains  each  usually  containing  a  rosette  aggregate 
of  calcium  oxalate  about  0.001  mm.  in  diameter;  fragments  with  light-yellow 
vittae,  together  with  nearly  isodiametric  or  polygonal,  yellowish-brown,  inner 
epidermal  cells  of  pericarp;  fragments  with  tracheae  and  sclerenchymatous 
fibers,  the  latter  0.01  mm.  in  width,  slightly  lignified  and  with  numerous 
oblique  pores. 

Caraway  yields  not  more  than  8  per  cent,  of  ash. 

AvERA-GE  DOSE — Metric,  1  Gm. — Apothecaries,  15  grains. 


CARYOPHYLLUS 

Clove 

Caryoph.— Cloves 

The  dried  flower-buds  of  Eugenia  aromatica  (Linn^)  O.  Kuntze,  Jam- 
bosa  Caryophyllus  (Sprengel)  Niedenzu  (Fam.  Myrtacece),  without  the 
presence  or  admixture  of  more  than  5  per  cent,  of  the  peduncles,  stems 
or  other  foreign  matter. 

From  10  to  17.5  mm.  in  length,  of  a  dark  brown  or  brownish-black  color, 
consisting  of  a  stem-like,  solid,  inferior  ovary,  obscurely  four-angled  or  somewhat 
compressed,  terminated  by  four  calyx  teeth,  and  surmounted  by  a  nearly  globu- 
lar head,  consisting  of  four  petals,  which  enclose  numerous  curved  stamens  and 
one  style;  odor  strongly  aromatic;  taste  pungent  and  aromatic,  followed  by 
slight  numbness. 

When  Clove  is  pressed  strongly  between  the  thumbnail  and  finger  the  volatile 
oil  becomes  visible. 

Stems  either  separate  or  attached  to  the  flower-buds;  sub-eylindrical  or  four- 
angled,  attaining  a  length  of  25  mm.  and  a  diameter  of  4  mm.,  either  simple, 
branching  or  distinctly  jointed,  and  less  aromatic  than  the  flower-buds. 

The  powder  varies  from  dark  brown  to  reddish-brown  and  consists  chiefly 
of  cellular  fragments  showing  the  large  oil  reservoirs,  spiral  tracheae  and  a  few 
eomewhat  thick-walled,  slightly-lignified,  spindle-shaped  bast-fibers;  calcium 
oxalate  in  rosette  aggregates,  from  0.01  to  0.015  mm.  in  diameter;  pollen  grains 


UNITED   STATES   OF   AMERICA  "  103 

numerous,  tetrahedral,  somewhat  ellipsoidal,  from  0.015  to  0.02  mm.  in  diameter. 
The  presence  of  stems  in  the  powder  is  shown  by  stone  cells  of  irregular,  polygonal 
shape,  0.07  mm.  in  diameter,  with  thick  porous  walls  and  largo  lumina,  the 
latter  frequently  filled  with  a  yellowish-brown  amorphous  sub.stance. 

Clove  yields  not  less  than  10  per  cent,  of  volatile  extractive  soluble  in  ether 
(see  Part  II,  Test  No.  12). 

Clove  yields  not  more  than  8  per  cent,  of  ash.  The  amount  of  ash,  insoluble 
in  hydrochloric  acid,  does  not  exceed  0.5  per  cent,  of  the  weight  of  Clove  taken. 

Average  dose — MetriC;  0.25-Gm, — Apothecaries,  4  grains. 

CASCARA  SAGRADA 

Cascara  Sagrada 

Case.  Sagr.— Rhamnus  Purshiana,  U.S.P.  VIII 

The  dried  bark  of  the  trunk  and  branches  of  Rhamnus  Purshiana  De 
Candolle  (Fam.  Rhamnacece). 

Usually  in  flattened  or  transversely  curved  pieces,  occasionally  in  quills; 
bark  from  1  to  5  mm.  in  thickness;  outer  surface  dark  brown  or  brownish-red, 
longitudinally  ridged,  often  nearly  covered  with  grayish  or  whitish  lichens, 
bearing  small  blackish  apothecia,  sometimes  with  numerous  lenticels,  and 
occasionally  with  mosses;  inner  surface  light  yellow,  light  brown,  or  reddish- 
brown,  longitudinally  striate,  turning  red  when  moistened  with  solutions  of 
the  alkalies;  fracture  short,  with  projections  of  bast-fibers  in  the  inner  bark; 
in  cross  section  inner  bark  shows  diagonal  or  curved  medullary  rays,  forming 
converging  groups,  the  outer  bark  showing  3'ellowish  groups  of  stone  cells  which 
are  especially  apparent  on  moistening  the  freshly  cut  surface  with  phloroglucinol 
T.S.  and  hydrochloric  acid;  odor  distinct;  taste  disagreeable,  bitter,  and  sUghtly 
acrid. 

Under  the  microscope,  a  transverse  section  of  Cascara  Sagrada  shows  an  outer 
yellowish-brown  or  reddish-brown  corky  layer  consisting  of  10  to  lo  or  more 
rows  of  cells;  stone  cells  in  outer  bark  in  tangentially  elongated  groups  of  20 
to  50  cells,  the  walls  being  veiy  thick  and  finely  lamellated;  medullary  rays  1 
to  4  cells  wide,  15  to  25  cells  deep,  the  contents  being  colored  red  upon  the  addi- 
tion of  solutions  of  the  alkaUes  to  the  sections;  bast-fibers  in  tangentially  elon- 
gated groups  in  the  inner  bark,  the  walls  being  thick  and  strongly  lignified; 
crystal  fibers  around  the  bast-fibers  with  individual  crystals  from  0.008  to  0.015 
mm.  in  length;  parenchyma  with  spheroidal  starch  grains  about  0.003  to  0.008 
mm.  in  diameter,  or  with  calcium  oxalate  either  in  rosette  aggregates  or  prisms 
from  0.01  to  0.02  mm.  in  diameter. 

Add  0.1  Gm.  of  powdered  Cascara  Sagrada  to  10  mils  of  hot  water,  shake 
the  mixture  occasionally  until  cold,  filter  it  and  add  sufficient  water  to  make 
10  mils;  on  the  addition  of  10  mils  of  ammonia  water  to  this  Uquid,  it  is  colored 
an  orange  yellow. 

Macerate  0.1  Gm.  of  powdered  Cascara  Sagrada  with  10  drops  of  alcohol, 
boil  the  mixture  ^ath  10  mils  of  water,  when  cold  filter  it  and  shake  the  filtrate 
with  10  mils  of  ether;  a  yellow  ethereal  .solution  separates.  Shake  3  mils  of  this 
ethereal  solution  with  3  mils  of  ammonia  water;  the  separated  ammoniacal 
solution  still  possesses,  on  diluting  with  20  mils  of  water,  a  distinct,  yellowish-red 
color. 

The  powder  is  light  brown  to  olive  brown,  showing  characteristic  elongated 
groups  of  bast-fibers  associated  with  crystal  fibers,  the  crystals  in  the  latter 
being  in  the  form  of  monochnic  prisms  from  0.008  to  0.015  mm.  in  length;  stone 
cells  in  large  groups,  the  cells  having  tliick  and  finely  porous  walls;  fragments 
of  parenchyma  and  medullary  ray  cells  colored  red  upon  the  addition  of  solu- 
tions of  the  alkalies;  starch  grains  either  free  or  in  parenchyma  cells,  the  indi- 


104  THE    PHARMACOPCEIA   OF   THE 

vidual  grains  being  somewhat  spheroidal,  from  0.003  to  0.008  mm.  in  diameter; 
calcium  oxalate  in  monoclinic  prisms  or  rosette  aggregates  from  0.01  to  0.02 
mm.  in  diameter;  occasional  fragments  of  reddish-brown  cork. 

Preparations — Extractum  Cascarae  Sagradae    Fluidextractum  Cascarae  Sagradae 
Fluidextractum  Cascarae  Sagradae  Aromaticum. 

Average  dose — Metric,  1  Gm. — Apothecaries,  15  grains. 


CERA  ALBA 

White  Wax 
Cer.  Alb. 

Yellow  Wax,  bleached. 

White  Wax  is  a  yellowish-white  solid,  somewhat  translucent  in  thin  layers, 
Laving  a  faint,  characteristic  odor;  it  is  free  from  rancidity,  and  nearly  tasteless. 

Specific  gravity:  0.950  to  0.960  at  25°  C,  as  determined  by  the  method  given 
imder  Cera  Flava. 

It  melts  between  62°  and  65°  C. 

The  acid  value  is  not  less  than  17  nor  more  than  23,  and  the  ester  value  not 
less  than  72  nor  more  than  79,  as  determined  by  the  methods  given  under  Cera 
Flava. 

In  other  respects  White  Wax  has  the  characteristics  of  Yellow  Wax  and 
responds  to  the  tests  for  identity  and  purity  under  Cera  Flava. 


CERA  FLAVA 

Yellow  Wax 

Cer.  Flav. — Beeswax 

A  product  obtained  by  melting  and  purifjdng  the  honey-comb  of 
the  bee,  A-pis  mellifera,  Linne  (Fam.  Apidce). 

Yellow  Wax  is  a  yellow  to  gray-brown  solid,  having  an  agreeable,  honey-like 
odor,  and  a  faint  characteristic  taste. 

It  is  somewhat  brittle  when  cold,  and  when  broken  presents  a  dull,  granular, 
not  crystalline  fracture.    By  the  heat  of  the  hand,  it  becomes  plastic. 

Yellow  wax  is  insoluble  in  water,  sparingly  soluble  in  cold  alcohol;  boiling 
alcohol  dissolves  the  cerotic  acid  and  a  portion  of  the  myrocin.  It  is  completely 
soluble  in  chloroform,  ether,  or  in  fixed  or  volatile  oils;  partly  soluble  in  cold 
benzene  or  carbon  disulphide,  and  completely  soluble  in  these  liquids  at  a  tem- 
perature of  from  25°  to  30°  C. 

Specific  gravity:    0.950  to  0.960  at  25°  C,  determined  as  follows. 

Melt  the  Wax  at  a  low  temperature  and  allow  it  to  fall  in  separated  drops 
from  just  above  the  surface  into  alcohol  that  has  been  warmed  to  from  45°  to 
50°  C.  Allow  the  globules  to  remain  in  the  alcohol  until  it  has  cooled  spontane- 
ously to  room  temi)erature  (20°  to  25°  C),  then  remove  the  Wax  and  keep  it 
at  room  temperature  for  24  hours.  Prepare  a  mixture  of  4  volumes  of  alcohol  and 
enough  distilled  water  to  make  10  volumes  and  allow  it  to  stand  until  free  from 
air  bubbles.  Moisten  the  globules  of  Wax  with  distilled  water,  by  means  of  a 
brush,  and  place  them  by  means  of  forceps  in  the  alcohol  solution  just  prepared 
contained  in  a  beaker.  Then  add  alcohol  or  air-free  distilled  water  as  required 
to  the  mixture,  kept  at  25°  C,  until  the  globules  of  Wax  float  or  rest  indiffer- 


UNITED   STATES   OF   AMERICA  105 

ently  in  the  liquid,  and  finally  determine  the  specific  gravity  of  the  alcoholic 
liquid.    The  figure  thus  obtained  is  the  specific  gravity  of  the  Wax  examined. 

It  melts  between  62°  and  65°  C. 

Boil  1  Gm.  of  Yellow  Wax  for  half  an  hour  with  35  mils  of  an  aqueous  solu- 
tion of  sodium  hydroxide  (1  in  7),  the  volume  being  preserved  by  the  occasional 
addition  of  distilled  water;  the  Wax  separates  on  cooling  without  rendering  the 
liquid  opaque,  and  no  precipitate  is  produced  in  the  liquid  after  filtration  through 
glass  wool  or  asbestos,  on  the  addition  of  hydrochloric  acid  in  excess  (Jats  or 
fatly  acids,  Japan  icax,  or  rosin).  Hydrochloric  acid  produces  no  precipitate 
in  water  which  has  been  boiled  with  a  portion  of  the  Wax  (soap). 

Warm  about  3  Gm.  of  Yellow  Wax.  accurately  weighed,  in  a  200  mil  flask  with 
25  mils  of  neutral  dehydrated  alcohol  until  melted,  then  add  1  mil  of  phenol- 
phthalein  T.S.  and  titrate  the  mixture  while  warm  with  half-normal  alcoholic 
potassium  hydroxide  V.S.  to  a  faint  pink  color.  The  acid  value  so  obtained  is  not 
less  than  18  nor  more  than  24.  Now  add  25  mils  of  half-normal  alcoholic  potas- 
sium hydroxide  V.S.  and  50  mils  of  alcohol,  boil  the  mixture  for  two  hours 
under  a  reflux  condenser  and  titrate  the  excess  of  the  alkali  with  half-normal 
hydrochloric  acid  V.S.  The  ester  value  so  obtained  is  not  less  than  72  nor 
more  than  77. 

CERATUM 

Cerate 

Cerat. — Simple  Cerate 

White  Wax,  three  hundred  grammes 300  Gm. 

Benzoinated  Lard,  seven  hundred  grammes 700  Gm. 

To  make  one  thousand  grammes 1000  Gm. 

Melt  the  white  wax  by  the  heat  of  a  water  bath,  add  the  benzoinated 
lard,  continue  the  heat  until  the  mixture  is  liquefied,  strain  if  necessary 
and  stir  constantly  until  it  congeals. 

For  use  in  southern  latitudes  and  during  the  heated  season  in  other 
localities,  50  Gm.  of  the  benzoinated  lard  (or  more,  if  necessary)  may  be 
replaced  by  an  equal  quantity  of  white  wax. 

CERATUM  CANTHARIDIS 

Cantharides  Cerate 

Cerat.  Canthar. — BUstering  Cerate 

Cantharides,  in  No.  60  powder,  three  hundred  and  fifty 

grammes 350  Gm. 

Glacial  Acetic  Acid,  twenty-five  milliliters 25  mils 

Oil  of  Turpentine,  one  hundred  and  fifty  milliliters 150  mils 

Yellow  Wax,  one  hundred  and  seventy-five  grammes 175  Gm. 

Rosin,  one  hundred  and  seventy-five  grammes 175  Gm. 

Benzoinated  Lard,  two  hundred  grammes 200  Gm. 

To  make  one  thousand  grammes 1000  Gm. 


106  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA   OF  THE 

Moisten  the  cantharides  with  the  oil  of  turpentine  and  the  glacial 
acetic  acid,  previously  mixed,  and  set  the  mixture  aside  in  a  well-cov- 
ered container,  in  a  warm  place,  for  forty-eight  hours.  Melt  together 
the  rosin,  yellow  wax,  and  benzoinated  lard ;  strain  the  mixture  through 
muslin,  add  the  macerated  cantharides  and  keep  the  mixture  in  a  liquid 
condition  by  heating  it  on  a  water  bath  with  occasional  stirring,  until  it 
is  reduced  in  weight  to  one  thousand  grammes.  Then  withdraw  the 
heat  and  stir  the  Cerate  until  it  becomes  firm. 
Preparation — Emplastrum  Cantharidis. 

CERATUM  RESINiE 

Rosin  Cerate 

Cerat.  Res. — Basilicon  Ointment 

Rosin,  three  hundred  and  fifty  grammes 350  Om. 

Yellow  Wax,  one  hundred  and  fifty  grammes 150  Gm. 

Lard,  five  hundred  grammes 500  Gm. 

To  make  one  thousand  grammes 1000  Gm. 

Melt  the  rosin,  add  the  yellow  wax  and  the  lard,  and  continue  the 
heat  until  liquefied,  then  strain  the  liquid  through  muslin,  and  allow  it 
to  congeal  with  occasional  stirring. 

In  cold  weather  five  hundred  and  thirty  grammes  of  lard  and  one  hun- 
dred and  twenty  grammes  of  yellow  wax  may  be  used. 
Preparation — Linimentum  Terebinthinae. 

CERII  OXALAS 

Cerium  Oxalate 
Cerii  Oxal. 

A  mixture  of  the  oxalates  of  cerium,  didymium,  lanthanum,  and  other 
associated  elements. 

Cerium  Oxalate  is  a  fine  white  or  slightly  pink  powder,  without  odor  or  taste; 
permanent  in  the  air. 

It  is  insoluble  in  water,  alcohol,  ether,  and  in  solutions  of  potassium  or  sodivim 
hydroxide;  insoluble  in  cold,  diluted  sulphuric  or  hydrochloric  acid,  but  dissolved 
by  these  acids  when  heated. 

\\'hen  heated  to  redness  it  is  decomposed,  leaving  not  less  than  47  per  cent,  of 
a  reddish-brown  resitiue. 

Boil  Cerium  Oxalate  with  jiotassium  hydroxide  T.S.;  an  insoluble  precipitate 
of  wliite  hydroxides  is  produced.  Filter  and  supersaturate  the  filtrate  with 
acetic  acid;  the  addition  of  calcium  chloride  T.S.  produces  a  white  precipitate, 
ini^oluble  in  acetic  acid  but  soluble  in  hydrochloric  acid. 

From  a  solution  of  Cerium  Oxalate  in  diluted  hydrochloric  or  sulphuric  acid, 
potassium  hydroxide  T.S.,  added  in  slight  excess,  precipitates  white  hydroxides, 


UNITED   STATES   OF  AMERICA  107 

which  do  not  redissolve  in  a  larger  excess  of  the  reagent,  but  gradually  turn 
yellow  in  contact  with  air.  Ammonium  carbonate  T.S.  added  \n  slight  excess 
to  a  similar  acid  solution  produces  a  white  precipitate  of  the  mixed  carbonates 
of  cerium  and  associated  elements,  which  is  somewhat  soluble  in  a  larger  excesa 
of  the  reagent. 

Dissolve  0.1  Gm.  of  Cerium  Oxalate  in  1  mil  of  sulphuric  acid  and  add  2  mils 
of  potassium  sulphate  T.S.;  small,  colorless  crystals  of  double  sulj^hates  of 
potassium  and  the  rare-earth  elements  in  the  mixture  are  deposited  after  some 
time. 

No  effervescence  occurs  when  Cerium  Oxalate  is  dissolved  in  diluted  hydro- 
chloric acid  (carbonates). 

A  solution  of  Cerium  Oxalate  (1  in  50)  in  diluted  hydrochloric  acid  does  not 
respond  to  the  Test  for  heavy  metals  (see  Part  II,  Test  No.  3). 

A  solution  of  Cerium  Oxalate  (1  in  25)  in  hot  dikite  sulphuric  acid  (1  in  3) 
meets  the  requirements  of  the  Test  for  arsenic  (see  Part  II,  Tost  No.  1). 

Boil  0.3  Gm.  of  Cerium  Oxalate  with  15  mils  of  potassium  hydroxide  T.S. 
and  filter.  No  precipitate  is  produced  in  5  mils  of  the  filtrate  by  boiling  with  an 
excess  of  ammonium  chloride  T.S.  {aluminum)  or  in  another  5  mil  portion  of  the 
filtrate  by  the  addition  of  sodium  sulphide  T.S.  (zinc). 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.2  Gm. — Apothecaries,  3  grains. 


CETACEUM 

Spermaceti 
Cetac. 

A  concrete,  fattj'-  substance,  obtained  from  the  head  of  the  sperm 
whale,  Physeter  macrocephalus  Linne  (Fam.  Physeteridce). 

Spermaceti  occurs  in  white,  somewhat  translucent,  slightly  unctuous  masses, 
with  a  scaly,  crystalline  fracture,  a  pearly  luster,  a  very  faint  odor  and  a  bland, 
mild  taste.    It  becomes  yellowish  in  color  and  rancid  on  prolonged  exposure  to  air. 

It  is  insoluble  in  water  and  nearly  so  in  cold  alcohol;  soluble  in  boiling  alcohol, 
in  ether,  chloroform,  carbon  disulphide,  or  fixed  or  volatile  oils;  only  slightly 
soluble  in  cold  petroleum  benzin. 

Specific  gravity:  0.938  to  0.944  at  25°  C.  as  determined  by  the  method  given 
xinder  Cera  Flava. 

It  melts  between  42°  and  50°  C. 

It  dissolves  completely  in  50  parts  of  boiling  alcohol  (paraffin),  and  the  solution 
is  neutral  or  not  more  than  slightly  acid  to  moistened  litmus  paper. 

Warm  a  mixture  of  about  1  Gm.  of  Spermaceti  and  10  mils  of  ammonia  water 
until  the  Spermaceti  is  melted,  then  shake  it  thoroughly  in  a  stoppered  vessel  for 
a  few  minutes,  cool  and  filter.*  The  filtrate,  upon  supersaturation  with  hydro- 
chloric acid,  may  become  turbid,  but  yields  no  precipitate  (stearic  acid). 


CHLORALUM  HYDEATUM 

Hydrated  Chloral 

Chloral.  Hydrat.— "Chloral"        Chloral  Hydrate 
A  compound  of  trichloraldehyde  or  chloral,  with  the  elements  of  one 
molecule  of  water.    It  contains  not  less  than  99,5  per  cent,  of  C2HCI3O 


108  THE   PHARMACOPOEIA   OF   THE 

+H2O  or  CCI3.COH+H2O  (165.4).     Preserve  it  in  tightly-stoppered 
bottles,  in  a  cool  place,  protected  from  light. 

Hydrated  Chloral  occurs  in  rhomboidal,  colorless,  transparent  crystals  which 
do  not  readily  attract  moisture.  It  has  an  aromatic,  penetrating,  and  slightly 
acrid  odor,  and  a  bitterish,  caustic  taste.  It  is  slowly  volatihzed  when  exposed 
to  the  air. 

One  Gm.  of  Hydrated  Chloral  dissolves  in  0.25  mil  of  water,  ]  .3  mils  of  alcohol, 
2  mils  of  chloroform,  and  in  1.5  mils  of  ether  at  25°  C;  very  soluble  in  ohve  oil, 
freely  soluble  in  oil  of  turpentine. 

Hydrated  Chloral  is  decomposed  by  caustic  alkalies,  alkaline  earths,  and 
ammonia,  chloroform  and  a  formate  of  the  base  being  produced.  When  warmed 
with  a  few  drops  of  aniline  and  sodium  hydroxide  T.S.,  the  intensely  disagreeable 
odor  of  phenylisocyauide  is  produced. 

Gently  ignite  2  Gm.  of  Hydrated  Chloral ;  no  inflammable  vapors  are  evolved 
(distinction  from  chloral  alcoholate  and  ethyl  carbamate).  On  complete  incinera- 
tion not  more  than  0.05  per  cent,  of  ash  remains. 

Ten  mils  of  an  alcoholic  solution  of  Hydrated  Chloral  (1  in  20)  does  not  at 
once  redden  moistened  blue  litmus  paper,  nor  at  once  become  opalescent  on  the 
addition  of  a  few  drops  of  silver  nitrate  T.S.  {hydrochloric  acid  and  chlorides). 

Shake  about  0.5  Gm.  of  Hydrated  Chloral,  at  intervals  of  five  minutes  during 
one  hour,  with  5  mils  of  sulphuric  acid  in  a  glass-stoppered  tube,  which  has 
previously  been  rinsed  with  sulphuric  acid.  The  acid  remains  colorless,  or  very 
nearly  so  when  viewed  transversely  in  a  tube  of  about  20  mm.  diameter  {organic 
impurities) . 

Assay — Dissolve  about  4  Gm.  of  Hydrated  Chloral,  accuratelj'  weighed,  in 
10  mils  of  distilled  water,  add  30  mils  of  normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S., 
and  allow  the  mixture  to  stand  two  minutes;  then  add  phcnolphthalein  T.S., 
and  determine  the  residual  alkali  at  once  by  titration  with  normal  sulphuric  acid 
V.S.    It  shows  not  less  than  99.5  per  cent,  of  C2HCI3O+H2O. 

Each  mil  of  normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S.  consumed  corresponds  to 
0.1654  Gm.  of  C2HCI3O+H2O.  Each  gramme  of  Hydrated  Chloral  corresponds 
to  not  less  than  6.02  mils  of  normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.5  Gm. — Apothecaries,  8  grains. 


CHLOROFORMUM 

Chloroform 
Chlorof. 

A  liquid  consisting  of  not  less  than  99  per  cent,  nor  more  than  99.4 
per  cent.,  by  weight,  of  CHCI3  (119.39),  and  not  less  than  0.6  per  cent, 
nor  more  than  1  per  cent,  of  alcohol.  Preserve  it  in  well-stoppered 
bottles,  in  a  cool  place,  protected  from  light.  Caution:  Care  should  be 
used  in  vaporizing  Chloroform  in  the  presence  of  a  naked  flame,  as 
noxious  gases  are  produced. 

Chloroform  is  a  clear,  colorless,  mobile  liquid,  of  a  characteristic,  ethereal 
odor,  and  a  burning,  sweet  taste. 

Chloroform  dissolves  in  210  times  its  volume  of  water;  miscible  with  alcohol, 
ether,  benzene,  petroleum  benzin,  or  with  fixed  or  volatile  oils. 

Specific  gravity:    1.474  to  1.478  at  25°  C. 


UNITED    STATES   OF   AMERICA  109 

Chloroform  is  volatile  at  a  low  temporaturc  and  boils  at  about  61°  C.  It 
is  not  inflammable,  but  its  heated  vapor  burns  with  a  green  flame. 

Pour  20  mils  of  Chloroform  upon  a  piece  of  clean,  odorless  filter  paper  laid 
flat  upon  a  warmed  glass  plate,  and  rock  the  plate  from  side  to  side  until  the 
liquid  is  all  evaporated.  No  foreign  odor  becomes  perceptible  as  the  last  por- 
tions disappear  from  the  paper,  and  the  paper  remains  odorless. 

Agitate  10  mils  of  Chloroform  with  25  mils  of  distilled  water,  and  allow  the 
liquids  to  separate  completely;  the  aqueous  layer  is  neutral  to  litmus  and  sepa- 
rate portions  of  10  mils  each  are  not  affected  by  a  few  drops  of  silver  nitrate  T.S. 
(chlorides)  nor  colored  blue  by  the  addition  of  a  few  drops  each  of  potassium 
iodide  T.S.  and  starch  T.S.  (free  chlorine). 

Transfer  40  mils  of  Chloroform  from  the  container,  by  means  of  a  clean  pipette, 
to  a  50  mil  glass-stoppered  cylinder  of  colorless  glass  having  an  internal  diameter 
of  about  20  mm.  and  previously  rinsed  with  sulphuric  acid,  add  4  mils  of  color- 
less sulphuric  acid  and  shake  the  mixture  vigorously  during  five  minutes. 
Then  allow  the  liquids  to  separate  completely,  so  that  both  are  transparent. 
The  Chloroform  remains  colorless,  and  the  acid  is  colorless  or  very  nearly  so 
when  viewed  horizontally  in  the  cylinder  held  in  a  vertical  position  (impurities 
decomposable  by  sulphuric  acid). 

Dilute  2  mils  of  the  sulphuric  acid,  separated  from  the  Chloroform  in  the 
preceding  test,  with  5  mils  of  distilled  water;  the  liquid  is  colorless  and  clear, 
and,  while  hot  from  the  mixing,  emits  but  a  faint,  vinous  or  ethereal  odor  (odorous 
decomposition  products).  When  further  diluted  with  10  mils  of  distilled  water, 
it  remains  clear  and  is  not  affected  within  one  minute  by  the  addition  of  3  drops 
of  silver  nitrate  T.S.  (chlorinated  decomposition  compounds). 

Preparations — Aqua   Chloroformi  Linimentum   Chloroform!  Spiritus 

Chloroform!. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.3  mil — Apothecaries,  5  minims. 


CHONDRUS 

Chondrus 

Irish  Moss    Carrageen 

The  dried  plant  of  Chondrus  crispus  (Linne)  Stackhouse  or  of  Gigartina 
mamillosa  (Goodenough  et  Woodward)  J.  Agardh  (Fam.  Gigartinaceoi). 

Entire  plants  more  or  less  matted  together,  consisting  of  a  slender  stalk  from 
which  arises  a  series  of  dichotomously  branching,  more  or  less  flattened  segments, 
emarginate  or  deeply  cleft  at  the  tips;  from  5  to  15  cm.  in  length,  and  1  to  10 
mm.  in  width;  yellowish-white,  translucent,  frequently  coated  with  a  cal- 
careous deposit  which  effervesces  with  hydrochloric  acid;  sonaetimes  with 
fruit  bodies  or  sporangia  embedded  near  the  apex  of  the  segments  (in  C.  crispus) 
or  with  sporangia  borne  on  short  tuberculated  projections  or  stalks,  more  or  less 
scattered  over  the  upper  portion  of  the  segments  (in  G.  mamillosa);  somewhat 
cartilaginous;  odor  slight,  seaweed  like;  taste  mucilaginous,  saUne. 

Boil  one  part  of  Chondrus  for  about  ten  minutes  with  30  parts  of  water, 
replacing  the  water  lost  by  evaporation;  the  strained  Uquid  forms  a  thick  jelly 
upon  cooling.  When  softened  in  cold  water  Chondrus  becomes  gelatinous  and 
transparent,  the  thallus  remaining  nearly  smooth  and  uniform  and  not  swollen 
except  slightly  at  the  tips;  a  solution  made  by  boiling  0.3  Gm.  of  the  drug  in 
100  mils  of  water  and  filtering  gives  no  precipitate  on  the  addition  of  tannic 
acid  T.S.  (gelatin),  and  when  cold  does  not  give  a  blue  color  on  the  addition  of 
iodine  T.S.  (staXQh)- 


110  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA   OF  THE 

CHROMII  TRIOXIDUM 

Chromium  Trioxide 

Chrom.  Triox. — "Chromic  Acid"     Chromic  Anhydride 

It  contains  not  less  than  95  per  cent,  of  CrOs  (100.00).  Preserve  it 
in  glass-stoppered  bottles.  Caution:  Chromium  Trioxide  should  not 
be  brought  into  contact  with  organic  substances,  as  serious  accidents 
are  liable  to  result. 

Chromium  Trioxide  occurs  as  small,  needle-shaped  crystals  or  rhombic  prisms, 
of  a  dark  purplish-red  color  and  metallic  luster;  odorless;  destructive  to  animal 
and  vegetable  tissues;    deliquescent  in  moist  air. 

One  Gm.  of  Chromium  Trioxide  dissolves  in  0.6  mil  of  water  at  25°  C;  also 
in  0.5  mil  of  boiling  water;  when  brought  into  contact  with  organic  solvents 
(c.(/.,  alcohol),  decomposition  takes  place,  sometimes  with  dangerous  violence. 

When  Chromium  Trioxide  is  heated,  it  darkens,  and  finally  becomes  black,  but 
the  color  is  restored  on  cooling.  At  about  193°  C.  it  fuses  to  a  reddish-brown 
liquid,  which,  on  cooling,  forms  a  dark  red,  brittle  mass  (often  enclosing  cavities 
filled  with  crystals),  furnishing  a  scarlet  powder.  Above  250°  C.  it  begins  to 
decompose  into  green  chromic  oxide  and  free  oxygen,  and,  after  protracted 
heating,  leaves  a  residue  of  chromic  oxide. 

When  warmed  with  hydrochloric  acid,  chlorine  is  evolved. 

A  solution  of  1  Gm.  of  Chromium  Trioxide  in  100  mils  of  distilled  water, 
previously  acidulated  with  3  mils  of  hydrochloric  acid,  is  not  rendered  turbid 
within  one  minute  on  the  addition  of  1  mil  of  barium  chloride  T.S.  (sulphuric 
acid). 

Assay — Dissolve  about  1  Gm.  of  Chromium  Trioxide,  accurately  weighed  in  a 
stoppered  weighing-bottle,  in  sufficient  distilled  water  to  make  a  volume  of  100 
mils.  Mix  15  mils  of  this  solution  with  3  mils  of  hydrochloric  acid  and  2 
Gm.  of  potassium  iodide  in  a  glass-stoppered  container,  agitate  the  mixture, 
allow  it  to  stand  for  five  minutes,  then  dilute  it  with  100  mils  of  distilled  water  and 
titrate  with  tenth-normal  sodium  thiosulphate  V.S.,  starch  T.S.  being  used  as 
indicator.     It  shows  not  less  than  95  per  cent,  of  CrOs. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  sodium  thiosulphate  V.S.  used  corresponds  to 
0.003333  Gm.  of  CrOs.  Each  gramme  of  Chromium  Trioxide  corresponds  to  not 
less  than  285.0  mils  of  tenth-normal  sodium  thiosulphate  V.S. 


CHRYSAROBINUM 

Chrysarobin 
Chrysarob. 

A  mixture  of  neutral  principles  extracted  from  Goa  powder,  a  sub- 
stance found  deposited  in  the  wood  of  Vouacapoua  Araroba  (Aguiar) 
Druce  (Fam.  LeguminosoB).  Preserve  it  in  well-closed  containers,  pro- 
tected from  light. 

Chrysarobin  is  a  brownish  to  orange-yellow,  micro-crystalline  powder,  taste- 
less, odorless,  and  irritating  to  the  mucous  membrane. 

One  Gm.  of  Chrysarobin  dissolves  in  385  mils  of  alcohol,  12.5  mils  of  chloroform; 
16  mils  of  ether,  30  mils  of  benzene  and  in  180  mils  of  carbon  disulphide  at  25°  C, 
very  slightly  soluble  in  water,  and  in  boiling  water;  it  dissolves  in  solutions  of 
the  fixed  alkah  hydroxides,  producing  a  red  liquid. 


UNITED   STATES   OF   AMERICA  111 


It  dissolves  in  sulphuric  acid,  producins  a  deep  red  solution.  On  pouring  this 
liquid  into  water,  Chrysarobin  is  deposited  unclianged. 

Incinerate  about  0.5  Gm.  of  Chrysarobin;  not  more  than  0.25  per  cent,  of  ash 
remains. 

Mix  about  0.001  Gm.  of  Chrysarobin  with  2  drops  of  fuming  nitric  acid;  a 
red  mixture  is  produced,  which  turns  violet-red  on  the  addition  of  a  few  drops  of 
ammonia  water  (distinction  from  chrysophanic  acid,  which  produces  a  yellow 
liquid). 

Boil  about  0.1  Gm.  of  Chrysarobin  with  20  mils  of  distilled  water  and  filter; 
the  filtrate  is  neutral  to  litmus  and  is  not  changed  in  color  by  a  few  drops  of  ferric 
chloride  T.S.  (chrysophanic  acid). 

Preparation — Unguentum  Chrysarobini, 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.03  Gm. — Apothecaries,  }i  grain. 


CIMICIFUGA 

Cimicifuga 

Cimicif. — Black  Cohosh        Black  Snakeroot        Macrotys 

The  dried  rhizome  and  roots  of  Cimicifuga  racemosa  (Linn6)  Nuttall 
(Fam.  Ranunculacece) ,  without  the  presence  or  admixture  of  more  than 
2  per  cent,  of  stems  or  foreign  matter. 

Rhizome  horizontal,  more  or  less  branching,  from  2  to  12  cm.  in  length,  and 
from  1  to  2.5  cm.  in  thickness;  externally  dark  brown,  slightly  annulate  from 
circular  scars  of  bud  scale-leaves,  the  upper  surface  with  numerous  stout,  erect 
or  somewhat  curved  branches  terminated  by  deep,  cup-shaped  scars,  each  of 
which  usually  shows  a  distinct  radiate  structure;  inferior  and  lateral  portions 
with  numerous  root-scars  and  a  few  short  roots;  fracture  horny;  internally 
whitish  and  mealy  or  dark  brown  and  waxy,  bark  thin,  wood  distinctly  radiate 
and  of  about  the  same  thickness  as  the  pith;  odor  slight;  taste  bitter  and  acrid. 

Roots  somewhat  cylindrical  or  obtusely  quadrangular,  from  1  to  3  mm.  in 
thickness,  externally  dark  brown,  longitudinally  wrinkled;  fracture  short; 
internally  bark  dark  brown,  wood  yellowish,  4-  to  6-rayed. 

Under  the  microscope,  sections  of  the  rhizome  of  Cimicifuga  show  a  j^ellowish- 
brown  suberized  epidermis,  a  cortex  made  up  of  about  30  layers  of  starch-bearing 
parenchyma  cells;  the  fibro-vascular  bundles  collateral,  the  xylem  consisting 
of  tracheaj  with  bordered  pores,  and  resembling  tracheids  in  that  the  ends  are 
rather  acute;  wood-fibers  numerous,  thin-walled,  strongly  lignified  and  with 
simple,  oblique  pores,  the  bundles  separated  by  starch-bearing  parenchyma 
strands  from  5  to  30  cells  wide;  pith  cells  numerous,  resembling  those  of  the 
cortex. 

Under  the  microscope,  sections  of  the  root  of  Cimicifuga  show  a  hairy  epidermis, 
which  becomes  suberized  in  older  roots;  the  cortex  shows  about  12  rows  of 
starch-bearing  parenchyma  cells;  endodermis  distinct;  fibro-vascular  bundles 
4  to  6,  showing  in  older  roots  as  separate  collateral  bundles. 

The  powder  is  light  to  dark  brown;  starch  grains  numerous,  single  or  compound, 
the  individual  grains  spherical  or  more  or  less  polygonal,  each  with  a  somewhat 
central  cleft,  from  0.003  to  0.015  mm.  in  diameter;  fragments  showing  tracheae 
with  bordered  pores  and  lignified  wood-fibers;  irregular,  yellowish-brown 
fragments  of  suberized  epidermis  made  up  of  more  or  less  tabular  cells,  some- 
times elongated  and  considerably  thickened. 

Cimicifuga  yields  not  more  than  10  per  cent,  of  ash. 

Preparations — Extractum  Cimicifugae     Fluidextractum  Cimicifugae. 
Average  dose — Metric,  1  Gm. — Apothecaries,  15  grains. 


112  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA   OF  THE 

CINCHONA 

Cinchona 

Cinch. — Yellow  Cinchona        Calisaya  Bark        Yellow  Peruvian  Bark 

The  dried  bark  of  Cinchona  Ledgeriana  jMoens,  Cinchona  Calisaya 
Weddell,  and  of  hybrids  of  these  with  other  species  of  Cinchona  (Fam. 
Ruhiacece),  yielding  not  less  than  5  per  cent,  of  the  alkaloids  of  Cinchona. 

In  quills  or  curved  pieces  of  variable  length,  bark  from  3  to  5  mm.  in  thickness, 
or  in  small  broken  fragments  or  in  transversely  curved  pieces  from  3  to  7  mm. 
in  thickness;  externally  gray,  rarely  brownish-gray,  with  numerous  intersecting 
transverse  and  longitudinal  fissures  having  nearly  vertical  sides,  and  usually 
with  patches  of  foliaceous  lichens  with  their  small,  brownish-black  apothecia; 
when  the  outer  bark  is  absent,  the  color  externally  is  cinnamon-brown;  inner 
surface  light  cinnamon-brown,  finely  striate;  fracture  of  the  outer  bark  short 
and  granular,  of  the  inner  bark  finely  splintery;  odor  faintly  aromatic;  taste 
very  bitter  and  somewhat  astringent. 

The  powder  is  reddish-brown;  bast-fibers  spindle-shaped,  yellowish,  from 
0.3  to  1.35  mm.  in  length,  with  thick,  strongly  ligTiified,  lamellated  walls 
having  slit-like,  oblique  pores;  starch  grains  single  or  2-  to  5-compound,  the 
individual  grains  spherical  or  plano-convex  and  from  0.003  to  0.015  mm.  in 
diameter;    sphenoidal  micro-crystals  of  calcium  oxalate  numerous. 

Heat  1  Gm.  of  powdered  Cinchona  in  a  dry  test  tube;  a  tarry  distillate  forms, 
having  a  purplish  color  and  a  somewhat  granular  appearance. 

Assay — Introduce  5  Gm.  of  Cinchona,  in  No.  40  powder,  into  a  500  mil  flask 
and  add  200  mils  of  a  mixture  of  chloroform,  1  volume,  and  ether,  2  volumes. 
Stopper  the  flask,  shake  it  well,  and  let  it  stand  ten  minutes.  Then  add  5  mils 
of  ammonia  water,  shake  the  flask  frequently  for  one  hour,  and  let  it  stand  from 
eight  to  ten  hours.  Now  add  10  mils  of  distilled  water,  shake  the  mixture 
vigorously  and  when  the  drug  has  settled,  decant  160  mils  of  the  solution, 
representing  4  Gm.  of  Cinchona.  Filter  it  through  a  pledget  of  purified  cotton 
into  a  separator,  and  rinse  both  cylinder  and  cotton  with  ether.  Completely 
extract  the  alkaloids  from  the  chloroform-ether  solution  by  shaking  out  repeat- 
edly with  weak  sulphuric  acid.  Collect  the  acid  solutions  in  a  separator,  add 
ammonia  water  until  the  solution  is  distinctly  alkaline  to  litmus,  and  completely 
extract  the  alkaloids  by  shaking  out  repeatedly  with  chloroform.  Filter  each 
portion  of  chloroform  as  it  comes  from  the  separator  through  a  pledget  of  purified 
cotton  into  a  tared  flask,  and  wash  the  funnel  and  cotton  with  chloroform. 
Evaporate  the  chloroform  on  a  water  bath,  add  5  mils  of  alcohol  to  the  residue, 
and  again  evaporate.  Repeat  the  evaporation  with  alcohol  and  dry  the  residue 
at  100°  C.  to  constant  weight.  The  weight  will  be  the  amount  of  total  alkaloids 
from  4  Gm.  of  Cinchona  (see  Proximate  Assays,  Part  II). 
Preparations — Fluidextractum  Cinchonae        Tinctura  Cinchonas. 

Average  dose — Metric,  1  Gm. — Apothecaries,  15  grains. 


CINCHONA  RUBRA 

Red  Cinchona 

Cinch.  Rub. — Red  Peruvian  Bark 
The  dried  bark  of  Cinchona  succiruhra  Pavon  (Fam.  Ruhiacea;),  or  of 
its  hybrids,  yielding  not  less  than  5  per  cent,  of  the  alkaloids  of  Red 
Cinchona. 


UNITED   STATES   OF  AMERICA  113 

In  quills  or  curved  pieces  of  variable  length,  bark  from  2  to  4  mm.  in  thickness, 
or  in  small  broken  fragments  or  in  transversely  curved  pieces  from  3  to  7  mm. 
in  thickness;  externally  gray,  grayish-brown,  or  reddish-brown,  more  or  less 
rough  from  corky  protuberances,  occasionally  with  transverse  fissures  which  are 
rarely  numerous  or  much  intersected,  and  having  their  sides  Bloi)ing,  and  with 
occasional  patches  of  foliaceous  lichens;  inner  surface  reddish  or  orange-brown, 
distinctly  striate;  fracture  short  and  granular  in  the  outer  bark,  shortly  and 
rather  coarsely  splintery  in  the  inner  bark;  odor  slight;  taste  very  bitter  and 
astringent. 

The  powder  is  light  brown;  bast-fibers  and  sphenoidal  micro-crystals  of 
calcium  oxalate,  resembling  those  in  cinchona;  starch  grains  resembling  those 
of  cinchona  relatively  few,  from  0.003  to  0.01  mm.  in  diameter. 

Heat  1  Gm.  of  powdered  Red  Cinchona  in  a  dry  test  tube;  a  tarry  distillate 
forms  having  a  bright  red  color. 

Assay — Proceed  as  directed  under  Cinchona,  using  5  Gm.  of  Red  Cinchona. 
Preparation — Tinctura  Cinchonae  Composita. 

Average  dose — Metric,  1  Gm. — Apothecarie.'s,  15  grains. 


CINCHONIDIN^  SULPHAS 

Cinchonidine  Sulphate 

Cinchonid.  Sulph. 

The  sulphate  [(Ci9H220N2)2.H2S04+3n20  =  740.53]  of  an  alkaloid 
obtained  from  the  bark  of  several  species  of  cinchona.  Preserve  it  in 
well-closed  containers  protected  from  light. 

Cinchonidine  Sulphate  occurs  in  white,  glistening,  silky  needles  or  prisms; 
odorless  and  having  a  very  bitter  taste;  permanent  in  the  air. 

One  Gm.  of  Cinchonidine  Sulphate  di.ssolves  in  65  mils  of  water,  90  mils  of 
alcohol,  and  in  620  mils  of  chloroform  at  25°  C;  also  in  22  mils  of  water  at  80°  C, 
and  in  41  mils  of  alcohol  at  60°  C;  nearly  insoluble  in  ether. 

A  saturated  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  is  neutral  or  faintly  alkaline  to  htmus 
and  is  Isevorotatorj'. 

When  anhj'drous  it  melts  at  about  200°  C.  with  partial  decomposition. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  Cinchonidine  Sulphate  yields  with  barium  chloride  T.S., 
a  white  precipitate,  insoluble  in  hydrochloric  acid. 

Add  ammonia  water  to  25  mils  of  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt,  1  in  80;  a 
white  precipitate  (cinchonidine)  is  produced,  which  is  but  shghtly  soluble  in 
ammonia  water,  but  w'hich,  when  freshly  precipitated,  dissolves  in  5  mils  of 
ether,  the  greater  part  afterwards  separating  in  crystals. 

When  dried  to  constant  weight  at  100°  C.,  Cinchonidine  Sulphate  loses  not 
more  than  12  per  cent,  of  its  weight. 

Incinerate  about  1  Gm.  of  Cinchonidine  Sulphate;  not  more  than  0.1  per  cent, 
of  ash  remains. 

Add  2  mils  of  sulphuric  acid  to  about  0.1  Gm.  of  the  salt;  not  more  than  a 
faint,  yellow  color  is  developed  (readily  carho7iizable  impurities). 

Ten  mils  of  a  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  1000)  in  diluted  sulphuric  acid  exhibits 
only  a  faint,  blue  fluorescence. 

Macerate  0.5  Gm.  of  Cinchonidine  Sulphate,  with  frequent  agitation,  at  the 
ordinary  temperature,  with  20  mils  of  distilled  water,  then  add  0.5  Gm.  of 
potassium  and  sodium  tartrate  and  continue  the  maceration  with  repeated 
agitation  for  one  hour  at  15°  C,  and  filter  the  mixture.  The  addition  of  1  drop 
of  ammonia  water  to  the  filtrate  produces  not  more  than  a  slight  turbidity 
(fiinchonine  or  quinidine  sulphate). 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.15  Gm. — Apothecaries,  23^  grains. 


114  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA   OF  THE 

CINCHONIN^  SULPHAS 

Cinchonine  Sulphate 

Cinchonin.  Sulph. 

The  sulphate  [(Ci9H220N2)2.H2S04  +  2H20  =  722.51]  of  an  alkaloid 
obtained  from  the  bark  of  several  species  of  cinchona.  Preserve  it  in 
well-closed  containers  protected  from  light. 

Cinchonine  Sulphate  occurs  in  white,  lustrous  prismatic  crystals;  odorless, 
and  having  a  very  bitter  taste;  permanent  in  the  air. 

One  Gm.  of  Cinchonine  Sulphate  dissolves  in  60  mils  of  water,  12.5  mils  of 
alcohol,  47  mils  of  chloroform,  and  in  3230  mils  of  ether  at  25°  C.;  also  in  33 
mils  of  water  at  80°  C.  and  in  7  mils  of  alcohol  at  60°  C. 

A  saturated  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  is  neutral  or  slightly  alkaline  to 
litmus  and  is  dextrorotatory. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  Cinchonine  Sulphate  (1  in  100)  yields  with  bariima 
chloride  T.S.  a  white  precipitate  insoluble  in  hydrochloric  acid. 

Dried  to  constant  weight  at  100°  C.  Cinchonine  Sulphate  loses  not  more  than 
5  per  cent,  of  its  weight. 

Incinerate  about  1  Gm.  of  Cinchonine  Sulphate;  not  more  than  0.1  per  cent,  of 
ash  remains. 

Ten  mils  of  a  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  1000)  in  diluted  sulphuric  acid  exhibits 
only  a  slight,  blue  fluorescence. 

One-tenth  Gm.  of  the  powdered  salt  dissolves  completely  or  nearly  so  when 
shaken  with  10  mils  of  chloroform  at  ordinary  temperatures  (quinine  or  cinchoni- 
dine  sulphate). 

Add  0.1  Gm.  of  the  salt  to  2  mils  of  sulphuric  acid;  it  imparts  not  more  than 
a  faint,  yellow  tinge  to  the  acid  {readily  carhonizable,  organic  impurities). 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.15  Gm. — Apothecaries,  2i^'  grains. 


CINNAMOMUM  SAIGONICUM 

Saigon  Cinnamon 
Cinnam.  Saigon. 

The  dried  bark  of  an  undetermined  species  of  Cinnamomum  (Fam. 
Lauracece). 

In  quills  attaining  a  length  of  30  cm.,  and  from  3  to  30  mm.  in  diameter;  the 
bark  from  0.5  to  3  mm.  in  thickness;  outer  surface  light  brown  to  dark  purplish- 
brown  with  grayish  patches  of  foliaceous  lichens  and  numerous  bud-scars;  finely 
wrinkled,  especially  the  bark  of  younger  twigs,  otherwise  more  or  less  rough  from 
corky  patches  surrounding  the  lenticels;  inner  surface  reddish-brown  to  dark 
brown,  granular,  and  slightly  striate;  fracture  short;  inner  bark  porous,  owing 
to  the  presence  of  large  oil  cells  and  mucilage  cells,  and  separated  by  a  con- 
tinuous layer  of  stone  cells  from  the  outer  bark;  odor  aromatic;  taste  sweetish, 
aromatic  and  pungent. 

Under  the  microscope,  sections  of  the  older  bark  of  Saigon  Cinnamon  show  a 
thin  layer  of  more  or  less  lignified  cork  cells;  a  narrow  layer  of  starch-bearing 
parenchyma  with  scattered  stone  cells;  a  nearly  continuous  zone,  several  layers 
wide,  of  stone  cells,  among  which  are  small  groups  of  bast-fibers  with  thickened 
and  slightly  lignified  walls;  a  wide  inner  bark  with  medullary  rays  1  to  3  cells 
in  width,  isolated  bast-fibers,  mucilage  cells,  oil  cells  njid  parenchyma,  the 


UNITED    STATES    OF   AMERICA  115 

cells  of  the  latter  either  filled  with  staxch  grains  or  containing  very  small  raphides 
of  calcium  oxalate;  the  liimina  of  parenchyma  cells,  stone  cells  and  bast-fibers 
frequently  filled  with  an  amorphous  roddish-brown  substance,  which  is  for  the 
most  part  insoluble  in  the  ordinary  reagents.  In  the  bark  of  young  twigs  there 
is  an  epidermal  layer  with  a  thick  yellowish  cuticle,  fewer  stone  cells  in  the  zone 
associated  with  bast-fibers,  and  the  inner  bark  is  narrower  and  with  fewer 
secretion  cells  than  in  the  older  bark. 

The  powder  is  j^ellowish-  or  reddish-brown;  starch  grains  numerous,  single 
or  compound,  the  individual  grains  being  somewhat  ellipsoidal  or  polygonal 
and  from  0.003  to  0.02  mm.  in  diameter;  fragments,  with  colorless  stone  cells, 
rather  prominent,  the  cells  being  very  irregular  in  shajie  and  the  lumina  contain- 
ing either  air  or  a  reddish-brown  amorphous  substance;  bast-fibers  from  0.3 
to  1.5  mm.  in  length  and  usually  in  groups  of  from  2  to  20  with  very  thick 
and  scarcely  lignificd  walls;  numerous  cellular,  reddish-brown  fragments  in 
which  the  oil  cells  are  not  readilj-^  distinguishable. 

Saigon  Cinnamon  yields  not  less  than  2  per  cent,  of  volatile  extractive, 
soluble  in  ether  (see  Part  II,  Test  No.  12). 

Saigon  Cinnamon  yields  not  more  than  6  per  cent,  of  ash.  The  amount  of 
ash  insoluble  in  diluted  hydrochloric  acid  does  not  exceed  2  per  cent,  of  the 
weight  of  Saigon  Cinnamon  taken. 

Preparation — Tinctura  Cinnamomi. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.25  Gm, — Apothecaries,  4  grains. 


CINNAMOMUM  ZEYLAXICUM 

Ceylon  Cinnamon 

Cinnam.  Zeylan. 

The  dried  bark  of  cultivated  trees  of  Cinnamomum  zeylanicum  Breyne 
(Fam.  LauracecB),  without  the  presence  or  admixture  of  more  than 
3  per  cent,  of  the  outer  bark  or  other  foreign  matter. 

In  closely  rolled  double  quills,  composed  of  from  7  to  12  thin  layers  of  separ- 
ate pieces  of  bark,  from  30  to  50  cm.  in  length  and  from  8  to  13  mm.  in  diameter; 
the  bark  attaining  a  thickness  of  1  mm.;  outer  surface  pale  j'ellowish-brown, 
smooth,  longitudinally  striate  with  narrow  yellowish  groups  of  bast-fibers,  and 
showing  circular  or  irregular  brownish  patches,  occasionally  with  perforations 
marking  the  nodes;  inner  surface  light  brown,  with  faint,  longitudinal  striations; 
fracture  short  with  projecting  bast-fibers;  odor  agreeably  aromatic;  taste  sweet- 
ish and  warmly  aromatic. 

Under  the  microscope,  sections  of  Ceylon  Cinnamon  usually  show  no  cork 
but  an  almost  continuous  outer  layer  of  stone  cells,  among  which  are  small 
groups  of  bast-fibers  resembling  those  found  in  Saigon  Cinnamon;  in  the  inner 
bark  occur  numerous  bast-fibers  singly  or  in  small  groups,  medullary  rays  1  to 
2  cells  in  width,  usually  with  raphides  of  calcium  oxalate;  parenchyma  with 
either  reddish-brown  contents  or  more  or  less  filled  with  starch  grains;  scattered 
throughout  the  parenchyma  occur  oil  secretion  cells  and  mucilage  cells. 

The  powder  is  light  brown  or  yellowish-brown;  starch  grains  numerous, 
varying  from  spherical  to  polygonal,  from  0.003  to  0.02  mm.  in  diameter, 
frequently  in  small  aggregates;  bast-fibers  from  0.3  to  0.8  mm.  in  length, 
usually  single,  spindle-shaped,  with  attenuated  ends,  the  walls  being  very  thick 
and  but  slightly  hgnified;  colorless  stone  cells  resembling  those  of  Saigon  Cinna- 
mon; numerous  cellular  fragments  with  yellowish-brown  walls  or  contents;  cork 
cellafewornone;  calcium  oxalate  in  raphides,  frc«n  0.005  to  0.008  mm.  in  length. 


116  THE   PHAR^LA.COPCEIA   OF   THE 

Ceylon  Cinnaraon  yields  not  less  than  0.5  per  cent,  of  volatile  extractive, 
soluble  in  ether  (see  Part  II,  Test  No.  12). 

Ceylon  Cinnamon  yields  not  more  than  6  per  cent,  of  ash.  The  amount  of 
ash  insoluble  in  diluted  hydrochloric  acid  does  not  exceed  2  per  cent,  of  the 
weight  of  Ceylon  Cinnamon  taken. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.250  Gm. — Apothecaries,  4  grains. 

COCAINA 

Cocaine 

Cocain. 

An  alkaloid  [C17H21O4N  or  C8Hi3(C6H5C0)0N.C00CH3  =  303.18] 

obtained  from   Erythroxylon   Coca  Lamarck  and   its  varieties  (Fam. 

Erythroxylacece) .     Preserve  it  in  well-closed  containers  protected  from 

light. 

Cocaine  occurs  in  large,  colorless,  four-sided,  or  six-sided  monoclinic  prisms, 
or  as  a  white  crystalline  powder;    odorless. 

One  Gm.  of  Cocaine  di.ssolves  in  about  600  mils  of  water,  6.5  mils  of  alcohol, 
0.7  mil  of  chloroform,  3.5  mils  of  ether  and  in  12  mils  of  olive  oil  at  25°  C;  also 
in  270  mils  of  water  at  80°  C;  very  soluble  in  warm  alcohol;  slightly  soluble 
in  liquid  petrolatum. 

It  melts  between  96°  and  98°  C. 

On  neutralizing  carefully  an  alcoholic  solution  of  Cocaine  with  diluted  hydro- 
chloric acid  and  evaporating  the  solution  to  dryness,  the  residue  responds  to  the 
tests  for  identity  and  purity  under  CocaincB  Hydrochloridum. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.015  Gm. — Apothecaries,  3^:4  grain. 

COCAINE  HYDROCHLORIDUM 

Cocaine  Hydrochloride 

Cocain.  liydrochl. — Cocaine  Chloride        Cocalnum  hydrochloricum  P.  I. 

The  hydrochloride  [Ci7H2iQ4N.HCl  =  339.65]  of  the  alkaloid  cocaine. 

Cocaine  Hydrochloride  occurs  in  colorless,  transparent,  monoclinic  prisms;  in 
flaky,  lustrous  leaflets  or  as  a  white,  crystalline  powder;  odorless;  permanent 
in  the  air. 

One  Gm.  of  Cocaine  Hydrochloride  dissolves  in  0.4  mil  of  water,  3.2  mils  of 
alcohol,  and  in  12.5  mils  of  chloroform  at  25°  C;  also  in  2  mils  of  alcohol  at 
60°  C;   soluble  in  glycerin,  insoluble  in  ether. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  20)  is  neutral  to  litmus  and  is  Isevorotatory. 

It  melts  between  183°  and  191°  C,  the  higher  melting  point  indicating  greater 
purity. 

Silver  nitrate  T.S.  produces  in  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  100),  a 
white  precipitate  in.soluble  in  nitric  acid. 

Add  5  drops  of  a  solution  of  chromium  trioxide  (1  in  20)  to  5  mils  of  a  solution 
of  Cocaine  Hydrochloride  (1  in  50);  a  yellow  precipitate  is  produced  which 
redi.ssolves  on  shaking  the  mixture;  on  now  adding  1  mil  of  hydrochloric  acid, 
a  permanent,  orange-colored,  crystalline  precipitate  is  formed. 

Dissolve  about  0.1  Gm.  of  the  salt  in  1  mil  of  sulphuric  acid;  not  more  than 
a  slight  yellow  tint  is  produced  {readily  carbonizahle  impurilies).  Keep  this 
solution  at  a  temperature  of  100°  C  for  five  minutes,  then  cautiously  mix  it  with 


UNITED   STATES   OF  AMERICA  117 

2  mils  of  distilled  water;  the  aromatic  odor  of  methyl  benzoate  is  noticeable 
and,  on  cooling,  crystals  of  benzoic  acid  form,  which  dissolve  on  the  careful 
addition  of  alcohol. 

A  solution  of  about  0.01  Gm.  of  Cocaine  Hydrochloride  in  1  mil  of  distilled 
water  yields,  on  the  addition  of  2  mils  of  tenth-normal  potassium  permanjiariate 
V.S.,  a  violet,  crystalline  precipitate  which  appears  brownish-violet  when  collected 
on  a  filter,  and  shows  characteristic,  crystalline  aggregates  under  a  low  power 
microscope. 

incinerate  0.5  Gm.  of  Cocaine  Hydrochloride;  no  weighable  ash  remains. 

Mi.x  5  mils  of  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  50)  with  0.3  mil  of  normal 
sulphuric  acid  V.S.  and  0.1  mil  of  tenth-normal  potassium  permanganate  V.S.; 
a  violet  tint  is  produced  which  does  not  disappear  entirely  within  half  an  hour 
{cinnnmyl-cocaine) . 

Dilute  5  mils  of  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  50),  in  a  beaker,  witl 
distilled  water  to  make  So  mils,  add  0.2  mil  of  ammonia  water  and  stir  the 
solution  vigorously  during  five  minutes,  with  occasional  rubbing  of  the  sides  of 
the  beaker  with  a  stirring  rod.  A  crystalline  precipitate  of  cocaine  is  formed 
and  the  supernatant  liquid  is  clear  (isatropyl-cocaine).  The  presence  of 
0.5  per  cent,  of  isatropyl-cocaine  will  prevent  the  formation  of  nearly  all  of  the 
precipitate,  and  will  cause  the  supernatant  liquid  to  be  milky. 

Average  pose — Metric,  0.015  Gm. — Apothecaries,  }i  grain. 


COCCUS 

Cocliineal 

The  dried  female  of  the  insect  Coccus  cacti  Linne  (Fam.  Cocddce), 
enclosing  the  young  larvae. 

Somewhat  ovate  in  outline,  convex  above,  concave  beneath,  from  3.5  to  5  mm. 
in  length,  consisting  of  from  9  to  12  segments;  externally  grayish-purple  or  grayish; 
in  the  shell-like,  somewhat  horny  abdomen  lie  numerous  larvae  less  than  1  mm.  in 
diameter;  the  mature  larvae  with  antennae  consisting  of  eight  joints,  3  pairs  of 
legs,  the  lower  having  from  6  to  8  segments,  and  a  characteristic  beak  or  rostrum 
composed  of  4  thread-like  parts  which  pair  off  into  two  coils. 

Cochineal  is  easily  pulverizable  and  jdelds  a  dark  red  powder,  with  a  charac- 
teristic odor  and  slightly  bitter  taste.  When  masticated  it  colors  the  saliva  red, 
due  to  the  Tioloring  principle,  carminic  acid,  which  is  soluble  in  water,  alcohol, 
or  alkahes  and  slightly  soluble  m  ether,  but  insoluble  in  fixed  or  volatile  oils. 
Alkalies  change  the  color  of  solutions  of  Cochmeal  to  purple,  while  acids  change 
it  to  reddish-yellow.  When  Cochineal  is  macerated  in  water  no  insoluble 
powder  separates. 

Cochineal  yields  not  more  than  6  per  cent,  of  ash. 


CODEINA 

Codeine 

Codein. — Methylmorphine 

An  alkaloid  [CxsHaiOgN+HaO  or  Ci7Hi8(CH3)03N-fH20  =  317.19] 

obtained   from  opium,   or  prepared  from  morphine    by  methylation. 

Preserve  it  in  well-closed  containers  protected  from  light. 

Codeine  occurs  in  colorless,  translucent,  rhombic  prisms,  or  as  a  crystalline 
powder;   odorless  and  sUghtly  efflorescent  in  warm  air. 


118  THE  PHARMACOPCEIA  OF  THE 

One  Gm.  of  Codeine  dissolves  in  120  mils  of  water,  2  mils  of  alcohol,  0.5  mil 
of  chloroform,  and  in  18  mils  of  ether  at  25°  C;  also  in  1.2  mils  of  alcohol  at 
60°  C. 

A  saturated  aqueous  solution  of  Codeine  is  alkaline  to  litmus  and  is  laevorota- 
tory. 

Codeine,  rendered  anhydrous,  melts  between  154°  and  156°  C. 

When  heated  in  an  insufficient  amount  of  water  for  complete  solution,  it 
melts  to  oily  drops,  which  crystallize  on  cooling. 

Sulphuric  acid  containing  0.005  Gm.  of  selenous  acid  in  each  mil  produces 
with  Codeine  a  green  color,  changing  rapidly  to  blue,  then  slowly  back  to  grass- 
green. 

About  0.01  Gm.  of  Codeine  dissolves  in  5  mils  of  sulphuric  acid  (free  from 
nitrous  compounds)  without  showing  other  than  a  transient,  pinkish  tint;  on 
the  addition  of  a  drop  of  ferric  chloride  T.S.,  the  solution  becomes  blue  when 
warmed  and  changes  to  red  on  the  further  addition  of  a  drop  of  nitric  acid. 

When  dried  to  constant  weight  at  80°  C,  Codeine  loses  not  more  than  6  per 
cent,  of  its  weight.    No  weighable  ash  remains  on  incinerating  0.5  Gm.  of  Codeine. 

Dissolve  about  0.05  Gm.  of  potassium  ferricyanide  in  10  mils  of  distilled 
water,  add  1  drop  of  ferric  chloride  T.S.,  and  then  1  mil  of  a  neutral  or  slightly 
acid  aqueous  solution  of  Codeine  (1  in  100),  made  with  the  aid  of  sulphuric 
acid;  no  blue  color  is  produced  at  once  {morphine). 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.03  Gm. — Apothecaries,  ^  grain. 


CODEINiE  PHOSPHAS 

Codeine  Phosphate 
Codein.  Phos. 

The  phosphate  [C18H21O3N.H3PO4+2H2O  or  Ci,Hi8(CH3)03N.H3 
PO4+2H2O  =  433.27]  of  the  alkaloid  codeine.  It  yields  not  less  than  67 
per  cent,  of  anhydrous  codeine  (CisHaiOsN).  Preserve  it  in  well-closed 
containers,  protected  from  light. 

Codeine  Phosphate  occurs  in  fine,  white,  needle-shaped  crystals,  or  as  a  crystal- 
line powder;    odorless  and  very  efflorescent. 

One  Gm.  of  Codeine  Phosphate  dissolves  in  2.3  mils  of  water,  325  mils  of 
alcohol,  4500  mils  of  chloroform,  and  in  1875  mils  of  ether  at  25°  C;  also  in 
0.5  mil  of  water  at  80°  C.  and  in  125  mils  of  boiling  alcohol. 

Its  aqueous  solution  (1  in  20)  is  acid  to  litmus. 

Silver  nitrate  T.S.  produces  in  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt,  previously 
neutralized  with  ammonia  water,  a  yellow  precipitate  which  is  soluble  in  diluted 
nitric  acid  and  in  ammonia  water. 

Separate  portions  of  10  mils  each  of  an  aqueous  solution  of  Codeine  Phosphate 
(1  in  100),  acidulated  with  nitric  acid,  are  not  rendered  turbid  at  once  on  the 
addition  of  a  few  drops  of  barium  chloride  T.S.  (sulphates),  or  opalescent  by  a 
few  drops  of  silver  nitrate  T.S.  (chlorides). 

Assay — Di.s.solve  about  0.5  Gm.  of  Codeine  Phosphate,  accurately  weighed,  in 
10  mils  of  distilled  water,  add  10  mils  of  potassium  hydroxide  T.S.  and  shake 
the  mixture  with  three  successive  portions  of  15  mils  each  of  chloroform,  or  a 
sufficient  quantity  to  complete  the  extraction.  The  combined  chloroform 
solutions,  carefully  evaporated  to  dryness  on  a  water  bath,  yield,  after  drying 
to  a  constant  weight  at  110°  C,  not  less  than  67  per  cent,  of  anhydrous  codeine. 

In  other  respects  Codeine  Phosphate  responds  to  the  tests  of  identity  and 
purity  under  Codeina,  omitting  the  melting  point  and  ash  test. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.03  Gm. — Apothecaries,  ^  grain. 


UNITED    STATES   OF   AMERICA  119 

CODEINE  SULPHAS 

Codeine  Sulphate 
Codein.  Sulpb. 

The  sulphate  [(Ci8H2i03N)2.H2S04+5H20  or  (Ci7Hx8(CH3)03N)2. 
HaS04+5H20  =  786.52]  of  the  alkaloid  codeine.  Preserve  it  in  well- 
closed  containers,  protected  from  light. 

Codeine  Sulphate  occurs  in  long,  glistening,  white,  needle-shaped  crystals  or 
rhombic  prisms,  or  as  a  crystalline  powder;   odorless  and  efflorescent  in  the  air. 

One  Gm.  of  Codeine  Sulphate  dissolves  in  30  mils  of  water  and  in  1280  mila 
of  alcohol  at  25°  C. ;  also  in  6.5  mils  of  water  at  80°  C.  and  in  440  mila  of  alcohol 
at  60°  C;   insoluble  in  chloroform  or  ether. 

Its  aqueous  solution  (1  in  40)  is  neutral  or  not  more  than  faintly  acid  to  litmus. 

Barium  chloride  T.S.  produces,  in  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt,  a  white 
precipitate  which  is  insoluble  in  hydrochloric  acid. 

When  dried  to  constant  weight  at  100°  C,  Codeine  Sulphate  loses  not  more 
than  12  per  cent,  of  its  weight. 

In  other  respects  the  salt  responds  to  the  tests  for  identity  and  purity  under 
Codeina,  omitting  the  melting  point. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.03  Gm. — Apothecaries,  }'2  grain. 

COLCHICI  CORINIUS 

Colchicum  Corm 

Colch.  Corm.— Colchicum  Root 
The  dried  corm  of  Colchicum  autumnale  Linne  (Fam.LiZiacecB), yielding 
not  less  than  0.35  per  cent,  of  colchicine. 

Usually  in  reniform,  transverse  or  in  ovate,  longitudinal  slices;  from  2  to  5  mm. 
in  thickness;  flat  surfaces  whitish,  slightly  roughened,  and  of  a  crystalline  appear- 
ance under  a  hand  lens;  epidermis  thin,  light  brown  and  finely  wrinkled;  fracture 
short  and  mealy,  odor  slight;  taste  bitter  and  somewhat  acrid. 

The  powder  is  light  brown  or  grayish-brown;  starch  grains  numerous,  single 
or  2-  to  6-compound,  the  individual  grains  varying  from  spherical  or  ovoid  to 
polygonal,  and  marked  with  a  triangular  or  star-shaped,  central  cleft  from  0.003 
to  0.03  mm.  in  diameter;  trachea^  few  and  with  spiral  or  scalariform  thickenings; 
occasional  fragments  of  epidermal  cells  with  thin,  reddish-brown  walls. 

Colchicum  Corm  yields  not  more  than  6  per  cent,  of  ash. 

Assay — Proceed  as  directed  under  Colchici  Semen,  using  15  Gm.  of  Colchicum 
Corm. 
Preparation — ^Extractum  Colchici  Cormi. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.25  Gm. — Apothecaries,  4  grains. 

COLCHICI  SEMEN 

Colchicum  Seed 

Colch.  Sem. — Colchici  semen  P.  I. 
The  dried  seeds  of  Colchicum  autumnale  Linne  (Fam.  Liliacece),  yield- 
ing not  less  than  0.45  per  cent,  of  colchicine. 

Ovoid  or  irregularly  globular,  more  or  less  pointed  at  the  hilum;  from  2  to  3 
mm.  in  diameter;   when  fresh,  several  seeds  cohering;    externally  dark  brown, 


120  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA   OF   THE 

finely  pitted;  tough  and  of  almost  bony  hardness;  internally  whitish  or  light 
brown;  nearly  inodorous;  taste  bitter  and  somewhat  acrid. 

Under  the  microscope,  transverse  sections  of  Colchicum  Seed  show  a  seed-coat 
of  a  few  more  or  less  collapsed  cells  with  thin  reddish-brown  walls;  an  endosperm, 
making  up  most  of  the  seed,  consisting  of  cells  with  rather  thick,  porous  walls, 
the  lumina  containing  oil  globules  and  aleurone  grains,  the  latter  being  from 
0.003  to  0.015  nun.  in  diameter;  a  small  embryo,  the  beaked  portion,  or  caruncle, 
containing  numerous,  somewhat  ovoid,  eUipsoidal  or  polygonal  starch  grains, 
from  0.005  to  0.016  mm.  in  diameter. 

Colchicum  Seed  yields  not  more  than  8  per  cent,  of  ash. 

Assay — Introduce  15  Gm.  of  Colchicum  Seed,  in  No.  60  powder,  into  a  500  mil 
flask,  and  add  10  mils  of  solution  of  lead  subacetate  and  290  mils  of  distilled 
water.  Weigh  the  flask  and  contents,  and  digest  the  mixture  at  from  60°  to 
70°  C.  for  three  hours,  with  occasional  agitation.  Cool,  add  distilled  water  to 
restore  the  original  weight  and  hlter  off  200  mils.  Add  0.75  Gm.  of  sodium 
phosphate  to  the  clear  filtrate,  shake  the  mixture  frequently  during  half  an  hour, 
and  filter  off  100  mils  representing  5  Gm.  of  Colchicum  Seed.  Shake  out  the 
alkaloid  from  the  filtrate  with  chloroform  until  completely  extracted,  as  shown 
by  testing  with  iodine  T.S.  (in  place  of  the  usual  mercuric  potassium  iodide  T.S.), 
and  evaporate  the  chloroform  solution;  add  about  1  mil  of  alcohol  and  again 
evaporate.  Repeat  this  operation  once  more  and  dry  the  residue  to  constant 
weight  at  100°  C.  To  this  weighed  residue  contained  in  a  flask  add  5  mils  of 
tenth-normal  sulphuric  acid  V.S.  and  5  mils  of  distilled  water  and  heat  the 
mixture  for  ten  minutes  at  70°  C.  Now  filter  the  liquid  through  a  pledget  of 
purified  cotton,  wash  the  flask  and  cotton  with  distilled  water,  reject  the  filtrate 
and  washings  and  remove  as  much  of  the  water  from  the  cotton  as  possible. 
Dissolve  any  insoluble  residue  that  may  remain  on  the  cotton  by  washing  it 
first  with  a  little  alcohol  and  then  with  ether;  collect  the  alcohol-ether  washings 
in  the  flask,  evaporate,  and  dry  the  residue  to  constant  weight  at  100°  C.  Deduct 
this  weight  from  the  weight  of  residue  previously  obtained.  The  difference  will 
be  the  weight  of  colchicine  obtained  from  5  Gm.  of  Colchicum  Seed  (see  Pro.xi- 
mate  Assays,  Part  II). 

Preparations — Fluidextractum  Colchici  Seminis        Tinctura  Colchici  Seminia. 
Average  dose — Metric,  0,2  Gm. — ^Apothecaries,  3  grains. 

COLCHICINA 

Colchicine 

An  alkaloid  [C22H2506N  =  399.21]  obtained  from  colchicum.    Preserve 
it  in  well-closed  containers,  protected  from  light. 

Colchicine  occurs  in  pale  yellow,  amorphous  scales,  or  as  a  pale  yellow,  amor- 
phous powder,  turning  darker  on  exposure  to  light;  odorless  or  nearly  so.  Great 
caution  must  he  used  in  tasting  it  and  then  only  in  very  dilute,  solutions. 

One  Gm.  of  Colchicine  dissolves  in  22  mils  of  water,  220  mils  of  ether,  and 
in  100  mils  of  benzene  at  25°  C;  also  in  21  mils  of  water  at  80°  C;  freely  soluble 
in  alcohol  or  chloroform;  insoluble  in  petroleum  benzin. 

Its  aqueous  solution  (1  in  30)  is  neutral  to  litmus,  laevorotatory,  and  of  a 
yellow  color,  which  is  intensified  by  the  addition  of  mineral  acids. 

It  melts  between  142°  and  146°  C. 

Stir  about  0.001  Gm.  of  Colchicine  with  a  few  drops  of  sulphuric  acid;  a 
lemon-yellow  color  is  produced,  which,  on  the  addition  of  a  drop  of  nitric  acid, 
changes  to  greenish-blue,  then  to  red  and  finally  to  yellow.  On  adding  an  excess 
of  potassium  hydroxide  T.S.,  the  color  is  changed  to  red. 

The  addition  of  2  (Iroi)s  of  ferric  chloride  T.S.  to  5  mils  of  an  aqueous  solution 
of  Colchicine  (1  in  100)  produces  no  color  (colchiceine) ,  but,  on  heating,  a  brown- 
ish-red color  is  developed,  which  changes  to  brownish-black;    1  drop  of  ferric 


"UNITED   STATES    OF  AMERICA  121 

chloride  T.S.  added  to  1  mil  of  an  alcoholic  solution  of  Colchicine  (1  in  20) 
produces  a  garnet-red  color  at  once. 

No  weighable  ash  remains  on  incinerating  0.1  Gm.  of  Colchicine. 

Heat  a  mixture  of  about  0.01  Gm.  of  Colchicine,  2  mils  of  potas.sium  hydroxide 
T.S.,  and  1  drop  of  aniline;   no  odor  of  phenylisocyanide  develops  (chloroform). 

Average  dose — Metric,  OjOOOS  Gm. — Apothecaries,  ^20  grain. 

COLLODIUM 

Collodion 

Collod. 

Pyroxylin,  forty  grammes 40  Gm. 

Ether,  seven  hundred  and  fifty  milliliters 750  mils 

Alcohol,  two  hundred  and  fifty  milliliters 250  mils 

To  make  about  one  thousand  milliliters 1000  mils 

Add  the  alcohol  to  the  pyroxylin  contained  in  a  suitable  bottle,  shake 
the  mixture  thoroughly,  then  introduce  the  ether,  and  again  shake  the 
mixture  until  the  pyroxylin  is  dissolved.  Cork  the  bottle  well  and  set  it 
aside  until  the  liquid  becomes  clear.  Finally  decant  the  clear  portion 
from  any  sediment  which  may  have  deposited,  and  transfer  it  to  con- 
tainers which  must  be  well  closed. 

Keep  the  Collodion  in  a  cool  place  remote  from  fire. 

Collodion  is  a  clear,  or  slightly  opalescent,  syrupy  liquid;  colorless,  or  slightly 
yellowish  and  having  the  odor  of  ether.  It  is  higlily  inflammable.  When  ex- 
posed to  the  air  in  a  thin  layer  it  leaves  a  transparent,  tenacious  film. 

Specific  gravity:  0.765  to  0.775  at  25°  C. 

When  mixed  with  an  equal  volume  of  distilled  water,  a  viscid,  stringy  mass 
separates;  the  aqueous  liquid  is  not  acid  to  litmus. 

Assay — Introduce  about  10  mils  of  Collodion  into  a  flask;  stopper  and 
weigh  accurately,  then  warm  it  on  a  water  bath  and  add  10  mils  of  distilled 
water,  drop  by  drop,  with  constant  stirring.  Evaporate  the  mixture  on  a  water 
bath  and  dry  the  residue  to  constant  weight  at  110"  C.  The  pyroxylin  so 
obtained  corresponds  to  not  less  than  5.1  per  cent,  of  the  Collodion  taken,  equal 
to  about  4  Gm.  of  pyroxylin  in  100  mils  of  Collodion  at  25°  C.  The  pyroxyhn 
obtained  burns  rapidly,  with  a  yellow  flame. 
Preparation — Collodium  Flexile. 

COLLODIUM  CANTHARIDATUIM 

Cantharldal  Collodion 

Collod.  Canth. — Blistering  Collodion    Vesicating  Collodion 

Cantharides,  in  fine  powder,  sixty  grammes . .     60  Gm. 

Glacial  Acetic  Acid,  five  milliliters 5  mils 

Flexible  Collodion,  eighty-five  grammes 85  Gm. 

Acetone,  a  sufficient  quantity,  

To  make  one  hundred  grammes 100  Gm. 


122  THE   PHARMACOPOEIA   OF  THE 

Mix  the  cantharides  with  fifty-five  mils  of  acetone,  to  which  the  glacial 
acetic  acid  has  been  added,  and  set  the  mixture  aside  in  a  closely-covered 
container  for  twenty-four  hours.  Then  transfer  it  to  a  percolator  and 
continue  the  percolation  with  acetone  until  the  drug  is  practically  ex- 
hausted. Reduce  the  percolate  by  distillation  on  a  water  bath,  in  a 
tared  flask,  to  fifteen  grammes  and,  when  cold,  dissolve  this  concentrated 
extract  in  eighty-five  grammes  of  flexible  collodion.  Finally  allow  the 
solution  to  stand  for  several  hours,  and  decant  the  clear  liquid  from 
any  sediment  which  may  have  deposited,  and  transfer  the  product  to 
containers,  which  must  be  well-closed. 

Keep  Cantharidal  Collodion  in  a  cool  place,  remote  from  fire. 

COLLODIUM  FLEXILE 

Flexible  Collodion 

Collod.  Flex. 

Collodion,  nine  hundred  and  fifty  grammes 950  Gm. 

Camphor,  twenty  grammes 20  Gm. 

Castor  Oil,  thirty  grammes 30  Gm. 

To  make  one  thousand  grammes 1000  Gm. 

Weigh  the  ingredients,  successively,  into  a  tared  bottle  and  shake  the 
mixture  until  the  camphor  is  dissolved.    Keep  the  product  in  well- 
closed  containers,  in  a  cool  place,  remote  from  fire. 
Preparation — Collodium  Cantharidatum. 

COLOCYNTHIS 

Colocynth 

Colocyn. — Colocynth  Pulp      Bitter  Apple      Colocynth  Apple 
The  dried  pulp  of  the  fruit  of  Citrullus  Colocynthis  (Linne)  Schrader 
(Fam.  Cucurbitacece) ,  without  the  presence  or  admixture  of  more  than 
5  per  cent,  of  seeds  or  more  than  2  per  cent,  of  epicarp. 

Fruits,  before  the  removal  of  the  seeds,  nearly  globular,  from  4  to  7  cm.  in 
diameter,  usually  more  or  less  crushed  and  in  broken  pieces,  with  occasional 
patches  of  the  nearly  smooth  epicarp;  yellowish-white  or  brownish ;  light,  spongy; 
separable  longitudinally  when  entire  into  three  carpels,  each  containing,  near 
the  outer  surface,  the  ovoid,  compressed,  yellowish  seeds;  odor  shght;  taste 
intensely  bitter. 

The  powder  is  yellowish-white  or  buff,  consisting  chiefly  of  fragments  of 
parenchyma  cells  and  an  occasional  fragment  with  tracheic;  very  few  lignified 
tissues  of  the  seed-coat,  showing  the  characteristic  stone  cells  which  are  nearly 
isodiametric.  irregular,  with  either  straight  or  undulate  walls  that  are  strongly 
lignified  and  possess  simple  pores;  globules  of  fixed  oil  and  alcurone  grains 
very  few. 


tJNITED  STATES   OP  AMERICA  128 

Powdered  Colocynth  must  be  made  from  colocynth  pulp  containing  not  more 
than  5  per  cent,  of  seeds  and,  upon  extraction  with  purified  petroleum  beuzin, 
yields  not  more  than  2  per  cent,  of  fixed  oil. 

Colocynth  yields  not  more  than  15  per  cent,  of  ash. 
Preparations — Extractum    Colocynthidis  Extractum   ColocyTithidis   Com- 

positum  (from  Extract)         Pilula;  Cathartica?  Coraposita?  (from  Compound 

Extract). 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.06  Gm. — Apothecaries,  1  grain. 

COPAIBA 

Copaiba 

Copaib. — Balsam  of  Copaiba         Copaiva 

An  oleoresin  derived  from  South  American  species  of  Copaiba  (Fam. 
Leguminosce) . 

Copaiba  is  a  pale  yellow  to  brownish-yellow,  more  or  less  viscid  liquid,  either 
without  fluorescence  or  with  only  a  shghtly  greenish  fluorescence;  ha\'ing  a 
peculiar,  aromatic  odor,  and  a  persistent,  bitter,  and  acrid  taste. 

It  is  insoluble  in  water  and  partly  soluble  in  alcohol.  Soluble,  showing  not 
more  than  a  slight  opalescence,  in  dehydrated  alcohol,  carbon  disulphide,  or 
in  fixed  or  volatile  oils;  completely  soluble  in  chloroform  or  ether  and  also 
soluble  in  an  equal  volume  of  petroleum  benzin,  a  further  addition  of  the  solvent 
producing  a  flocculent  precipitate. 

Specific  gravity:    0.940  to  0.995  at  25°  C.       _ 

When  heated  on  a  water  bath,  no  odor  of  oil  of  turpentine  is  evolved;  and 
when  all  of  the  volatile  oil  has  been  driven  off,  a  hard  and  brittle  resin  remains, 
weighing  not  less  than  36  per  cent,  of  the  original  weight  of  the  Copaiba  taken 
{paraffin  or  fatty  oils). 

To  about  1  Gm.  of  Copaiba,  accurately  weighed,  add  50  mils  of  alcohol, 
and  1  mil  of  phenolphthalein  T.S.,  then  titrate  the  solution  with  half-normal 
potassium  hydroxide  V.S.  It  shows  an  acid  value  of  not  less  than  28  nor  more 
than  95. 

Dissolve  3  or  4  drops  of  the  volatile  oil  separated  from  Copaiba  by  distilla- 
tion with  steam,  in  3  mils  of  glacial  acetic  acid,  mix  the  solution  with  1  drop  of 
a  freshly  prepared  aqueous  solution  of  sodium  nitrite  (1  in  10),  and  carefully 
underlay  this  with  2  mils  of  sulphuric  acid.  The  acetic  layer  is  not  colored  pink 
{gurjun  balsam). 

Shake  5  mils  of  Copaiba  with  15  mils  of  alcohol  and  then  heat  the  mixture  to 
boiling  for  one  minute;  no  oil  separates  after  cooUng  and  allowing  it  to  stand  for 
one  hour  {paraffin  oils). 

The  volatile  oil  separated  from  Copaiba  by  distillation  with  steam  does  not 
boil  below  250°  C.  and  shows  an  angle  of  rotation  in  a  100  mm.  tube  of  not  less 
than  —7°  at  25°  C.  {African  Copaiba). 

Average  dose — Metric,  1  mil — Apothecaries,  15  minims. 

CORIANDRUM 

Coriander 

Coriand. — Coriander  Seed 
The  dried  ripe  fruit   of  Coriandrum  sativum  Linnd  (Fam.  Umbelli- 
ferce),  without  the  presence  or  admixture  of  more  than  5  per  cent,  of 
other  fruits,  seeds,  or  foreign  matter. 


124  THE  PHARMACOPCEIA   OF  THE 

Mericarps  usually  coherent;  cremocarp  nearly  globular,  from  3  to  5  mm.  in 
diameter;  externally  light  brown  or  rose  colored;  summit  with  5  calyx  teeth  and 
a  short  stylopodium,  each  mericarp  with  5  prominent,  straight,  longitudinal, 
primary  ribs  and  4  indistinct,  undulate  secondary  ribs;  mericarps  easily  separ- 
ated, deeply  concave  on  the  inner  or  commissural  surface  and  showing  in  trans- 
verse section  2  viitai  (oil  tubes)  on  the  inner  surface  of  each. 

Under  the  microscope,  sections  of  Coriander  show  an  epidermis  of  small  cells 
with  thick  walls;  a  layer  of  several  rows  of  thin-walled  more  or  less  collapsed 
parenclnTiia  separated  from  a  broad  zone  of  strongly  hgnified,  sclerenchyraatous 
fibers  wliich  extend  as  a  continuous  ring  in  the  mesocarp  of  each  of  the  mericarps; 
2  or  3  layers  of  large,  tangentially  elongated,  thin-walled  parenchyma  cells, 
frequently  -with  numerous  large  lysigenous  intercellular  spaces;  inner  epidermis 
of  large  tabular  cells,  the  inner  yellowish  walls  being  considerably  thickened 
and  closely  coherent  to  the  brownish  cells  of  the  seed-coat;  commissural  surface 
with  2  large,  elliptical  vittge;  the  cells  of  the  pericarp  separated  from  the  seed- 
coat  and  forming  a  large  elliptical  cavity;  endosperm  distinctly  reniform  in 
outline  and  consisting  of  tabular  or  polygonal  thick-walled  cells  containing 
numerous  large  aleurone  grains  each  with  a  rosette  aggregate  or  prism  of  calcium 
oxalate. 

The  powder  is  light  brown,  consisting  chiefly  of  fragments  of  endosperm  and 
Hgnified  tissues  of  the  pericarp;  calcium  oxalate  crystals  numerous,  from  0.003 
to  0.01  mm.  in  diameter,  mostly  in  rosette  aggregates,  either  isolated  or  in 
aleurone  grains;  sclerenchymatous  fibers  irregularly  curved,  having  thick, 
yellowish,  lignified  walls  and  numerous  simple  pores;  numerous  globules  of  fixed 
oil;  fragments  of  light  yellow  vittaj  few,  associated  with  elongated  polygonal 
epidermal  cells. 

Coriander  yields  not  less  than  0.5  per  cent,  of  volatile  extractive,  soluble  in 
ether  (see  Part  II,  Test  No.  12), 

Coriander  yields  not  more  than  7  per  cent,  of  ash. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.5  Gm. — Apothecaries,  8  grains. 


COTARNIN^  HYDROCHLORIDUM 

Cotamine  Hydrochloride 

Cotarn.  Hydrochl.— Cotamine  Chloride 

Quartemary  oxymethyl-oxymethylene-dihydro-isoquinoUne  chloride 
[C12H14O3NCI  or  (CH3O)  (CH202).C9H6N  (CH3)C1  =  255.58]  obtamed 
by  hydrolyzing  narcotine,  and  treating  the  resulting  cotamine  [(CH3O) 
(CH202)C8H5(CH0).NH(CH3)]  with  hydrochloric  acid. 

Cotamine  Hydrochloride  occurs  as  a  yellow,  crj'stalline  powder;  odorless  and 
deliquescent  in  moist  air. 

It  is  very  soluble  in  water  and  alcohol,  yielding  yellow  solutions. 

Its  aqueous  solution  (1  in  20)  is  neutral  to  htmus. 

•Silver  nitrate  T.S.  when  added  to  an  aqueous  solution  of  Cotarninc  Hydro- 
chloride produces  a  white  precipitate  insoluble  in  nitric  acid.  About  0.2  Gm. 
of  Cotamine  Hydrochloride,  dissolved  in  10  mils  of  distilled  water,  yields  a 
brown  precipitate  of  cotamine  periodide  on  the  addition  of  10  mils  of  tenth- 
normal iodine  V.S.  When  this  precipitate  is  collected  on  a  filter  and  dried  to 
constant  weight  over  sulphuric  acid,  it  melts  between  142°  C.  and  144°  C. 

Heat  gradually  0.1  Gm.  of  Cotarnine  Hydrochloride  over  a  Bunsen  burner; 
it  is  decomposed,  evolving  characteristic,  disagreeable  vapors  and  yielding  a 


UNITED   STATES   OF   AMERICA  125 

reddish-lirown  liquid,  which  gradually  changes  to  a  hard  charred   mass.     No 
weighable  ash  remains  on  the  incineration  of  this  mass. 

Dissolve  about  0.5  Gm.  of  Cotarnine  Hydroclilorido  in  10  mils  of  distilled 
water  and  add  2  mils  of  an  aqueous  solution  of  sodium  hydroxide  (15  per  cent.). 
A  milk-white  precipitate  is  produced  which  dissolves  on  agitation,  hut  is  ropre- 
cipitated  from  the  .solution  after  standing  for  some  time,  leaving  the  supernatant 
Liquid  clear  and  but  faintly  yellow. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.06  Gm. — Apothecaries,  1  grain. 


CREOSOTI  CARBONAS 

Creosote  Carbonate 
Creosot.  Carb. 

A  mixture  of  the  carbonates  of  various  constituents  of  creosote,  chiefly 
guaiacol  and  creosol. 

Creosote  Carbonate  is  a  clear,  colorless  or  yellowish,  viscid  liquid,  odorless, 
and  tasteless,  or  having  a  slight  odor  and  taste  of  creosote.  On  prolonged  ex- 
posure to  a  low  temperature,  crystals  of  guaiacol  carbonate  separate,  which 
redissolve  on  warming. 

Creosote  Carbonate  is  insoluble  in  water  and  freely  soluble  in  alcohol,  soluble 
in  petroleum  benzin  or  fixed  oils;  it  is  miscible  with  chloroform  or  benzene. 

Specific  gravity:    1.145  to  1.170  at  25°  C. 

Heat  about  0.5  mil  of  Creosote  Carbonate  for  a  few  minutes  with  10  mils  of 
alcoholic  potassium  hydroxide  T.S.,  and  cool  the  mixture;  a  crystalline  precipi- 
tate forms,  which  effervesces  with  acids. 

Incinerate  about  1  Gm.  of  Creosote  Carbonate;  not  more  than  0.1  per  cent, 
of  ash  remains. 

A  saturated  alcoholic  solution  of  Creosote  Carbonate  is  neutral  to  moistened 
litmus  paper,  and  acquires  only  a  yellow  color  on  the  addition  of  ferric  chloride 
T.S.  {creosote). 

Heat  25  mils  of  Creosote  Carbonate  on  a  water  bath  for  half  an  hour  with 
a  solution  of  15  Gm.  of  potassium  hydroxide  in  100  mils  of  alcohol,  then  evapo- 
rate the  alcohol  and  mix  the  residue  with  an  exce.ssof  hydrochloric  acid;  a  liquid 
composed  of  two  layers  is  obtained.  On  now  separating  the  dark  layer  of  creo- 
sote and  shaking  it  with  successive  portions  of  10  mils  each  of  distilled  water 
until  the  washings  are  only  slightly  acid  to  litmus,  it  has  the  boiling  point  given 
under  Creosotum;  the  distillate,  after  separation  of  adhering  water,  responds  to 
the  remaining  tests  of  identity  and  purity  under  Creosolum. 

Average  dose — Metric,  1  Gm. — Apothecaries,  15  grains. 


CREOSOTUM 

Creosote 

Creosot.— Creasote 
A  mixture  of  phenols  and  phenol  derivatives,  chiefly  guaiacol  and 
creosol,  obtained  during  the  distillation  of  wood-tar.     Preserve  it  in 
tightly-stoppered,  dark  amber-colored  bottles. 


126  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA   OF  THE 

Creosote  is  an  almost  colorless  or  yellowish,  highly  refractive,  oily  liquid, 
having  a  penetrating,  smoky  odor,  and  a  burning,  caustic  taste;  it  does  not 
readily  become  brown  on  exposure  to  light. 

Creosote  is  slightly  soluble  in  water;  it  is  miscible  with  alcohol,  ether,  or 
fixed  or  volatile  oils. 

It  is  neutral  or  faintly  acid  to  litmus. 

Specific  gravity:    not  below  1.073  at  25°  C. 

It  begins  to  distil  between  195°  and  200°  C.  and  not  less  than  80  per  cent,  by 
volume  distils  between  200°  and  220°  C. 

Creosote  is  inflammable,  burning  with  a  luminous,  smoky  flame. 

Add  1  drop  of  ferric  chloride  T.S.  to  10  mils  of  a  saturated  aqueous  solution 
of  Creosote;  the  liquid  develops  a  violet-blue  color,  which  is  very  transient; 
it  then  clouds  almost  instantly,  the  color  passing  rapidly  from  a  grayish-green 
to  a  muddy  brown,  with  finally  the  formation  of  a  brown  precipitate. 

Mix  equal  volumes  of  Creosote  and  collodion  in  a  dry  test  tube;  no  permanent 
coagulum  is  produced  {-phenol  and  so-called  "coal-tar  creosote"). 

Mix  4  mils  of  Creosote  and  4  mils  of  glycerin,  then  add  1  mil  of  water,  shake 
the  mixture  gently,  and  allow  it  to  stand.  A  creosotic  layer  separates  equal  to 
or  greater  in  volume  than  the  Creosote  taken  {coal-tar  creosote) . 

Two  mils  of  Creosote  requires  not  less  than  10  mils  nor  more  than  18  mils 
of  normal  sodium  hydroxide  V.S.  to  produce  a  clear  liquid.  This  liquid  remains 
unclouded  on  diluting  with  50  mils  of  distilled  water  {hydrocarbons  and  bases). 

Shake  gently  1  mil  of  Creosote  with  2  mils  of  petroleum  benzin  and  2  mils 
of  freshly  prepared  barium  hydroxide  T.S.,  until  a  uniform  mixture  is  produced. 
Upon  complete  separation  three  distinct  layers  are  visible;  a  middle  layer  con- 
taining the  Creosote,  a  benzin  laj'er  which  is  neither  blue  nor  muddy,  and  an 
aqueous  layer  which  does  not  acquire  a  red  tint  {ccerulignol  and  some  other  high- 
boiling  constituents  of  wood-tar) . 

Preparation — Aqua  Creosoti. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.25  mil — Apothecaries,  A  minims. 


CRESOL 

Cresol 

A  mixture  of  isomeric  cresols  [CtHsO  or  C6H4.CH3.OH  =  108.06] 
obtained  from  coal  tar.  Preserve  it  in  well-closed  containers  protected 
from  light. 

Cresol  occurs  as  a  colorless  or  yellowish  to  brown-yellow,  highly  refractive 
liquid,  becoming  darker  or  assuming  a  reddish  tint  viith  age  and  on  exposure  to 
light,  and  having  a  phenol-like,  sometimes  empyreumatic  odor. 

One  mil  of  Cresol  dissolves  in  about  50  mils  of  water,  usually  forming  a  cloudy 
solution;  it  is  miscible  with  alcohol,  ether,  benzene,  petroleum  benzin,  or 
glycerin;  it  is  dissolved  by  solutions  of  the  fixed  alkali  hydroxides. 

Specific  gravity:    1.030  to  1.038  at  25°  C. 

Not  less  than  90  per  cent,  by  volume  of  Cresol  distils  between  195°  and  205°  C. 

A  saturated  aqueous  solution  of  Cresol  is  neutral  or  slightly  acid  to  litmus, 
and  becomes  blue-violet  on  the  addition  of  ferric  chloride  T.S. 

A  solution  of  1  mil  of  Cresol  in  60  mils  of  water  is  not  more  than  slightly 
turbid  {hydrocarbons). 

Preparation — Liquor  Cresolis  Compositus. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.05  mil — Apothecaries,  1  minim. 


UNITED   STATES    OF   AMERICA  127 

CRETA  PR/EPARATA 

Prepared  Chalk 

Cret.  Prsep.— Drop  Chalk 

A  native  form  of  calcium  carbonate  freed  from  most  of  its  impurities  by 
elutriation  and  containing,  when  dried  to  constant  weight  at  200°  C,  not 
less  than  97  per  cent,  of  CaCOg  (100.07). 

Prepared  Chalk  occurs  as  a  white  to  grayish-white,  very  fine,  amorphous 
powder,  often  formed  into  "conical  drops";  odorless  and  tasteless;  permanent  in 
the  air. 

Prepared  Chalk  is  almost  insoluble  in  water;  insoluble  in  alcohol;  decomposed 
and  dissolved  by  diluted  acetic,  hydrochloric,  or  nitric  acid,  with  copious  effer- 
vescence. When  a  weighed  amount  of  Prepared  Chalk  is  dissolved  in  diluted 
hydrochloric  acid  not  more  than  2  per  cent,  of  residue  remains. 

Dissolve  about  0.1  Gm.  of  Prepared  Chalk  in  5  mils  of  diluted  acetic  acid  and 
filter  the  solution;  the  addition  of  ammonium  oxalate  T.S.  to  the  filtrate  yields 
a  white  precipitate,  insoluble  in  acetic  acid  but  soluble  in  hydrochloric  acid. 

When  heated  to  full  redness.  Prepared  Chalk  gradually  loses  carbon  dioxide 
and  is  converted  into  calcium  oxide. 

Assay — Proceed  as  directed  under  Calcii  Carbonas  Proecipiiatus.  It  shows, 
in  the  dried  salt,  not  less  than  97  per  cent,  of  CaCOs. 

Each  gramme  of  dried  Prepared  Chalk  corresponds  to  not  less  than  193.9 
mils  of  tenth-normal  oxalic  acid  V.S. 

Preparations — Mistura    Cretae    (from    Compound    Powder)         Pulvis    Cretae 
Compositus. 

Average  dose — Metric,  1  Gm. — Apothecaries,  15  grains. 


CUBEBA 

Cubeb 

Cubeb.— Cubebs 

The  dried,  full-growm,  unripe  fruits  of  Piper  Cubeha  Linne  filius  (Fam. 
Piperacece),  without  the  presence  or  admixture  of  more  than  5  per  cent, 
of  stems  or  other  foreign  matter. 

Upper  portion  globular,  from  3  to  6  mm.  in  diameter,  with  a  straight,  slender 
stem-like  portion,  from  5  to  7  mm.  in  length;  pericarp  externally  grayish,  brownish, 
or  bluish-black;  coarsely  reticulate;  about  0.3  mm.  in  thickness,  easily  cut, 
1-locular,  1-seeded;  the  immature  seed  attached  at  the  base  of  the  pericarp; 
odor  aromatic,  characteristic;  taste  strongly  aromatic  and  pungent. 

Under  the  microscope,  sections  of  Cubeb  show  an  epidermal  layer  of  tabular 
cells  with  thickened,  undulate  outer  walls,  the  contents  being  olive-green;  1  or  2 
rows  of  parenchyma  cells,  the  contents  resem.bling  those  of  the  epidermal  cells; 
a  continuous  layer  of  radiately  elongated,  thick-walled  stone  cells  having  numer- 
ous pores;  a  few  layers  of  collapsed  cells  n^ar  which  may  occur  an  occasional 
small  group  of  bast-fibers;  a  middle  layer  of  10  rows  of  cells  composed  chiefly 
of  parenchyma,  scattered  among  which  are  numerous  secretion  cells  containing 
a  volatile  oil  and  occasionally  crystals  in  the  form  of  short  rods,  the  contents  of 
the  secretion  cells  being  colored  a  deep  crimson  upon  the  addition  of  sulphuric 
acid;  an  endocaxp  of  small,  somewhat  isodiametric  or  polygonal  stone  cells  with 


128  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA   OF  THE 

very  thick  porous  walls;  seed-coat  of  several  rows  of  reddish-brown,  tangentially 
elongated,  more  or  less  collapsed  cells;  perisperm  of  numerous  thin-walled  paren- 
chyma, the  cells  being'more  or  less  polygonal  in  shape  and  containing  either  small 
compound  starch  grains,  or  globules  of  a  fixed  oil  or  occasionally  a  crystal  of 
calcium  oxalate. 

The  powder  is  light  brown  to  blackish-browTi,  consisting  of  a  more  or  less  even 
distribution  of  starch-bearing  cells  of  the  perisperm  and  fragments  of  the  peri- 
carp with  stone  cells;  starch  grains  numerous,  single  or  compound,  from  0.002 
to  0.012  mm.  in  diameter;  stone  cells  numerous  in  palisade-like  groups,  in  surface 
view  rounded  or  polygonal  with  rather  prominent  dark  lumina  and  yellowish 
porous  walls;  secretion  cells  with  a  yellowish,  oily  content,  becoming  reddish 
on  the  addition  of  sulphuric  acid;  fragments  of  stalk  few,  with  spiral  tracheae 
and  groups  of  sclerenchymatous  fibers  from  0.05  to  1  mm.  in  length  with  blunt, 
rounded,  or  very  much  attenuated  ends,  the  walls  strongly  lignified  and  with 
numerous  oblique  pores. 

Cubeb  yields  not  less  than  10  per  cent,  of  volatile  extractive,  soluble  in  ether 
(see  Part  II,  Test  No.  12). 

Cubeb  yields  not  more  than  8  per  cent,  of  ash. 

Preparations — Oleoresina  Cubebse       Trochisci  Cubebae  (from  Oleoresin). 
Average  dose — Metric,  1  Gm. — Apothecaries,  15  grains. 


CUPRI  SULPHAS 

Copper  Sulphate 

Cupr.  Sulph. — Cupric  Sulphate 

It  contains  not  less  than  62.97  per  cent,  nor  more  than  66.79  per  cent. 
of  anhydrous  copper  sulphate,  corresponding  to  not  less  than  98.5  per 
cent,  of  the  crystaUized  salt  [CuS044-5H20  =  249.72].  Preserve  it  in 
well-closed  containers. 

Copper  Sulphate  occurs  as  deep  blue,  triclinic  crystals  or  as  a  blue,  granular 
powder;  odorless,  of  a  nauseous,  metallic  taste;  slowly  efflorescent  in  dry  air. 

One  Gm.  of  Copper  Sulphate  dissolves  in  2.5  mils  of  water,  500  mils  of  alcohol, 
and  in  2.8  mils  of  glycerin  at  25°  C;  also  in  0.5  mil  of  boiling  water. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  20)  has  a  blue  color,  and  is  acid  to  litmus. 

When  heated  to  30°  C.  the  salt  loses  part  of  its  water  of  crystallization  and  is 
converted  into  a  pale  blue,  amorphous  powder.  More  water  is  lost  at  100°  C. 
and  finally  at  200°  C.  a  white,  anhydrous  powder  remains.  At  a  still  higher 
temperature,  sulphur  dioxide  and  oxygen  are  given  off,  and  a  residue  of  black 
cupric  oxide  remains. 

Place  a  drop  of  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  20)  on  a  bright  piece  of 
iron;  a  red  film  of  metallic  copper  is  deposited. 

Barium  chloride  T.S.  produces  a  white  precipitate,  insoluble  in  hydrochloric 
acid,  in  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  10). 

Add  ammonia  water  to  an  aqueous  solution  of  Copper  Sulphate  (1  in  10), 
drop  by  drop;  a  pale  blue  precipitate  of  cupric  hydroxide  forms,  which  redis- 
solves  in  an  excess  of  ammonia  water,  producing  a  deep  azure-blue  solution. 

Dissolve  1  Gm.  of  the  salt  in  50  mils  of  distilled  water,  add  1  mil  of  diluted 
hydrochloric  acid  and  pass  hydrogen  sulphide  gas  through  the  solution  until 
all  of  the  copper  is  precipitated.  Upon  evaporating  the  filtrate  and  igniting, 
the  weight  of  the  residue  does  not  exceed  0.003  Gm.  {other  metals). 

Assay — Dissolve  about  1  Gm.  of  Copper  Sulphate,  accurately  weighed,  in 
50  mils  of  distilled  water  and  add  4  mils  of  acetic  acid  and  3  Gm.  of  potas- 
sium iodide  and  titrate  the  liberated  iodine  with  tenth-normal  sodium  thio- 


UNITED   STATES   OF  AMERICA  129 

sulphate  V.S.,  starch  T.S.  being  used  as  indicalor.  .It  shows  not  less  than  62.97 
per  cent,  nor  more  than  66.79  per  cent,  of  CUSO4. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  sodium  thiosulphate  V.S.  used  corresponds  to 
0.015964  Gm.  of  CUSO4.  Each  gramme  of  Copper  Suljjhate  corresponds  to 
not  less  than  39.44  mils  nor  more  than  41.83  mils  of  tenth-normal  sodium 
thiosulphate  V.S. 

Average  dose — Metric,    0.25    Gm. — Apothecaries,    4    grains, 
as  an  emetic. 

DECOCTA 

Decoctions 

Decoctions  must  he  freshly  made  from  the  drugs,  and,  when  the  strength 
of  decoctions  is  not  otherwise  directed,  they  are  to  be  prepared  by  the 
following  general  formula: 

The  Drug,  coarsely  comminuted,  ffty  grammes 50  Gm. 

Water,  a  sufficient  quantity, 

To  make  one  thousand  milliliters 1000  mils 

Introduce  the  drug  into  a  suitable  vessel  provided  with  a  cover, 
pour  upon  it  one  thousand  mils  of  cold  water,  cover  it  well,  and  boil 
for  fifteen  minutes.  Then  allow  it  to  cool  to  about  40°  C,  express, 
strain  the  expressed  liquid,  and  pass  enough  cold  water  through  the 
strainer  to  make  the  product  measure  one  thousand  mils. 

Caution — The  strength  of  decoctions  of  energetic  or  powerful  sub- 
stances should  be  specially  directed  by  the  physician. 

DIACETYLMORPHINA 

Diacetylmorpliine 
Diacetylmorph. 

An  alkaloid  [C21H23O5N  or  Ci7Hi7(0.C2H30)20N  =  369.19]  prepared 
from  morphine  by  acetylization.  Preserve  it  in  well-closed  containers, 
protected  from  light. 

Diacetylmorphine  occurs  as  a  white,  crystalline  powder  without  odor. 

One  Gm.  of  Diacetylmorphine  dissolves  in  about  1700  mils  of  water,  31  mils 
of  alcohol,  1.4  mils  of  chloroform,  and  in  100  mils  of  ether  at  25°  C. 

Its  saturated  alcoholic  solution  is  alkaline  to  moistened  litmus  paper. 

It  melts  between  171.5°  and  173.5°  C. 

Dissolve  about  0.01  Gm.  of  Diacetj-lmorphine  in  a  few  drops  of  nitric  acid; 
a  yellow  color  is  produced,  which  gradually  changes  to  greenish-blue.  Heat 
about  0.1  Gm.  of  Diacetylmorphine  with  1  mil  of  alcohol  and  1  mil  of  sulphuric 
acid;  ethyl  acetate  is  produced,  recognizable  by  its  odor. 

No  weighable  ash  remains  on  incinerating  0.5  Gm.  of  Diacetj'lmorphine. 

Dissolve  0.2  Gm.  of  Diacetylmorphine  in  5  mils  of  distilleci  water  with 
the  aid  of  a  few  drops  of  hydrochloric  acid,  and  pour  this  solution  slowly 
into  5  mils  of  potassium  hydroxide  T.S.,  shaking  the  test  tube  occasionally; 
14 


130  THE  PHARMACOPCEIA  OF  THE 

a  white  precipitate  forms,  which  quickly  redissolves,  yielding  a  clear  solution 
(other  alkaloids).  On  heating  this  solution  no  odor  of  ammonia  is  noticeable 
(flmmonium  salts). 

A  solution  of  about  0.02  Gm.  of  Diacetylmorphine  in  2  mils  of  sulphuric  acid 
is  colorless  {readily  carbonizable  organic  impurities). 

Dissolve  about  0.05  Gm.  of  potassium  ferricyanide  in  10  mils  of  distilled  water, 
add  one  drop  of  ferric  chloride  T.S.  and  then  1  mil  of  an  alcoholic  solution  of 
Diacetylmorphine  (1  in  100);  no  greenish  or  blue  color  is  produced  at  once 
(morphine). 

Dissolve  1  Gm.  of  Diacetylmorphine  in  10  mils  of  distilled  water  and  5  mils 
of  diluted  hydrochloric  acid  in  a  porcelain  dish  and  evaporate  the  solution  on  a 
water  bath  to  a  syrupy  consistence  (about  2  mils).  Transfer  this  residue  to  a 
eeparatory  funnel  with  the  aid  of  25  mils  of  distilled  water,  render  it  alkaline 
with  sodium  hydroxide  solution  (10  per  cent.)  and  then  shake  it  out  with  3  suc- 
cessive portions  of  15,  10  and  5  mils  of  chloroform,  passing  the  chloroform  solu- 
tions through  a  small  filter  previously  moistened  with  chloroform.  Carefully 
evaporate  the  combined  chloroform  solutions  to  dryness  on  a  water  bath,  dis- 
solve the  residue  in  10  mils  of  fiftieth-normal  sulphuric  acid  V.S.,  add  a  few 
drops  of  methyl  red  T.S.  and  titrate  the  excess  of  acid  with  fiftieth-normal 
potassium  hydroxide  V.S.  Not  less  than  7.5  mils  of  the  latter  is  required  (Joreign 
alkaloids). 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.003  Gm. — Apothecaries,  3'^o  grain. 


DIACETYLMORPHINvE  HYDROCHLORIDUM 

Diacetylmorphine  Hydrochloride 

Diacetylmorph.  Hydrochl. — Diacetylmorphine  Chloride 

The  hydrochloride  [C21H23O5N.HCI+H2O  or  Ci7Hi7(0.C2H30)20N. 
HCl-f-H20  =  423.68]  of  the  alkaloid  diacetylmorphine.  Preserve  it  in 
well-closed  containers,  protected  from  light. 

Diacetylmorphine  Hydrochloride  is  a  white,  crystalline  powder  without  odor. 

One  Gm.  of  Diacetylmorphine  Hydrochloride  dissolves  in  2  mils  of  water  at 
25°  C;  soluble  in  alcohol;  insoluble  in  chloroform  or  ether  at  25°  C. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  Diacetylmorphine  Hydrochloride  (1  in  20)  is  neutral 
or  only  faintly  acid  to  litmus. 

It  melts  at  about  230°  C.  with  decomposition. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  with  silver  nitrate  T.S.  yields  a  white  precipi- 
tate insoluble  in  nitric  acid. 

In  other  respects  the  salt  responds  to  the  tests  for  identity  and  purity  under 
Diacetylmorphina,  omitting  the  melting  point. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.003  Gm. — Apothecaries,  ^'^o  grain. 


DIASTASUM 

Diastase 

A  mixture  containing  amylolytic  enzymes  obtained  from  an  infusion 
of  malt.  It  converts  not  less  than  50  times  its  weight  of  potato  starch 
into  sugars^  Preserve  it  in  well-closed  containers,  protected  from  light, 
heat  and  moisture. 


UNITED  STATES  OF  AMERICA  131 

Diastase  occurs  as  a  yellowish-white,  amorphous  powder  or  in  translucent 
scales;  odorless  and  tasteless.    It  converts  starch  into  dextrin  and  maltose. 

Diastase  gradually  loses  its  amylolytic  power  on  keeping;  this  power  is  de- 
stroyed by  heating  its  solutions  above  85°  C.  or  by  the  addition  of  much  acid 
and  is  diminished  by  the  presence  of  acids  or  alkalies. 

Diastase  is  soluble  in  water,  the  solutions  being  more  or  less  turbid;  almost 
insoluble  in  alcohol. 

Assay — Mix  a  quantity  of  potato  starch,  purified  as  directed  under  Pan- 
creatinuni,  equivalent  to  5  Gm.  of  dry  starch,  in  a  beaker  with  10  mils  of  cold 
distilled  water.  Add  140  mils  of  boiling  distilled  water,  and  heat  the  mixture 
on  a  water  bath  with  constant  stirring  for  two  minutes,  or  until  a  translucent, 
uniform  paste  is  obtained.  Cool  the  paste  to  40°  C  in  a  water  bath  previously 
adjusted  to  this  temperature.  Prepare  a  fresh  solution  of  0.1  Gm.  of  Diastase  in 
10  mils  of  distilled  water  at  40°  C.  and  add  it  to  the  pa.ste.  Mix  them  well  and 
maintain  the  same  temperature  for  exactly  thirty  minutes,  stirring  frequently; 
a  thin,  nearly  clear  liquid  is  produced.  Add  at  once  0.1  mil  of  this  liquid  toa 
previously  made  mixture  of  0.2  mil  of  tenth-normal  iodine  V.S.  and  60  mils 
of  distilled  water;  no  blue  or  reddish  color  is  produced. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.5  Gm. — Apothecaries,  8  grains. 


DIGITALIS 

Digitalis 

Digit. — ^Foxglove    Digitalis  folium  P.  I. 

The  carefully  dried  leaves  of  Digitalis  purpurea  Lirm^  (Fam.  Scrophu- 
lariacece),  without  the  presence  or  admixture  of  more  than  2  per  cent,  of 
stems,  flowers  or  other  foreign  matter.  If  made  into  the  official  tincture 
and  assayed  biologically  the  minimum  lethal  dose  should  not  be  greater 
than  0.006  mil  of  tincture,  or  the  equivalent  in  tincture  of  0.0000005 
Gm.  of  ouabain,  for  each  gramme  of  body  weight  of  frog.  Digitalis 
should  be  preserved  in  tightly-closed  containers  protected  from  light. 

Leaves,  when  entire,  attaining  a  length  of  30  cm.  and  a  breadth  of  15  cm., 
ovate  to  oval,  abruptly  contracted  into  winged  petioles,  the  latter  from  5  to 
10  cm.  in  length  or,  in  the  smaller  leaves,  nearly  absent;  margin  crenate,  irreg- 
ular (the  commercial  article  usually  more  or  less  crumpled  and  broken),  thin, 
dull,  pale  green  or  gray  and  densely  pubescent  on  the  lower  surfaces;  upper 
surfaces  wrinkled,  sparsely  hairy;  the  venation  conspicuously  reticulated;  the 
midribs  and  principal  veins  broad  and  flat,  often  purplish,  the  lower  veins 
continued  into  the  wings  of  the  petioles;  odor  slight,  characteristic;  taste  strongly 
bitter. 

The  powder  is  dark  green;  with  numerous  fragments  of  non-glandular  hairs 
consisting  of  from  2-  to  8-cells  (usually  2-  to  5-celIs),  varying  in  length  from 
0.145  to  0.435  mm.,  some  of  the  cells  being  frequently  collapsed;  glandular 
hairs  few,  small,  with  a  1-  or  2-celled  stalk  and  a  1-  or  2-celled  glandular  head; 
numerous  irregular  fragments  of  lamina  showing  stomata  and  occasional  water- 
pores  and  elongated  fragments  of  veins  and  petioles  showing  fibro-vascular 
tissues. 

DigitaUs  yields  not  more  than  15  per  cent,  of  ash. 

Assay — For  a  method  of  assaying  Digitalis  see  Biological  Assays  (Part  II). 

Preparations — Fluidextractum  Digitalis    Infusum  Digitalis    Tinctura  Digitalis. 
Average  dose — Metric,  0.06  Gm. — Apothecaries,  1  grain. 


132  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA    OF   THE 

ELATERINUM 

Elaterin 

Elaterin.  . 

A  principle  obtained  from  elaterium,  a  substance  deposited  by  the 
juice  of  the  fruit  of  Ecballium  Elaterium  (Linne)  A.  Richard  (Fam. 
Cucurbitacece) . 

Elaterin  occurs  in  minute,  white,  hexagonal  scales  or  prismatic  crystals;  odor- 
less, and  having  a  slightly  acrid,  bitter  taste;  permanent  in  the  air. 

One  Gm.  of  Elaterin  dissolves  in  325  mils  of  alcohol,  15.5  mils  of  chloroform, 
450  mils  of  ether,  and  in  310  mils  of  benzene  at  25°  C;  also  in  100  mils  of  boiling 
alcohol ;  it  is  insoluble  in  either  cold  or  hot  water. 

Its  alcoholic  solution  is  neutral  to  moistened  litmus  paper. 

Mix  about  0.01  Gm.  of  Elaterin  with  1  mil  of  sulphuric  acid;  only  a  yellow 
color  is  produced  {readily  carbonizahle  impurities).  On  the  addition  of  a  drop  of 
solution  of  formaldehyde  the  mixture  becomes  brown. 

A  solution  of  about  0.01  Gm.  of  Elaterin  in  5  mils  of  melted  phenol  becomes 
crimson  on  the  addition  of  a  few  drops  of  sulphuric  acid  and  rapidlj-  changes  to 
scarlet. 

No  weighable  ash  remains  on  incinerating  0.1  Gm.  of  Elaterin. 

Shake  about  0.1  Gm.  of  Elaterin  with  a  mixture  of  9  mils  of  distilled  water  and 
1  mil  of  diluted  hydrochloric  acid  and  filter;  separate  portions  of  the  filtrate 
yield  no  turbidity  with  0.5  mil  of  mercuric  potassium  iodide  T.S.  or  with  iodine 
T.S.  (alkalouh). 

Preparation — Trituratio  Elaterini, 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.003  Gm. — Apothecaries,  3'^o  grain. 


ELIXIR  AROMATICUM 

Aromatic  Elixir 

Elix.  Arom. — Simple  Elixir 

Compound  Spirit  of  Orange,  twelve  milliliters 12  mils 

Syrup,  three  hundred  and  seventy-five  milliliters 375  mils 

Purified  Talc,  thirty  grammes 30  Gm. 

Alcohol, 

Distilled  Water,  each,  a  sufficient  quantity,  

To  make  one  thousand  milliliters 1000  mils 

To  the  compound  spirit  of  orange,  add  enough  alcohol  to  make  two 
hundred  and  fifty  mils.  To  this  solution,  add  the  syrup  in  several  por- 
tions, agitating  after  each  addition,  and  afterwards  add,  in  the  same 
manner,  three  hundred  and  seventy-five  mils  of  distilled  water.  Mix 
the  purified  talc  intimately  with  the  liquid,  and  then  filter  through  a 
wetted  filter,  returning  the  first  portions  of  the  filtrate  until  a  trans- 
parent liquid  is  obtained.  Lastly,  wash  the  filter  with  a  mixture  of 
one  volume  of  alcohol  and  three  volumes  of  distilled  water,  until  the  prod- 
uct measures  one  thousand  mils. 


UNITED   STATES    OF   AMERICA  133 

ELIXIR  GLYCYRRIIIZ^ 

Elixir  of  Glycyrrhiza 

Elix.  Glycyrrh.— Elixir  Adjuvans,  U.S.P.  VIII        Elixir  of  Licorice 

Fluidextract  of  Glycyrrhiza,  one  hundred  and  twenty- 
five  milliliters 125  mils 

Aromatic  Elixir,  eight  hundred  and  seventy-five  milliliters.     875  mils 

To  make  one  thousand  milliliters 1000  mils 

Mix  and  filter. 


EMETINE  HYDROCHLORIDUM 

Emetine  Hydrochloride 
Emet.  Hydrochl. 

The  hydrochloride  [C3oH4404N2.2HCl  =  569.31]  of  the  alkaloid  eme- 
tine, obtained  from  ipecac.  It  contains  variable  amounts  of  water  of 
crystallization.  Preserve  it  in  dark  amber-colored  vials  protected  from 
light. 

Emetine  Hydrochloride  occurs  as  a  white  or  very  slightly  yellowish  crj'stal- 
line  powder,  without  odor.     On  exposure  to  light  it  gradually  darkens. 

Emetine  Hydrochloride  is  freely  soluble  in  water  or  alcohol. 

Its  aqueous  solution  (1  in  20)  is  slightly  acid  to  litmus. 

Separate  portions  of  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  100)  yield  pre- 
cipitates with  iodine  T.S.,  mercuric  potassium  iodide  T.S.,  and  with  platinic 
chloride  T.S. 

Sulphuric  acid,  containing  in  each  mil  about  0.005  Gm.  of  molybdic  acid, 
when  added  to  Emetine  Hydrochloride  produces  a  bright  green  color. 

Silver  nitrate  T.S.  produces  in  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  20)  a 
white  precipitate  insoluble  in  nitric  acid. 

Dried  to  constant  weight  at  100°  C,  it  loses  not  more  than  19  per  cent,  of 
its  weight. 

No  weighable  ash  remains  on  incinerating  0.2  Gm.  of  Emetine  Hydrochloride. 

One-tenth  of  1  Gm.  of  the  salt  dissolves  in  2  mils  of  sulphuric  acid  without 
producing  more  than  a  faintly  yellow  color  {readily  carbonizable  impurities). 

Dissolve  0.1  Gm.  of  Emetine  Hydrochloride  in  5  mils  of  distilled  water  in  a 
separatory  funnel,  add  to  the  solution  3  mils  of  sodium  hydroxide  T.S.  and  shake 
it  out  with  10  mil  portions  of  ether  until  the  residue  obtained  by  evaporating 
1  mil  of  the  ethereal  liquid,  when  dissolved  in  1  drop  of  diluted  hydrochloric 
acid  and  1  mil  of  distilled  water,  no  longer  j-ields  a  turbidity  with  iodine  T.S. 
Now  acidulate  the  aqueous  liquid  with  diluted  sulphm-ic  acid,  then  add 
ammonia  water  until  alkaline  and  shake  it  with  10  mils  of  ether.  Evaporate 
this  ethereal  liquid  and  add  to  the  residue  1  mil  of  sulphuric  acid  containing 
about  0.005  Gm.  of  molybdic  acid;  no  purple  color  is  produced  (cephaeline). 

Average  dose — Hypodermic,  ]\Ietric,  0.02  Gm. — Apothecaries, 
M  grain. 


134  THE   PHARMACOPEIA   OF  THE 

EMPLASTRUM  BELLADONNvE 

Belladonna  Plaster 
Emp.  Bellad. 

An  adhesive  plaster  containing  30  per  cent,  of  extract  of  belladonna 
leaves  and  j-ielding  not  less  than  0.25  per  cent,  nor  more  than  0.30  per 
cent,  of  the  alkaloids  from  belladonna  leaves. 

Assay — Introduce  10  Gm.  of  Belladonna  Plaster  into  a  100  mil  flask.  (If  the 
plaster  is  spread  on  fabric,  cut  the  portion  to  be  assayed  into  strips,  weigh  it  accu- 
rately, and  introduce  it  into  the  flask.)  Now  add  50  mils  of  chloroform,  and  shake 
the  mixture  until  the  plaster  is  dissolved.  Pour  the  chloroform  solution  into  a 
250  mil  beaker  and  wash  the  cloth  upon  wliich  the  plaster  was  spread  with  two 
portions  of  25  mils  each  of  chloroform,  adding  the  washings  to  the  chloroform 
solution  in  the  beaker.  Then  wash  this  cloth  vath  80  mils  of  alcohol  containing 
1  mil  of  ammonia  water  and  pour  the  washings  into  the  chloroform  solution  in  the 
beaker.  Stir  the  mixture  gently  and  allow  it  to  stand  until  the  rubber  has  sepa- 
rated into  a  compact  mass.  Dn^  the  cloth  upon  which  the  plaster  was  spread, 
weigh  it  and  subtract  its  weight  from  the  original  weight  of  the  plaster.  Pour  the 
chloroform-alcohol  solution  into  a  250  mil  separator,  rinse  the  beaker  and  rubber 
with  10  mds  of  alcohol  and  add  the  rinsing  to  the  separator.  Completely  extract 
the  alkaloids  from  the  chloroform-alcohol  solution  by  shaking  it  out  repeatedly 
with  weak  sulphuric  acid.  Collect  the  acid  washings  in  a  separator  and  add 
ammonia  water  until  the  solution  is  decidedly  alkahne  to  Utmus,  and  completely 
extract  the  alkaloids  by  shaking  out  repeatedly  with  chloroform.  rUter  the 
chloroform  solution  through  a  pledget  of  cotton,  evaporate  it  to  dryness  and  dis- 
solve the  alkaloids  from  the  residue  in  exactly  5  mils  of  tenth-normal  sulphuric 
acid  V.S.,  and  titrate  the  excess  of  acid  with  fiftieth-normal  potassium  hydroxide 
V.S.,  using  cochineal  T.S.  as  indicator  (see  Proximate  Assays,  Part  II). 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  sulphuric  acid  V.S.  consumed  corresponds  to  28.92 
milligrammes  of  the  alkaloids  from  belladonna  leaves. 


EMPLASTRUM  CANTHARIDIS 

Cantharides  Plaster 
Emp.  Can  than 

Cantharides  Cerate, 

Rosin  Plaster,  spread  on  fabric,  each,  a  sufficient  quantity. 

Spread  cantharides  cerate  upon  rosin  plaster,  leaving  a  margin  around 
the  edges.  It  may  also  be  spread  on  muslin,  paper,  or  other  suitable 
material.  This  Plaster  should  not  be  dispensed  unless  it  has  been  recently 
prepared. 

Each  square  centimeter  of  spread  plaster  contains  0.1  Gm.  of  cantharides 
cerate. 


UNITED   STATES   OF  AMERICA  llio 


EMPLASTRUM  CAPSICI 

Capsicum  Plaster 
Emp.  Capsic. 

Oleoresin  of  Capsicum, 

Rubber  Plaster,'  spread  on  fabric,  each,  a  sufficient  quantity. 

Apply  oleoresin  of  capsicum  to  the  surface  of  rul)ber  plaster  so  as  to 

form  a  thin,  even  coating,  leaving  a  margin  around  the  edges. 

Each  fifteen  square  centimeters  of  spread  plaster  contains  0.25  Gm.  of  oleoresin 
of  capsicum. 

EMPLASTRUM  ELASTICUiAI 

Rubber  Plaster 

Emp.  Elast. — Rubber  Adhesive  Plaster 

A  mixture  of  rubber,  resins  and  waxes,  with  a  filler  of  an  absorbent 
powder,  such  as  orris  root  Or  starch,  mechanically  mixed  and  spread 
upon  cotton  cloth  or  other  fabric. 

EMPLASTRUM  PLUMBI 

Lead  Plaster 

Emp.  Plumb.— Diachylon  Plaster 

Lead  Oxide,  one  thousand  grammes 1000  Gm. 

Olive  Oil,  one  thousand  grammes 1000  Gm. 

Lard,  one  thousand  grammes 1000  Gm. 

Boiling  Water,  a  suficient  quantity. 

Heat  the  olive  oil  and  lard  by  a  gentle  heat  until  liquefied  in  a  bright 
copper  or  other  suitable  vessel  of  a  capacity  of  not  less  than  four  times 
the  bulk  of  the  ingredients,  sift  the  lead  oxide,  through  a  No.  80  sieve, 
upon  the  surface  of  the  hot  liquid  and  mix  thoroughly.  Then  gradually 
add  three  hundred  and  fifty  mils  of  boiling  water,  and  boil  the  mixture, 
constantly  stirring,  with  a  wooden  spatula,  and  adding  sufficient  boiling 
water,  from  time  to  time,  to  replace  that  lost  by  evaporation,  until  the 
mass  is  homogeneous  and  a  small  portion  removed  and  dipped  into  cold 
water  is  found  to  be  pliable  and  tenacious.  Then  remove  it  from  the 
fire  and  wash  several  times  ^vith  warm  water  to  remove  the  glycerin. 
Finally  knead  the  mass  until  it  is  free  from  water,  roll  it  into  cylinders 
of  suitable  size,  and  vrrap  them  in  paper. 

Preparations — Emplastrum  Resinae    Unguentum  Diachylon. 


136  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA    OF   THE 

EMPLASTRUM  RESINiE 

Rosin  Plaster 

Emp.  Res. — Rosin  Adhesive  Plaster        Adhesive  Plaster 

Rosin,  in  fine  powder,  one  hundred  and  forty  grammes ....     140  Gm. 

Lead  Plaster,  eight  hundred  grammes 800  Gm. 

Yellow  Wax,  sixty  grammes 60  Gm. 

To  make  one  thousand  grammes 1000  Gm. 

Melt  the  lead  plaster  and  yellow  wax  together  with  a  gentle  heat, 
then  add  the  rosin  and,  when  melted,  mix  thoroughly,  strain,  and  allow 
the  product  to  cool,  stirring  until  it  stiffens. 

EMPLASTRUM  SINAPIS 

Mustard  Plaster 

Emp.  Sinap.— Charta  Sinapis,  U.S.P.  VIII         Mustard  Paper 

A  uniform  mixture  of  powdered  black  mustard  (deprived  of  its  fixed  oil) 
and  a  solution  of  rubber,  spread  on  paper,  cotton  cloth  or  other  fabric. 
Preserve  it  in  tightly-closed  containers. 

A  square  of  100  square  centimeters  contains  not  less  than  2.5  Gm.  of  black 
mustard  deprived  of  its  fixed  oil. 

When  moistened  thoroughly  with  tepid  water  and  applied  to  the  skin,  the 
Plaster  produces  a  decided  warmth  and  reddening  of  the  skin  within  five  minutes. 

Before  Mustard  Plaster  is  applied,  moisten  it  thoroughly  with  tepid  water. 

EMULSUM  AMYGDALA 

Emulsion  of  Almond 

Emuls.  Amygd. — Milk  of  Almond 

Sweet  Almond,  sixty  grammes 60  Gm. 

Acacia,  in  fine  powder,  ten  grammes 10  Gm. 

Sugar,  thirty  grammes 30  Gm. 

Water,  a  sufficient  quantity, 

To  make  one  thousand  milliliters 1000  mils 

Having  blanched  the  almonds,  add  the  acacia  and  sugar,  and  beat 
them  in  a  mortar,  until  they  are  thoroughly  mixed.  Then  rub  the 
mass  with  nine  hundred  mils  of  water,  at  first  very  gradually  added, 
until  a  uniform  mixture  results.  Strain  this  into  a  graduated  vessel, 
and  wash  the  mortar  and  strainer  with  enough  water  to  make  the 
product  measure  one  thousand  mils.  Mix  the  whole  thoroughly.  This 
preparation  must  not  be  dispensed  unless  it  has  been  recently  prepared. 


UNITED   STATES    OF   AMERICA  137 

EMULSUM  ASAFCETIDiE 

Emulsion  of  Asafetida 

Emuls.  Asafoet.— Milk  of  Asafetida 

Asafetida,  in  tears  or  selected  masses,  forty  grammes.  ...       40  Gm. 
Water,  a  sufficient  quantity,  

To  make  one  thousand  milliliters 1000  mils 

Rub  the  asafetida  in  a  mortar,  with  nine  hundred  mils  of  water, 
at  first  very  gradually  added,  until  a  uniform  emulsion  results.  Then 
strain  the  mixture  into  a  graduated  vessel,  and  rinse  the  mortar  and 
strainer  with  enough  water  to  make  the  product  measure  one  thousand 
mils.    Mix  the  whole  thoroughly. 

Average  dose — Metric,  15  mils — Apothecaries,  4  fluidrachms. 


EMULSUM  OLEI  MORRHU.E 

Emulsion  of  Cod  Liver  Oil 
Emuls.  01.  Morrh. 

Cod  Liver  Oil,  five  hundred  milliliters 500  mils 

Acacia,  in  fine  powder,  one  hundred  and  twenty-five  grammes     125  Gm. 

Syrup,  one  hundred  milliliters 100  mils 

Methyl  Salicylate,  four  milliliters 4  mils 

Water,  a  sufficient  quantity,  

To  make  one  thousand  milliliters 1000  mils 

Thoroughly  mix  the  acacia  with  the  cod  liver  oil  in  a  dry  mortar  or 
other  suitable  vessel,  then  add  at  once  two  hundred  and  fifty  mils  of 
water,  and  complete  the  emulsification  by  trituration  or  by  the  aid  of 
a  suitable  mechanical  device.  When  a  thick,  white,  homogeneous  mixture 
is  obtained,  add  the  methyl  salicylate  and  the  syrup  with  sufficient 
water  to  make  the  product  measure  one  thousand  mils  and  mix 
thoroughly. 

Note — The  methyl  salicylate  may  be  replaced  by  a  suitable  quantity 
of  any  other  flavoring. 

Average  dose — Metric,  15  mils — Apothecaries,  4  fluidrachms. 


138  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA    OF   THE 

EMULSUM  OLEI  TEREBINTHIN^ 

Emulsion  of  Oil  of  Turpentine 
Emuls.  01.  Tereb. 

Rectified  Oil  of  Turpentine,  fifteen  milliliters 15  mils 

Expressed  Oil  of  Almond,  five  milliliters 5  mils 

Syrup,  twenty-five  milliliters 25  mils 

Acacia,  in  fine  powder,  fifteen  grammes 15  Gm. 

Water,  a  sufficient  quantity, 

To  make  one  hundred  milliliters 100  mils 

Introduce  the  acacia  into  a  perfectly  dry  bottle  of  suflBcient  capacity, 
add  the  rectified  oil  of  turpentine  and  the  expressed  oil  of  almond  and 
shake  the  bottle  thoroughly.  Then  add  thirty  mils  of  water  and 
incorporate  it  by  vigorous  shaking.  When  the  oil  has  been  com- 
pletely emulsified,  add  first  the  syrup,  in  several  portions,  shaking  after 
each  addition,  and  then  enough  water,  in  divided  portions,  shaking 
after  each  addition,  to  make  the  product  measure  one  hundred  mils. 

Average  dose — Metric,  2  mils — Apothecaries,  ^  fluidrachm. 


ERGOTA 

Ergot 

Ergot. — Secale  Cornutum,  P.  I.      Ergot  of  Rye      Spurred  Rye 

The  carefully  dried  sclerotium  of  Claviceps  purpurea  (Fries)  Tulasne 
(Fam.  Hypocreaceoe) ,  replacing  the  grain  of  rye,  Secale  cereale  Linn^ 
(Fam.  Graminece) ,  without  the  presence  or  admixture  of  more  than  5  per 
cent,  of  seeds,  fruits  or  other  foreign  matter.  Before  storing,  dry  Ergot 
at  a  temperature  not  exceeding  70°  C,  and  preserve  it,  protected  from 
light,  in  tightly-closed  containers  to  which  a  few  drops  of  chloroform  or 
carbon  tetrachloride  are  added  from  time  to  time  to  prevent  attacks 
by  insects. 

Cylindraceous,  obscurely  three-angled,  taperina;  towards  both  ends,  obtuse, 
somewhat  curved,  from  1  to  4.5  cm.  in  length  and  from  3  to  5  mm.  in  thickness; 
externally  purplish-black,  or  brownish-black,  longitudinally  furrowed;  fracture 
short,  pinkish  or  reddish-wliite,  sometimes  grayish-white;  odor  peculiar,  dis- 
agreeable, free  from  mustiness;  taste  oily  and  disagreeable. 

Pour  hot  water  on  bruised  Ergot;  no  ammoniacal  or  rancid  odor  develops. 

The  powder  is  grayish-brown,  consisting  chiefly  of  whiti.sh  fragments  composed 
of  false  pi.rcnchyma  of  compacted  hyphaj  and  a  few  puri)lish  colored  fragments 
of  the  outer  layer  of  the  sclerotium;  mounts  made  in  hydrated  chloral  T.S.  or 
in  sulphuric  acid  show  the  separation  of  numerous  globules  of  a  fixed  oil,  and 
many  of  the  fragments  are  colored  yellowish,  reddish  or  rose-purple. 


UNITED  STATES  OF  AMERICA  13d 

Shake  1  Gm.  of  the  powdered  drug  with  a  mixture  of  20  mils  of  water  and  one 
drop  of  hydrochloric  acid,  filter  the  mixture,  make  4  mils  of  the  filtrate  alkaline 
with  ammonia  water  and  shake  out  with  10  mils  of  ether.  ITnderlay  5  rails  of 
this  ethereal  solution  with  2  mils  of  sulphuric  acid;  a  blue  ring  is  formed  at  the 
zone  of  contact  of  the  two  liquids. 

Ergot  yields  not  more  than  5  per  cent,  of  ash. 

Preparations — Extractum  Ergotae      Fluidextractum  Ergotae. 

Average  dose — Metric,  2  Gm. — Apothecaries,  30  grains. 

ERIODICTYON 

Eriodictyon 

Eriodict.— Yerba  Santa 

The  dried  leaves  of  Enodictyon  californicum  (Hooker  and  Arnott) 
Greene  (Fam.  Hydrophyllacece),  without  the  presence  or  admixture  of 
more  than  5  per  cent,  of  stems  or  other  foreign  matter. 

Usually  in  fragments;  when  entire,  laminae  lanceolate,  from  5  to  15  cm.  in 
length,  and  from  1  to  3  cm.  in  breadth;  simimits  acute;  bases  slightly  tapering 
into  short  petioles;  margins  irregularly  serrate  or  crenate-dentate ;  upper  sur- 
faces yellowish-brown,  covered  with  a  more  or  less  glistening  resin;  under  sur- 
faces grayish  or  yellowish-white,  conspicuously  reticulate  with  greenish-yellow 
veins;  minutely  tomentose  between  the  reticulations;  thick,  brittle;  odor  aro- 
matic; taste  balsamic,  bitter,  becoming  sweetish. 

Under  the  microscope,  transverse  sections  of  the  laminae  of  Eriodictyon  show 
upon  the  upper  surface  large  epidermal  cells,  the  outer  walls  being  very  uneven, 
owing  to  indentations  which  appear  as  striations  in  surface  view;  glandular 
hairs  numerous,  with  short  1-celled  stalks  and  6-  to  8-celled  glandular  heads; 
palisade  cells  very  narrow,  from  2  to  6  rows  deep,  containing  numerous  chloro- 
plastids;  cells  of  dorsal-pneumatic  tissue  (loose  mesophyll)  very  few;  fibro- 
vascular  tissues  not  strongly  developed  except  in  the  midrib  and  more  prominent 
veins;  numerous  1-celled,  much  twisted,  thick-walled,  non-glandular  hairs 
occurring  on  the  lower  surface  between  the  veins. 

Under  the  microscope,  sections  of  the  stems  of  Eriodictyon  show  the  epidermis 
usually  replaced  by  strongly  lignified  cork;  cortex  of  from  10  to  20  rows  of  more 
or  less  rounded  cells;  bast-fibers  deep-seated  with  thick,  more  or  less  strongly 
lignified  walls  and  occurring  in  small  groups  forming  a  more  or  less  interrupted 
circle;  sieve  tissues  in  a  narrow  zone;  wood-wedges  consisting  of  tracheae  with 
spiral  thickenings,  simple  or  bordered  pores  and  numerous  strongly  lignified 
wood-fibers,  separated  by  medullary  rays  1-cell  in  width;  pith  very  large,  the 
walls  of  the  cells  being  strongly  lignified  and  with  numerous  simple  pores. 

Preparation — Fluidextractum  Eriodictyi. 

Average  dose — Metric,  1  Gm. — Apothecaries,  15  grains. 


EUCALYPTOL 

Eucal}T)tol 

Cineol 

An  organic  compoimd  [CioHi80=  154.14]  obtained  from  the  volatile 
oil  of  Eucalyptus  Globulus  Labillardiere   (Fam.  Myrtacea)  and  from 


140  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA    OF   THE 

other  sources.    Preserve  it  in  well-closed  containers,  in  a  cool  place, 
protected  from  light. 

Eucalyptol  is  a  colorless  liquid,  having  a  characteristic,  aromatic  and  dis- 
tinctly camphoraceous  odor,  and  a  pungent,  spicy  taste;  it  produces  a  cooling 
sensation  in  the  mouth. 

Eucalyptol  is  very  slightly  soluble  in  water,  miscible  with  alcohol,  chloroform, 
ether,  glacial  acetic  acid,  or  fixed  or  volatile  oils. 

Specific  gravity:    0.921  to  0.923  at  25°  C. 

It  boils  between  174°  and  177°  C. 

Congealing  point:   not  below  0°  C. 

Eucalyptol  is  optically  inactive  (distinction  from  oil  of  eucalyptus  and  many 
other  volatile  oils). 

Place  1  mil  of  Eucalyptol  in  a  freezing  mixture  and  gradually  add  to  it  an 
equal  volume  of  phosphoric  acid;  a  solid,  white,  crystalline  mass  of  cineol- 
phosphoric  acid  results,  and  if  warm  water  is  then  added  the  Eucalyptol  separates. 

Shake  5  mils  of  EucaljTDtol  with  5  mils  of  sodium  hydroxide  T.S.;  the  volume 
of  the  Eucalyptol  is  not  diminished  {saponifiable  oils). 

Its  alcoholic  solution  (1  in  10)  is  neutral  to  moistened  litmus  paper,  and,  on 
adding  a  drop  of  ferric  chloride  T.S.  to  5  mils  of  this  solution,  no  brown  or  violet 
color  is  produced  (phenols) . 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.3  mil — Apothecaries,  5  minims. 


EUCALYPTUS 

Eucalyptus 

Eucalypt. — Blue  Gum  Leaves 

The  dried  leaves  of  Eucalyptus  Globulus  Labillardidre  (Fam.  Myrta- 
cece),  collected  from  the  older  parts  of  the  tree,  without  the  presence 
or  admixture  of  more  than  3  per  cent,  of  the  stems,  fruits  or  other 
foreign  matter. 

Laminae  lanceolately  scythe-shaped,  from  8  to  30  cm.  in  length  and  from 
2  to  7.5  cm.  in  breadth;  summits  when  present  acute  or  acuminate;  bases  unequal, 
obtuse  or  more  or  less  rounded  and  connected  with  a  twisted  petiole  from  5  to 
35  mm.  in  length;  margins  slightly  uneven,  revolute;  coriaceous;  both  surfaces 
varying  from  pale  yellowish-green  to  grayish-green  and  more  or  less  glaucous, 
glabrous,  glandular-punctate  and  with  numerous  small,  circular,  brown  dots  of 
cork;  veins  of  the  first  order  anastomosing  with  each  other  and  forming  a  line 
nearly  parallel  with  the  margin;  odor  slightly  aromatic;  taste  aromatic,  bitter, 
and  cooling. 

Under  the  microscope,  sections  of  Eucalyptus  show  the  upper  and  lower 
surfaces  with  nearly  similar  cells,  the  outer  walls  being  strongly  cuticularized; 
stomata  occur  on  both  surfaces,  a  region  of  palisade  cells  made  up  of  from  3  to 
4  rows  of  cells  occurring  beneath  each  surface;  among  the  pali.sade  cells  occur 
large  oil-secretion  reservoirs,  with  a  yellowish  or  orange  colored  oily  content; 
calcium  oxalate  crystals  in  cells  of  the  loose  mesophyll  in  the  form  of  rosette 
aggregates  or  monoclinic  prisms  varying  from  0.015  to  0.025  mm.  in  diameter. 
At  the  periphery  of  the  fibro-vascular  bundles  of  the  midrib  and  petiole  occurs 
a  more  or  less  interrupted  circle  of  small  groups  of  slightly  lignified  bast-fibers. 

Preparation — Fluidextractum  Eucalypti. 

Average  dose — Metric,  2  Gm. — Apothecaries,  30  grains. 


UNITED    STATES    OF   AMERICA  141 

EUGENOL 

Eugenol 

An  unsaturated,  aromatic  phenol  [CioHiaOa  or  C8H3.C3H5.OCH3.OH 
1  :3  :  4=  164.10]  obtained  from  oil  of  clove  and  from  other  sources. 
Preserve  it  in  well-closed  containers,  in  a  cool  place,  protected  from  light. 

Eugenol  is  a  colorless  or  pale  yellow,  thin  liquid,  having  a  Ftronglj-  aromatic 
odor  of  clove,  and  a  pungent  and  spicy  taste.  Exposure  to  air  causes  it  to  be- 
come darker  and  thicker. 

Eugenol  is  miscible  with  alcohol,  chloroform,  ether  or  fixed  oils;  it  is  soluble 
in  twice  its  volume  of  70  per  cent,  alcohol. 

A  mixture  of  1  part  of  Eugenol  and  20  parts  of  hot  distilled  water  is  only 
very  slightly  acid  to  litmus. 

Specific  gravity:    1.0G4  to  1.070  at  25°  C. 

It  boils  between  250°  and  255°  C. 

It  is  optically  inactive  and  strongly  refractive. 

Dissolve  1  mil  of  Eugenol  in  12  mils  of  sodium  hydroxide  T.S.  and  add  18  mils 
of  distilled  water;  a  clear  solution  results,  which  becomes  turbid  when  exposed 
to  air.  Shake  I  mil  of  Eugenol  with  20  mils  of  distilled  water  and  filter;  5  mils 
of  the  clear  filtrate,  upon  the  addition  of  1  drop  of  ferric  chloride  T.S.,  shows 
a  transient,  grayish-green  color,  but  not  a  blue  or  violet  color  {phenol). 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.2  mil — Apothecaries,  3  minims. 


EXTRACTA 

Extracts 

Pilular  Extracts  are  solid  or  semi-solid  products  prepared  by  exhaust- 
ing drugs  with  appropriate  solvents  and  carefully  evaporating  the 
solutions  to  the  proper  consistence.  These  extracts  preserve  the  useful 
constituents  of  the  drug  in  a  concentrated,  relatively  uniform  and 
permanent  condition,  and  in  a  form  suitable  for  medication. 

The  solvents  or  menstrua  employed  in  the  preparation  of  pilular 
extracts  are  w^ater,  alcohol,  or  mixtures  of  these  in  the  proportions  stated 
in  the  formulas.  A  few  drugs  require  for  their  extraction  the  addition 
of  an  acid  or  an  alkali  to  the  solvent.  Where  alcohol  is  used  in  the  ex- 
traction it  may  be  recovered  by  distillation. 

In  the  preparation  of  pilular  extracts  the  concentration  of' the  solu- 
tions should  be  completed  without  delay,  and  undue  exposure  to  heat 
must  be  avoided.  The  limit  of  temperature  for  the  evaporation,  as 
stated  in  the  formulas,  should  not  be  exceeded.  In  the  manufacture 
of  these  extracts  on  a  large  scale  an  apparatus  for  distilling  and  evapor- 
ating under  reduced  pressure  should  be  used.  It  is  also  important 
that  the  residue  be  frequently  stirred  so  as  to  hasten  the  evaporation 
and  to  obtain  a  uniform  product. 


142  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA    OF  THE 

Pilular  extracts  are  extensively  used  in  pill  masses  and  in  ointments 
and,  to  facilitate  their  use  in  these  preparations,  the  degree  of  concentra- 
tion is  commonly  directed  to  be  that  of  a  "  pilular  consistence." 

Pilular  extracts  should  be  protected  from  exposure  to  sunlight  and 
air  by  being  kept  in  tightly-covered  glass  or  earthen-ware  containers. 

Powdered  Extracts  differ  from  pilular  extracts  in  that  they  are  dry, 
fine  powders.  Powdered  extracts  are  often  preferred  to  pilular  extracts 
for  general  use,  because  they  can  be  more  accurately  weighed,  more 
easily  dispensed,  and  more  conveniently  preserved  in  tightly-stoppered 
bottles. 

In  the  preparation  of  powdered  extracts,  it  is  necessary  to  use  solvents 
that  will  extract  the  active  principles  of  the  drugs,  and  only  a  minimum 
amount  of  the  inert  substances.  Where  the  drug  contains  an  oily  con- 
stituent that  would  be  extracted  by  the  menstruum  directed,  it  becomes 
necessary  to  adopt  in  the  process  of  manufacture  a  method  for  the 
separation  of  this  oil  so  that  the  product  will  retain  a  satisfactory, 
pulverulent  form. 

The  concentration  of  the  liquids  containing  the  extractive  should 
be  completed  without  delay  and  undue  exposure  to  heat  must  be  avoided. 

The  limit  of  temperature  as  stated  in  the  formulas  should  not  be  ex- 
ceeded, and  the  use  of  apparatus  for  concentrating  under  reduced  pres- 
sure is  recommended.  The  final  drying  of  the  soft  extract  can  be  greatly 
facilitated  by  spreading  it  upon  plates  of  glass  or  tinned  metal  and 
exposing  it  to  currents  of  warm,  dry  air.  Powdered  extracts  must  be 
thoroughly  dried,  powdered  and  mixed  with  the  diluent  and  preserved 
in  tightly-stoppered,  small,  wide-mouthed,  amber-colored  bottles,  and 
stored  in  a  cool  and  dry  place. 

Alkaloidal  standards  have  been  adopted  for  Extracts  that  can  be  re- 
liably assayed.  Assay  methods  are  directed  for  the  determination  of 
their  strength,  and  to  provide  for  standardization.  When  necessary,  an 
inert  diluent  is  directed  to  reduce  the  product  to  the  standard.  In  the 
official  formulas  glucose  is  directed  for  the  diluent  in  pilular  extracts 
and  dried  starch  and  magnesium  oxide  are  directed  for  powdered  extracts, 
but  it  is  permissible  for  the  manufacturer  to  use  as  inert  diluents  for 
the  latter,  sugar,  sugar  of  milk,  powdered  glycyrrhiza,  magnesium  car- 
bonate or  the  finely  powdered  drug  or  marc  from  which  the  respective 
extract  was  made.  For  the  convenience  of  the  prescriber,  the  standards 
of  strength  for  the  Extracts  have  been  adjusted,  wherever  possible,  so 
that  each  bears  a  definite  relation  to  that  of  the  respective  drug  of 
average  strength,  and  a  statement  of  the  standard  precedes  the  formula. 


IJlflTED   STATES   OF  AMERICA  143 


EXTRACTUM  ACONITI 

Extract  of  Aconite 

Cxt.  Aconit. — Powdered  Extract  of  Aconite 

Extract  of  Aconite  yields  not  less  than  1.8  per  cent,  nor  more  than 
2.2  per  cent,  of  the  ether-soluble  alkaloids  of  aconite  and,  if  assayed 
biologically,  the  minuniim  lethal  dose  should  not  be  greater  than  0.00001 
Gm.  for  each  gramme  of  body  weight  of  guinea-pig.  One  gramme  of 
the  Extract  represents  about  four  grammes  of  aconite. 

Aconite,  in  No.  60  powder,  one  thousand  grammes 1000  Gm. 

Tartaric  Acid,  five  grammes 5  Gm. 

Purified  Petroleum  Benzin, 
Starch,  dried  at  100°  C., 
Alcohol,  each,  a  sufficient  quantity. 

Dissolve  the  tartaric  acid  in  five  hundred  mils  of  alcohol,  moisten 
the  drug  with  this  solution  and  pack  it  in  a  cylindrical  glass  percolator; 
then  add  sufficient  alcohol  to  saturate  the  powder  and  leave  a  stratum 
above  it.  When  the  liquid  begins  to  drop  from  the  percolator,  close 
the  lower  orifice,  and,  having  closely  covered  the  percolator,  macerate 
for  forty-eight  hours.  Then  allow  the  percolation  to  proceed  very 
slowly,  adding  alcohol  as  required.  Reserve  the  first  one  thousand  mils 
of  percolate  and  continue  the  percolation,  until  the  second  percolate 
measures  one  thousand  mils  or  until  the  drug  is  exhausted.  Transfer  this 
second  percolate  to  a  suitable  apparatus  and  distil  off  the  alcohol  at  as 
low  a  temperature  as  practicable,  until  a  residue  measuring  about  one 
hundred  mils  remains,  then  add  the  reserved  percolate  and  continue 
distillation  until  the  residue  in  the  still  is  of  syrupy  consistence. 

Transfer  this  syrupy  residue  to  a  flask,  using  a  httle  warm  alcohol 
to  rinse  the  still,  and  adding  the  rinsing  to  the  flask.  When  it  has 
cooled,  add  two  hundred  and  fifty  mils  of  purified  petroleum  benzin  and 
shake  the  mixture  thoroughly  for  several  minutes.  Allow  the  liquids 
to  separate  and  decant  the  benzin  layer  as  closely  as  possible;  add 
again  to  the  residue  two  hundred  and  fifty  mils  of  purified  petroleum 
benzin,  agitate  and  decant  the  benzin  layer  as  before. 

Transfer  the  syrupy  residue  to  a  shallow  evaporating  dish,  rinse  the 
flask  with  twenty  mils  of  warm  alcohol,  adding  the  rinsings  to  the  residue 
in  the  dish,  and  then  incorporate  fifty  grammes  of  the  thoroughly  dried 
starch.  Evaporate  the  mixture  by  a  very  gentle  heat  on  a  water  bath, 
frequently  stirring,  and,  when  the  mass  has  become  thick,  spread  it 


144  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA   OF  THE 

on  glass  plates  and  continue  the  drying  in  an  air  bath  at  a  temperature 
not  exceeding  70°  C.  until  thoroughly  dry.  Reduce  the  product  to  a 
fine  powder  and  weigh  it. 

Assay  a  portion  of  this  product  as  directed  below,  and,  from  the 
alkaloidal  content  thus  determined,  ascertain  by  calculation  the  amount 
of  alkaloids  in  the  remainder  of  the  powder  and  add  to  this  enough  of 
the  dried  starch  to  make  the  finished  Extract  contain  2  per  cent,  of  the 
ether-soluble  alkaloids  of  aconite.  Mix  the  powders  thoroughly,  pass 
the  Extract  through  a  fine  sieve,  transfer  it  to  small,  wide-mouthed 
bottles  and  stopper  them  tightly. 

Assay — Introduce  3  Gm.  of  Extract  of  Aconite  into  a  250  mil  flask,  add  10 
Gm.  of  washed  sand  and  mix  thoroughly.  Then  add  150  mils  of  ether  and  2 
mils  of  ammonia  water,  shake  the  mixture  vigorously  every  few  minutes  during 
a  half  hour,  and  when  the  dregs  have  settled  decant  100  mils  of  the  clear  liquid, 
representing  i^ro  qrammes  of  the  Extract.  Proceed  as  directed  under  Belladonna 
iiadix,  page  73,  beginning  with  the  word  "Filter"  in  the  seventh  line  of  the 
Assay,  modifying  the  process  there  given  by  using  ether  instead  of  chloroform 
for  the  final  shaking  out  of  the  alkaloids. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  sulphuric  acid  V.S.  consumed  corresponds  to  64.539 
milligrammes  of  the  ether-soluble  alkaloids  of  aconite. 

For  an  alternative  method  of  assaying  Extract  of  Aconite  see  Biological 
Assays  (Part  II). 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.01  Gm. — Apothecaries,  }/q  grain. 


EXTRACTUM  BELLADONN.E  FOLIORUM 

Extract  of  Belladonna  Leaves 
Ext.  Bellad.  Fol. 

Extract  of  Belladonna  Leavesyields  not  less  than  1.18  per  cent,  nor  more 
than  1.32  per  cent,  of  the  alkaloids  of  belladonna  leaves.  One  gramme 
of  the  Extract  represents  about  Jour  grammes  of  belladonna  leaves. 

Pilular  Extract  of  Belladonna  Leaves 

Belladonna  Leaves,  in  No.  40  powder,  one  thousand 

grammes 1000  Gm. 

Glucose, 
Alcohol, 
Water,  each,  a  sufficient  quantity. 

Moisten  the  powder  with  sufficient  of  a  mixture  of  three  volumes  of 
alcohol  and  one  volume  of  water  and  pack  it  firmly  in  a  cylindrical  perco- 
lator, then  add  enough  menstruum,  using  the  same  proportion  of  alcohol 
and  water  as  before,  to  saturate  the  powder  and  leave  a  stratum  above 
it.    When  the  liquid  begins  to  drop  from  the  percolator,  close  the  lower 


I 


UNITED   STATES   OF  AMERICA  145 

orifice,  and,  having  closely  covered  the  percolator,  macerate  for  forty- 
eight  hours.  Then  allow  the  percolation  to  proceed,  gradually  adding 
menstruum  of  the  same  strength,  until  the  percolate  measures  three 
thousand  mils,  or  until  the  belladonna  leaves  are  exliausted.  Recover 
the  alcohol  from  the  percolate  by  distillation  and  evaporate  the  residue 
with  frequent  stirring,  at  a  temperature  not  exceeding  70°  C,  to  a  pilular 
consistence.    Mix  the  mass  thoroughly  and  weigh  it. 

Assay  a  portion  of  this  extract,  as  directed  below,  and,  from  the  alka- 
loidal  content  thus  determined,  ascertain  by  calculation  the  amount 
of  alkaloids  in  the  remainder  of  the  mass,  and  to  this  add  enough  glucose 
to  make  the  finished  Extract  contain  1.25  per  cent,  of  the  alkaloids 
of  belladonna  leaves.    Mix  thoroughly. 

Assay — Dissolve  2  Gm.  of  Pilular  Extract  of  Belladonna  Leaves  in  10  mils 
of  diluted  alcohol,  transfer  the  solution  to  a  separator  and  wash  the  vessel  in 
which  the  extract  was  dissolved  with  2  mils  of  ammonia  water  previously  diluted 
with  10  mils  of  distilled  water,  in  divided  portions,  adding  the  rinsings  to  the 
separator,  then  proceed  as  directed  under  Fluidexiractum  Bclladnnnoe  Radicis, 
page  178,  second  line  of  the  Assa}-,  beginning  with  the  word  "  Completely," 
modifying  the  process  there  given  by  treating  the  residue  twice  with  5  mils 
of  ether  and  evaporating  to  dryness  each  time  before  titration. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  sulphuric  acid  V.S.  consimaed  corresponds  to  28.92 
milligrammes  of  the  alkaloids  of  belladonna  leaves. 

Powdered  Extract  of  Belladonna  Leaves 

Belladonna  Leaves  in   No.   40  powder,  one  thousand 

grammes 1000  Gm. 

IMagnesium  Oxide,  ivcenty  grammes 20  Gm. 

Starch,  dried  at  100°  C, 
Alcohol,  each,  a  sufficient  quantity. 

IMoisten  the  drug  with  sufficient  alcohol  and  pack  it  in  a  cylindrical 
percolator;  then  add  enough  alcohol  to  saturate  the  powder  and  leave 
a  stratum  above  it.  When  the  liquid  begins  to  drop  from  the  percolator, 
close  the  lower  orifice,  and,  having  closely  covered  the  percolator, 
macerate  for  forty-eight  hours.  Then  allow  the  percolation  to  proceed 
very  slowly,  adding  alcohol  as  required.  Reserve  the  first  one  thousand 
mils  of  percolate  and  contuiue  the  percolation  until  the  second  percolate 
measures  one  thousand  mils  or  until  the  drug  is  exliausted.  Transfer 
the  second  percolate  to  a  suitable  apparatus  and  distil  off  the  alcohol 
at  as  low  a  temperature  as  practicable,  until  a  residue  measurmg  about 
one  hundred  7nils  remains,  then  add  the  reserved  percolate  and  continue 
distillation  until  the  residue  m  the  still  is  of  syrupy  consistence. 

Transfer  this  syrupy  residue  to  a  shallow  evaporating  dish,  rinse  the 
flask  or  still  with  a  small  quantity  of  warm  alcohol,  adding  the  rmsmg 
15 


146  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA   OF   THE 

to  the  residue  in  the  dish.  Evaporate  this  extract  to  a  pilular  consist- 
ence, at  a  temperature  not  exceeding  70°  C,  then  add  fifty  grammes 
of  the  dried  starch  and  continue  the  heating,  with  frequent  stirring, 
until  the  mass  is  nearly  dry.  Now  add  the  magnesium  oxide,  thoroughly 
incorporate  it  and  set  the  product  aside  in  a  current  of  warm  air,  until 
thoroughl}^  dry.    Reduce  the  product  to  a  fine  powder  and  weigh  it. 

Assay  a  portion  of  this  product  as  directed  below,  and,  from  the  alka- 
loidal  content  thus  determined,  ascertain  by  calculation  the  amount  of 
alkaloids  in  the  remainder  of  the  powder  and  add  to  this  enough  of  the 
dried  starch  to  make  the  finished  Extract  contain  1.25  per  cent,  of 
the  alkaloids  of  belladonna  leaves.  INIix  the  powders  thoroughly,  pass 
the  Extract  through  a  fine  sieve,  transfer  it  to  small,  wide-mouthed 
bottles  and  stopper  them  tightly. 

Assay — Introduce  3  Gm.  of  Powdered  Extract  of  Belladonna  Leaves  into  a 
250  mil  flask,  add  10  Gm.  of  washed  sand  and  mix  thoroughly.  Then  add  150 
mils  of  a  mixture  of  chloroform.  1  volume,  and  ether,  2  volumes,  followed  by 
5  mils  of  ammonia  water.  Shake  the  mixture  vigorously  every  ten  minutes 
during  a  half  hour  and  when  the  dregs  have  settled  decant  100  mils  of  the  clear 
liquid,  representing  iu-o  grammes  of  the  Extract ;  now  proceed  as  directed  under 
BelladonnoE  Radix,  page  73,  seventh  line  of  the  Assay,  modifying  the  process 
there  given  by  treating  the  residue  twice  with  ether,  and  evaporating  to 
drj'ness  each  time  before  titration. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  sulphuric  acid  V.S.  consumed  corresponds  to  28.92 
milligrammes  of  the  alkaloids  of  belladonna  leaves. 

Preparation — Unguentum  Belladonnae  (from  Pilular  Extract). 

Average  dose — ]\Ietric,  0.015  Gm. — Apothecaries,  3^^  grain. 

EXTRACTUM  CANNABIS 

Extract  of  Cannabis 

Ext.  Cannab.— Estractum  Cannabis  Indicae,  U.S.?.  Mil 

Extract  of  Cannabis,  when  assayed  biologically,  produces  incoordina- 
tion when  administered  to  dogs  in  a  dose  of  not  more  than  0.004  Gm. 
of  Extract  per  kilogramme  of  body  weight. 

Cannabis,  in  No.  20  powder,  one  thousand  grammes 1000  Gm. 

Alcohol,  a  sufficient  quantity. 

Moisten  the  powder  with  sufficient  alcohol,  pack  it  firmly  in  a  cylin- 
drical percolator  and  add  enough  alcohol  to  saturate  the  powder  and 
leave  a  stratum  above  it.  When  the  liquid  begins  to  drop  from  the 
percolator,  close  the  lower  orifice,  and,  having  closely  covered  the 
percolator,  macerate  for  forty-eight  hours.  Then  allow  the  percola- 
tion to  proceed,  gradually  adding  alcohol,  until  the  drug  is  exhausted. 
Rpcover  the  alcohol  from  the  percolate  by  distillation  and  evaporate  the 


UNITED   STATES   OF  AMERICA  147 

residue  with  frequent  stirring,  at  a  temperature  not  exceeding  70°  C,  to 
a  pilular  consistence.     Mix  the  mass  thoroughly  and  weigh  it. 

Assay  a  portion  of  this  extract,  and  from  the  result  thus  obtained 
adjust  the  weight  of  the  finished  Extract,  by  the  addition  of  glucose,  to 
conform  to  the  required  biological  standard. 

Assay — Proceed  as  directed  under  Biological  Assays  (Part  II). 
Average  dose — Metric,  0.01  Gm. — Apothecaries,  3-^  grain. 

EXTRACTUM  CASCAR.E  SAGRAD.E 

Extract  of  Cascara  Sagrada 

Ext.  Case.  Sagr.— Extractum  Rhamni  Purshianae,  U.S.P.  VIII 
Powdered  Extract  of  Cascara  Sagrada 

One  gramme  of  the  Extract  represents  three  grammes  of  cascara  sagrada. 
Cascara  Sagrada,  in  No.  20  powder,  nine  hundred  grammes    900  Gm. 

Magnesium  Oxide,  twenty-five  grammes 25  Gm. 

Starch,  dried  at  100°  C., 

Boiling  Water,  each,  a  sufficient  quantity,  

To  make  three  hundred  grammes 300  Gm. 

Mix  the  cascara  sagrada  with  jour  thousand  mils  of  boiling  water 
and  macerate  the  mixture  during  three  hours.  Then  transfer  it  to  a 
metallic  percolator,  allow  it  to  drain  and  pour  on  boiling  water  until 
the  percolate  measures  five  thousand  mils  or  the  drug  is  exhausted. 
Evaporate  the  percolate  to  drjTiess  on  a  water  bath  or  steam  bath,  reduce 
the  extract  to  a  fine  powder,  weigh  it,  add  the  magnesium  oxide  and  enough 
of  the  dried  starch  to  make  the  product  weigh  three  hundred  grammes. 
Mix  the  powders  thoroughly,  pass  the  Extract  through  a  fine  sieve,  trans- 
fer it  to  small,  wide-mouthed  bottles  and  stopper  them  tightly. 

A\'ERAGE  dose — Metric,  0.25  Gm. — Apothecaries,  4  grains. 

EXTRACTUM  CIMICIFUG.E 

Extract  of  Cimicifuga 

Ext.  Cimicif. — Powdered  Extract  of  Cimicifuga 
One  gramme  of  the  Extract  represents  four  grammes  of  cimicifuga. 

Cimicifuga,  in  No.  40  powder,  one  thousand  grammes 1000  Gm. 

Alcohol, 

Starch,  dried  at  100°  C,  each,  a  sufficient  quantity, 

To  make  two  hundred  and  fifty  grammes 250  Gm. 


148  THE    PHARMACOPCEIA   OF   THE 

Moisten  the  drug  with  sufficient  alcohol,  pack  it  in  a  cylindrical 
percolator,  and  add  enough  alcohol  to  saturate  the  powder  and  leave  a 
stratum  above  it.  When  the  liquid  begins  to  drop  from  the  percolator, 
close  the  lower  orifice,  and,  having  closely  covered  the  percolator, 
macerate  for  forty-eight  hours.  Then  allow  the  percolation  to  proceed 
slowly,  adding  alcohol  as  required  until  the  drug  is  exhausted.  Recover 
the  alcohol  from  the  percolate  by  distillation  and  evaporate  the 
residue  to  dr^Tiess,  with  frequent  stirring,  at  a  temperature  not  exceed- 
ing 70°  C.  Weigh  the  residue  and  add  sufficient  of  the  dried  starch  to 
make  the  product  weigh  two  hundred  and  fifty  grammes.  Reduce  the 
mixture  to  a  fine  powder,  mix  thoroughly,  pass  the  Extract  through  a 
fine  sieve,  transfer  it  to  small,  wide-mouthed  bottles  and  stopper  them 
tightly. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.25  Gm. — Apothecaries,  4  grains. 


EXTRACTUM  COLCHICI  CORMI 

Extract  of  Colchicum  Corm 

Ext.  Colch.  Corm. — Powdered  Extract  of  Colchicum  Corm 

Extract  of  Colchicum  Corm  yields  not  less  than  1.25  per  cent,  nor 
more  than  1.55  per  cent,  of  colchicine.  One  gramme  of  the  Extract 
represents  about  four  grammes  of  colchicum  corm. 

Colchicum  Corm,  in  No.  60  powder,  one  thousand  grammes  1000  Gm. 

Alcohol, 

Purified  Petroleum  Benzin, 

Starch,  dried  at  100°  C,  each,  a  sufficient  quaniily. 

Moisten  the  drug  with  sufficient  alcohol,  pack  it  in  a  cylindrical 
percolator  and  add  enough  alcohol  to  saturate  the  powder  and  leave  a 
stratum  above  it.  When  the  liquid  begins  to  drop  from  the  percolator, 
close  the  lower  orifice,  and,'  having  closely  covered  the  percolator, 
macerate  for  forty-eight  hours.  Then  allow  the  percolation  to  proceed 
slowly,  adding  alcohol  as  required,  until  the  percolate  measures  two 
thousand  mils  or  until  the  drug  is  exhausted.  Recover  the  alcohol 
from  the  percolate  by  distillation  at  as  low  a  temperature  as  prac- 
ticable until  a  residue  measuring  about  one  hundred  and  fifty  mils 
remains  in  the  still.  Transfer  this  residue  to  a  flask,  using  a  little 
warm  alcohol  to  rinse  the  still,  and  add  the  rinsings  to  the  flask.  WTien 
it  hag  cooled,  add  two  hundred  and  fi,fty  mils  of  purified  petroleum 


UNITED   STATES   OF   AMERICA  149 

benzin  and  shake  the  mixture  thoroughly  for  several  minutes.  Allow 
the  liquids  to  separate  and  decant  the  benzin  layer  as  closely  as  possi- 
ble; again  add  to  the  residue  one  hundred  and  fifty  mils  of  purified 
petroleum  benzin,  agitate  and  decant  the  bonzin  layer  as  before,  repeat 
the  washing  with  one  hundred  mils  of  purified  petroleum  benzin  and 
reject  the  benzin  washings. 

Transfer  the  residue  to  a  shallow  evaporating  dish,  rinse  the  flask 
with  a  little  warm  alcohol,  adding  the  rinsings  to  the  residue  in  the 
dish,  and  evaporate  it  on  a  water  bath  to  a  thick  extract.  To  this 
add  fifty  grammes  of  the  dried  starch,  mix  well,  spread  the  mixture  on 
glass  plates  and  continue  the  drying  in  an  air  bath  at  a  temperature  not 
exceeding  70°  C.  until  thoroughly  dry.  Reduce  the  product  to  a  fine 
powder  and  weigh  it. 

Assay  a  portion  of  this  product  as  directed  below,  and,  from  the 
alkaloidal  content  thus  determined,  ascertain  by  calculation  the  amount 
of  alkaloid  in  the  remainder  of  the  powder  and  add  to  this  enough  of 
the  dried  starch  to  make  the  finished  Extract  contain  1.4  per  cent,  of 
colchicine.  Mix  the  powders  thoroughly,  pass  the  Extract  through  a 
fine  sieve,  transfer  it  to  small  wide-mouthed  bottles  and  stopper  them 
tightly. 

Assay — Proceed  as  directed  under  Colchici  Semen,  page  120,  modifying 
the  process  there  given  b}^  using  6  Gm.  of  the  Extract  of  Colchicum  Corm 
instead  of  15  Gm.  of  colchicum  seed.  The  final  weight  will  be  the  amount  of 
colchicine  from  two  grammes  of  Extract  of  Colchicum  Corm. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.06  Gm. — Apothecaries,  1  grain. 


EXTRACTUM  COLOCYNTHIDIS 

Extract  of  Colocyntli 

Ext.  Colocynth. — Powdered  Extract  of  Colocynth 
One  gramme  of  the  Extract  represents  four  grammes  of  colocynth. 

Colocynth,   in  No.  20  powder,    one  thousand  gramines   1000  Gm. 
Diluted  Alcohol, 

Starch,  dried  at  100°  C.,  each,  a  sufficient  quantity, 

To  make  two  hundred  and  fifty  grainmes 250  Gm. 

Moisten  the  drug  with  two  thousand  mils  of  diluted  alcohol  and 
macerate  it  in  a  closed  vessel  for  twenty-four  hours,  then  transfer  the 


150  THE   PHARMACOPGEIA   OF  THE 

moist  drug  to  a  cylindrical  percolator,  shake  it  down  evenly  withiout 
packing,  and  gradually  pour  diluted  alcohol  upon  it,  allowing  the  per- 
colation to  proceed  slowly,  until  the  percolate  measures  five  thousand 
mils.  Recover  the  alcohol  from  the  percolate  by  distillation  and  evapo- 
rate the  residue  to  dryness  on  a  water  bath  or  steam  bath.  Reduce 
the  extract  to  a  fine  powder,  weigh  it,  and  add  sufficient  of  the  dried 
starch  to  make  the  product  weigh  two  hundred  and  fifty  grammes.  Mix 
the  powders  thoroughly,  pass  the  Extract  through  a  fine  sieve,  transfer 
it  to  small,  wide-mouthed  bottles  and  stopper  them  tightly. 
Preparation — Extractum  Colocynthidis  Compositum. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.03  Gm. — Apothecaries,  }/2  grain. 

EXTRACTUM  COLOCYNTHIDIS  COMPOSITUM 

Compound  Extract  of  Colocynth 

Ext.  Colocynth.  Co. — Powdered  Compound  Extract  of  Colocynth 

Extract  of  Colocynth,  07ie  hundred  and  sixty  grammes .  160  Gm. 

Aloes,  five  hundred  grammes 500  Gm. 

Cardamom  Seed,  in  No.  60  powder,  fifty  grammes 50  Gm. 

Resin  of  Scammony,  in  No.  60  powder,  one  hundred  ar.d 

forty  grammes 140  Gm. 

Soap,  dried  and  in  powder,  one  hundred  and  fifty  grammes. .  150  Gm. 

To  make  one  thousand  grammes 1000  Gm. 

Triturate  the  ingredients  until  the  product  is  reduced  to  a  No.  60 
powder.     Pass  the  Extract  through  a  fine  sieve,  transfer  it  to  small, 
wide-mouthed  bottles  and  stopper  them  tightly. 
Preparation — Pilulae  Catharticae  Compositae. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.25  Gm. — Apothecaries,  4  grains. 

EXTRACTUM  ERGOTS 

Extract  of  Ergot 
Ext.  Ergot. 

Ergot,  in  No.  40  powder,  one  thousand  grammes 1000  Gm. 

Hydrochloric  Acid,  ten  milliliters 10  mils 

Purified  Petroleum  Benzin, 

Alcohol, 

Water,  each,  a  sufficient  quantity. 


■UNITED  STATES   OF  AMERICA  151 

Pack  the  ergot  in  a  percolator  and  slowly  percolate  it  with  purified 
petroleum  benzin  until  a  few  drops  of  the  percolate,  evaporated  on 
filter  paper,  leave  no  greasy  staui.  Reject  the  benzin  percolate,  remove 
the  ergot  from  the  percolator  and  dry  it  by  exposure  to  the  air.  Mix 
eight  hundred  and  fifty  mils  of  alcohol  with  one  hundred  and  fifty  mils 
of  water,  add  the  hydrochloric  acid  to  four  hundred  mils  of  this  mixture, 
and  moisten  the  ergot  with  the  acid  mixture.  Pack  it  in  a  cylindrical 
percolator  and  macerate  for  six  hours,  then  add  enough  of  the  men- 
struum to  saturate  the  powder  and  leave  a  stratum  above  it.  When 
the  liquid  begins  to  drop  from  the  percolator,  close  the  lower  orifice, 
and,  having  closely  covered  the  percolator,  macerate  for  forty-eight 
hours.  Then  allow  the  percolation  to  proceed,  gradually  adding  men- 
struum, using  the  same  proportion  of  alcohol  and  water  as  before,  until 
the  drug  is  exhausted.  Recover  the  alcohol  from  the  percolate  by  distil- 
lation and  evaporate  the  residue  with  frequent  stirring,  at  a  temperature 
not  exceeding  70°  C,  to  a  pilular  consistence. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.25  Gm. — ^Apothecaries,  4  grauis. 


EXTRACTUM  FELLIS  BOVIS 

Extract  of  Oxgall 

Ext.  Fel.  Bov.— Powdered  Extract  of  Oxgall 

One  gramm,e  of  the  Extract  represents  eight  grammes  of  oxgall. 

Oxgall,  eight  hundred  grammes 800  Gm. 

Alcohol,  fifteen  hundred  milliliters 1500  mils 

Starch,  dried  at  100°  C.,  a  sufficient  quantity,  

To  make  one  hundred  grammes 100  Gm. 

Add  one  thousand  mils  of  alcohol  slowly  and  with  agitation  to  the 
oxgall  contained  in  a  bottle  of  sufficient  size.  Allow  the  mixture  to 
stand  for  two  days  and  then  decant  the  liquid  portion.  Wash  the 
residue  in  the  bottle  with  an  additional  five  hundred  mils  of  alcohol, 
decant  the  liquid  portion,  mix  it  with  the  liquid  first  separated  and  filter 
the  mixture.  Recover  the  alcohol  from  the  filtrate  by  distillation, 
transfer  the  residue  to  a  shallow  dish  and  evaporate  it  to  a  thick  extract 
at  a  temperature  between  75°  and  80°  C.  Spread  this  extract  on  glass 
plates  and  continue  the  drying  by  exposure  to  warm  air,  at  a  tempera- 
ture not  exceeding  70°  C,  until  thoroughly  dry.    Reduce  the  extract 


152  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA   OF   THE 

to  a  fine  powder,  weigh  it  and  add  sufficient  of  the  dried  starch  to  make 
the  product  weigh  one  hundred  grammes.  Mix  the  powders  thoroughly, 
pass  the  Extract  through  a  fine  sieve,  transfer  it  to  small,  wide-mouthed 
bottles  and  stopper  them  tightly. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.1  Gm. — Apothecaries  1)^  grains. 


EXTRACTUM  GELSEMII 

Extract  of  Gelsemium 

Ext.  Gelsem. — Powdei'ed  Extract  of  Gelsemium 

One  gramme  of  the  Extract  represents  four  grammes  of  gelsemium. 

Gelsemium,  in  No.  40  powder,  one  thousand  grammes  ....   1000  Gm. 

Alcohol, 

Magnesium  Oxide, 

Starch,  dried  at  100°  C.,  each,  a  sufficient  quantity,  

To  make  two  hundred  and  fifty  grammes 250  Gm. 

Moisten  the  drug  with  sufficient  alcohol,  pack  it  in  a  cylindrical 
percolator  and  add  enough  alcohol  to  saturate  the  powder  and  leave  a 
stratum  above  it.  When  the  liquid  begins  to  drop  from  the  percolator, 
close  the  lower  orifice,  and,  having  closely  covered  the  percolator, 
macerate  for  forty-eight  hours.  Then  allow  the  percolation  to  proceed 
slowly,  adding  alcohol  as  required,  until  the  drug  is  exhausted. 
Recover  the  alcohol  from  the  percolate,  by  distillation  at  as  low  a 
temperature  as  practicable,  until  a  residue  measuring  about  Jive 
hundred  mils  remains  in  the  still.  Transfer  this  residue  to  a  shallow 
dish,  and  evaporate  it  to  a  soft  extract  with  frequent  stirring,  at  a 
temperature  not  exceeding  70°  C.  Then  add  fifty  grammes  of  a  mix- 
ture of  one  part  of  magnesium  oxide  and  three  parts  of  the  dried  starch, 
mix  well,  spread  the  mass  in  a  thin  layer  on  glass  or  tinned-metal 
plates  or  in  a  porcelain  dish  and  continue  the  drying  in  an  air  bath,  at 
a  temperature  not  exceeding  70°  C.,  until  thoroughly  dry.  Reduce  the 
extract  to  a  fine  powder,  weigh  it,  and  add  sufficient  of  the  mixture  of 
magnesium  oxide  and  dried  starch,  made  in  the  same  proportion  as 
before,  to  make  the  finished  product  weigh  two  hundred  and  fifty  grammes. 
Mix  the  powders  thoroughly,  pass  the  Extract  through  a  fine  sieve, 
transfer  it  to  small,  wide-mouthed  bottles  and  stopper  them  tightly. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.01  Gm. — Apothecaries,  }4  grain. 


i 


UNITED   STATES   OF  AMERICA  153 

EXTRACTUM  GENTIAN^E 

Extract  of  Gentian 
Ext  Qentlan. 

Gentian,  in  No.  20  powder,  one  thousand  grammes 1000  Gm. 

Water,  o  sufficient  quantity. 

Moisten  the  powder  with  sufficient  water,  and  allow  it  to  macerate 
for  twenty-four  hours ;  then  pack  it  in  a  conical  percolator,  and  gradually 
pour  water  upon  it  until  the  drug  is  exhausted.  Reduce  the  liquid 
to  two  thousand  mils  by  boiling,  strain  it,  and  then  evaporate  it  to  a 
pilular  consistence  on  a  water  bath. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.25  Gm. — Apothecaries,  4  grains. 

EXTRACTUM  GLYCYRRHIZiE 

Extract  of  Glycyrrhiza 

Ext.  Glycyrrh. — Extract  of  Licorice 
The  commercial  Extract  of  Glycyrrhiza. 

In  flattened,  cylindrical  rolls  or  in  masses,  of  a  glossy  black  color  externally; 
fracture  brittle,  sharp,  smooth,  conchoidal;  taste  characteristic  and  sweet. 
When  pulverized  it  yields  a  brown  powder.  Not  less  than  60  per  cent,  of 
Extract  of  GlycjTrhiza  is  soluble  in  cold  water.  The  yield  of  ash  does  not 
exceed  6  per  cent. 

Preparations — Trochisci  Ammonii  Chloridi    Trochisci  Cubebae. 

EXTRACTUM  GLYCYRRHIZA  PURUM 

Pure  Extract  of  Glycyrrhiza 
Ext.  Glycyrrh.  Pur. 

Glycyrrhiza,  in  No.  20  powder,  one  thousand  grammes. .  .   1000  Gm. 

Ammonia  Water,  one  hundred  and  fifty  milliliters 150  mils 

Water, 

Chloroform  Water,  each,  a  sufficient  quantity. 

IVIix  the  ammonia  water  with  three  thousand  mils  of  water,  and, 
having  moistened  the  powder  with  one  thousand  mils  of  the  mixture, 
allow  it  to  macerate  in  a  closed  vessel  for  twenty-four  hours.  Then 
pack  it  lightly  in  a  cylindrical  percolator,  and  gradually  pour  upon  it, 
first  the  remainder  of  the  menstruum,  and  then  chloroform  water, 
until  the  glycyrrhiza  is  exhausted.  Evaporate  the  liquid  in  a  porcelain 
dish  on  a  water  bath,  to  a  pilular  consistence. 
Preparation — Mistura  Glycyrrhizae  Composita. 


154  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA   OF  THE 

EXTRACTUM  HYDRASTIS 

Extract  of  Hydrastis 

Ext.  Hydrast. — Extract  of  Golden  Seal        Powdered  Extract  of  Hydrastis 

Extract  of  Hydrastis  yields  not  less  than  9  per  cent,  nor  more  than 
11  per  cent,  of  the  ether-soluble  alkaloids  of  hydrastis.  One  gramme 
of  the  Extract  represents  about  four  grammes  of  hydrastis. 

Hydrastis,  in  No.  40  powder,  one  thousand  grammes 1000  Gm. 

Tartaric  Acid,  five  grammes 5  Gm. 

Alcohol, 

Magnesium  Oxide, 

Starch,  dried  at  100°  C.,  each,  a  sufficient  quantity. 

Dissolve  the  tartaric  acid  in  one  thousand  mils  of  alcohol,  moisten 
the  drug  with  sufficient  of  this  solution  and  pack  in  a  cylindrical  perco- 
lator; then  add  enough  of  the  acidified  alcohol,  followed  by  alcohol 
if  necessary,  to  saturate  the  powder  and  leave  a  stratum  above  it.  When 
the  liquid  begins  to  drop  from  the  percolator,  close  the  lower  orifice,  and, 
having  closely  covered  the  percolator,  macerate  for  forty-eight  hours. 
Then  allow  the  percolation  to  proceed  slowly,  adding  alcohol  as  required, 
until  the  drug  is  exhausted.  Recover  the  alcohol  from  the  percolate 
by  distillation,  and  evaporate  the  residue  to  a  soft  extract,  with  frequent 
stirring,  at  a  temperature  not  exceeding  70°  C.  Add  fifty  grammes  of  a 
mixture  of  one  part  of  magnesium  oxide  and  three  parts  of  the  dried 
starch,  mix  thoroughly  and  spread  the  mass  in  a  thin  layer  on  glass  or 
tinned-metal  plates  or  in  a  porcelain  dish  and  continue  the  drying  in 
an  air  bath  at  a  temperature  not  exceeding  70°  C.,  until  thoroughly 
dry.    Then  reduce  the  extract  to  a  fine  powder  and  weigh  it. 

Assay  a  portion  of  this  product  as  directed  below,  and,  from  the 
alkaloidal  content  thus  determined,  ascertain  by  calculation  the  amount 
of  alkaloids  in  the  remainder  of  the  powder  and  add  to  this  enough  of 
the  mixture  of  magnesium  oxide  and  dried  starch,  made  in  the  same 
proportion  as  before,  to  make  the  finished  Extract  contain  10  per  cent, 
of  the  ether-soluble  alkaloids  of  hydrastis.  Mix  the  powders  thoroughly, 
pass  the  Extract  through  a  fine  sieve,  transfer  it  to  small,  wide-mouthed 
bottles  and  stopper  them  tightly. 

Assay — Introduce  3  Gm.  of  Extract  of  Hydrastis  into  a  250  mil  flask,  add  10 
Gm.  of  washed  sand  and  mix  thoroughly.  Then  add  150  mils  of  ether  and  5  mils 
of  ammonia  water.  Shake  the  mixture  vigorously  every  ten  minutes  during  a 
half  hour,  and  when  the  dregs  have  settled  decant  100  mils  of  the  clear  liquid, 
representing  two  grammes  of  the  Extract.  Proceed  as  directed  under  Bellndoiinw 
RnrttT,  page  73,  seventh  line  of  the  Assay,  modifying  the  process  there  given 


•  UNITED   STATES   OF  AMERICA  l56 

by  using  ether  instead  of  chloroform  for  the  final  shaking  out  of  the  alkaloids, 
and  drying  the  residue  to  constant  weight  at  100°  C,  instead  of  titrating  it. 
The  weight  will  be  the  amount  of  ether-soluble  alkaloids  from  two  grammes  of 
Extract  of  Hydrastis. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.5  Cm. — Apothecaries,  8  grains. 


EXTRACTUM  HYOSCYA^II 

Extract  of  Hyoscyamus 

Ext.  Hyosc. 

Extract  of  Hyoscyamus  yields  not  less  than  0.22  per  cent,  nor  more 
than  0.28  per  cent,  of  the  alkaloids  of  hyoscyamus.  One  gramme  of 
the  Extract  represents  about  four  grammes  of  hyoscyamus. 

Hyoscyamus,  in  No.  40  powder,  one  tJwusand  grammes. .  .    1000  Gm. 

Glucose, 

Alcohol, 

Water,  each,  a  sufficient  quantity. 

^loisten  the  powder  with  sufficient  of  a  mixture  of  three  volumes 
of  alcohol  and  one  volume  of  water,  pack  it  firmly  in  a  cylindrical 
percolator  and  add  enough  menstruum,  using  the  same  proportion  of 
alcohol  and  water  as  before,  to  saturate  the  powder  and  leave  a  stratum 
above  it.  When  the  liquid  begins  to  drop  from  the  percolator,  close  the 
lower  orifice,  and,  having  closely  covered  the  percolator,  macerate  for 
forty-eight  hours.  Then  allow  the  percolation  to  proceed  slowly, 
gradually  adding  menstruum  of  the  same  strength  until  the  drug  is 
exhausted.  Recover  the  alcohol  by  distillation  and  evaporate  the 
residue,  with  frequent  stirring,  at  a  temperature  not  exceeding  70°  C., 
until  it  is  reduced  to  a  pilular  consistence.  Mix  the  mass  thoroughly 
and  weigh  it. 

Assay  a  portion  of  this  extract  as  directed  below,  and,  from  the 
alkaloidal  content  thus  determined,  ascertain  by  calculation  the  amount 
of  alkaloids  in  the  remainder  of  the  mass  and  to  this  add  enough  glucose 
to  make  the  finished  Extract  contain  0.25  per  cent,  of  the  alkaloids  of 
hyoscyamus.    Mix  thoroughly. 

Assay — Proceed  as  directed  under  Extractum  Belladonnas  Foliorum  (Pilular), 
page  145,  modifying  the  process  there  given  by  using  5  Gm.  of  Extract  of 
Hyoscyamus  instead  of  2  Gm.  of  extract  of  belladonna  leaves. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  sulphuric  acid  V.S.  consumed  corresponds  to  28.92 
milligrammes  of  the  alkaloids  of  hyoscyamus. 

I  Average  dose — Metric,  0.06  Gm. — Apothecaries,  1  grain. 


156  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA   OF   THE! 

EXTRACTUM  MALTI 

Extract  of  Malt 

Ext.  Malt. 

Malt,  in  coarse  powder  (not  finer  than  No.  12),  one  thou- 
sand grammes 1000  Gm. 

Water,  a  sufficient  quantity. 

Pour  one  thousand  mils  of  water  upon  the  powder  contained  in  a 
suitable  vessel  and  macerate  for  six  hours,  then  add  four  thousand 
mils  of  water,  heated  to  60°  C,  and  digest  the  mixture  for  one  hour 
on  a  water  bath  at  a  temperature  not  exceeding  60°  C.  Strain  the 
mixture,  express,  filter  the  strained  liquid,  and,  by  means  of  a  water  bath 
or  vacuum  apparatus,  evaporate  the  liquid,  at  a  temperature  not 
exceeding  60°  C,  until  it  has  a  specific  gravity  of  not  less  than  1.350 
nor  more  than  1.400  at  25°  C. 

Average  dose — Metric,  15  Gm. — Apothecaries,  4  drachms. 


EXTRACTUM  NUCIS  VOMICAE 

Extract  of  Nux  Vomica 

Ext.  Nuc.  Vom. — Powdered  Extract  of  Nux  Vomica    NucIs  vomicae  extractum  P.  I. 

Extract  of  Nux  Vomica  yields  not  less  than  15.2  per  cent,  nor  more 
than  16.8  per  cent,  of  the  alkaloids  of  nux  vomica. 

Nux  Vomica,  in  No.  20  powder,  one  thousand  grammes. . .   1000  Gm. 

Alcohol, 

Water, 

Purified  Petroleum  Benzin; 

Diluted  Sulphuric  Acid, 

Ammonia  Water, 

Chloroform, 

Magnesium  Oxide, 

Starch,  dried  at  100°  C.,  each,  a  sufficient  quantity. 

Moisten  the  drug  with  sufficient  of  a  mixture  of  three  volumes  of  alcohol 
and  one  volume  of  water,  pack  it  firmly  in  a  cylindrical  percolator,  and 
add  enough  of  the  menstruum,  using  the  same  proportion  of  alcohol 
and  water  as  before,  to  saturate  the  powder  and  leave  a  stratum  above 
it.  When  the  liquid  begins  to  drop  from  the  percolator,  close  the  lower 
orifice,  and,  having  closely  covered  the  percolator,  macerate  for  fort;^'- 


UNITED   STATES   OF   AMERICA  157 

eight  hours.  Then  allow  the  percolation  to  proceed  slowly,  gradually 
adding  the  menstruum  as  required,  until  the  percolate  passes  but 
faintly  imbued  with  bitterness,  and  the  drug  is  exhausted.  Recover 
the  alcohol  from  the  percolate  by  distillation  at  as  low  a  tempera- 
ture as  practicable  and  concentrate  the  liquid  until  the  residue 
measures  about  two  hundred  mils.  Transfer  this  residue  to  a  flask  or 
separator,  using  a  little  warm  menstruum  made  of  the  same  proportion 
of  alcohol  and  water  originally  used,  to  rinse  the  still,  and  add  the  rinsing 
to  the  separator.  Then  add  one  hundred  and  fifty  mils  of  water  and  two 
hundred  mils  of  purified  petroleum  benzin  and  shake  the  mixture  thor- 
oughly for  several  minutes.  Allow  the  liquids  to  separate  and  decant 
the  benzin  layer  as  closely  as  possible;  again  add  to  the  residue  one 
hundred  mils  of  purified  petroleum  benzin,  agitate,  and  decant  the 
benzin  as  before. 

Wash  the  mixed  benzin  solutions,  in  a  separator,  with  a  mixture  of 
one  hundred  mils  of  water  and  ten  mils  of  diluted  sulphuric  acid,  separate 
the  aqueous  layer  and  repeat  the  washing  twice  with  fresh  portions, 
one  hundred  mils  each,  of  water  and  acid  made  in  the  same  proportion 
as  before.  Collect  the  aqueous  solutions  in  a  separator,  render  the 
liquid  alkaline  by  the  addition  of  ammonia  water  and  shake  it  out 
with  three  portions  of  chloroform,  twenty  mils,  ten  mils,  and  ten  mils, 
respectively.  Add  the  combined  chloroform  solutions  to  the  extract 
and  evaporate  the  mixture  to  dr^Tiess  on  a  water  bath  with  frequent 
stirring. 

Assay  a  portion  of  this  product  as  directed  below,  and,  from  the 
alkaloidal  content  thus  determined,  ascertain  by  calculation  the  amount 
of  alkaloids  in  the  remainder  of  the  product  and  add  to  this  enough 
of  a  mixture  of  magnesium  oxide,  one  part,  and  of  the  dried  starch,  three 
parts,  to  make  the  finished  Extract  contain  16  per  cent,  of  the  alka- 
loids of  nux  vomica.  Reduce  the  mixture  to  a  fine  powder,  mix 
thoroughly,  pass  the  Extract  through  a  fine  sieve,  transfer  it  to  small, 
wide-mouthed  bottles  and  stopper  them  tightly. 

Assay — Introduce  3  Gm.  of  Extract  of  Nux  Vomica  into  a  250  mil  flask,  add 
10  Gm.  of  washed  sand  and  mix  thoroughly.  Then  add  150  mils  of  a  mixture 
of  ether,  2  volumes,  and  chloroform,  1  rohime,  followed  by  5  mils  of  ammonia 
■water.  Shake  the  mixture  vigorously  every  ten  minutes  during  half  an  hour, 
and  when  the  dregs  have  settled  decant  100  mils  of  the  clear  liquid,  repre- 
senting two  grammes  of  the  Extract.  Proceed  as  directed  under  BelladonncB 
Radix,  page  73,  seventh  Hue  of  the  Assay,  modifying  the  process  there  given  by 
dissolving  the  alkaloidal  residue  in  10  mils  of  tenth-normal  sulphuric  acid  V.S. 
instead  of  5  mils. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  sulphuric  acid  V.S.  consumed  corresponds  to  36.4 
milligranunes  of  the  alkaloids  of  nux  vomica. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.015  Gm. — Apothecaries,  }i  gram» 


158  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA    OF   THE 

EXTRACTUM  OPII 

Extract  of  Opium 

Ext,  Opii-  -Powdered  Extract  of  Opium        Opii  extractum  P.  I. 

Extract  of  Opium  yields  not  less  than  19.5  per  cent,  nor  more  than 
20.5  per  cent,  of  anhydrous  morphine.  One  gramme  of  the  Extract 
represents  about  two  grammes  of  opium. 

Opium,  cut  in  small  pieces,  one  hundred  grammes 100  Gm. 

Starch,  dried  at  100°  C, 
Water,  each,  a  sufficient  quantity. 

Macerate  the  opium  with  three  hundred  mils  of  hot  water  until  softened, 
then  rub  to  a  smooth  paste.  Add  to  this  one  hundred  grammes  of  clean, 
white  sand  and  mix  thoroughly.  Transfer  the  mixture  to  a  percolator 
and  allow  the  percolation  to  proceed,  gradually  adding  water  until  the 
opium  is  exhausted.  Evaporate  the  percolate  to  dryness  in  a  shallow 
evaporating  dish,  on  a  water  bath,  reduce  the  product  to  a  fine  powder 
and  weigh  it. 

Assay  a  portion  of  this  product  as  directed  below,  and,  from  the 
alkaloidal  content  thus  determined,  ascertain  by  calculation  the  amount 
of  ajihydrous  morphine  in  the  remainder  of  the  powder  and  add  to 
this  enough  of  the  dried  starch  to  make  the  finished  Extract  contain 
20  per  cent,  of  anhydrous  morphine.  Mix  the  powders  thoroughly,  pass 
the  Extract  through  a  fine  sieve,  transfer  it  to  small,  wide-mouthed 
bottles  and  stopper  them  tightly. 

Assay — Dissolve  4  Gm.  of  Extract  of  Opium  in  5  mils  of  distilled  water,  add 
gradually,  with  constant  stirring,  25  mils  of  distilled  water,  filter,  and  wash 
the  filter  and  residue  with  sufficient  distilled  water  to  make  the  solution  measure 
exactly  50  mils.  Then  proceed  as  directed  under  Opium,  page  30G,  sixteenth 
line  of  the  Assay. 

The  morphine  obtained  represents  two  grammes  of  Extract  of  Opium. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.03  Gm. — Apothecaries,  3^  grain. 


EXTRACTUM  PHYSOSTIGMATIS 

Extract  of  Physostigma 

Ext.  Physostig. — Powdered  Extract  of  Physostigma 

Extract  of  Physostigma  yields  not  less  than  1.7  per  cent,  nor  more 
than  2.3  per  cent,  of  the  alkaloids  of  physostigma.  One  gramme  of  the 
Extract  represents  about  thirteen  grammes  of  physostigma. 


UNITED   STATES    OF  AMERICA  159 

Physostigma,  in  No.  60  powder,  one  thousand  grammes. .    1000  Gm. 

Tartaric  Acid,  five  grammes 5  Gm. 

Purified  Petroleum  Benzin, 

Starch,  dried  at  100°  C., 

Alcohol, 

Water,  each,  a  sufficient  quantity. 

Dissolve  the  tartaric  acid  in  one  thousand  mils  of  a  mixture  of  three 
volumes  of  alcohol  and  one  volume  of  water,  moisten  the  drug  with 
sufficient  of  this  solution,  and  pack  it  in  a  cylindrical  percolator;  then 
add  enough  of  the  acidified  alcohol  to  saturate  the  powder  and  leave 
a  stratum  above  it.  When  the  liquid  begins  to  drop  from  the  percolator, 
close  the  lower  orifice,  and,  having  closely  covered  the  percolator, 
macerate  for  forty-eight  hours.  Then  allow  the  percolation  to  proceed 
slowly,  gradually  adding  the  remainder  of  the  prepared  menstruum 
and  then  a  mixture  of  three  volumes  of  alcohol  and  one  volume  of 
water  until  the  drug  is  exhausted.  Recover  the  alcohol  from  the 
percolate  by  distillation  at  as  low  a  temperature  as  practicable  and 
concentrate  the  remaining  liquid  at  a  temperature  not  exceeding  70°  C. 
until  the  residue  measures  about  two  hundred  mils.  Transfer  the  residue 
to  a  flask,  using  a  little  warm  menstruum,  made  of  the  same  propor- 
tion of  alcohol  and  water  as  before,  to  rinse  the  still,  and  add  the 
rinsing  to  the  residue  in  the  flask.  Then  add  one  hundred  mils  of  water 
and  two  hundred  and  fifty  mils  of  purified  petroleum  benzin  and  shake 
the  mixture  thoroughly  for  several  minutes.  Allow  the  liquids  to  sepa- 
rate and  decant  the  benzin  layer  as  closely  as  possible;  again  add  to 
the  residue  two  hundred  mils  of  purified  petroleum  benzin,  agitate,  and, 
after  allowing  the  liquids  to  separate,  decant  the  benzin  layer  as  before 
and  reject  the  benzin  solutions. 

Transfer  the  residue  to  a  shallow  evaporating  dish,  rinse  the  separator 
with  a  little  of  the  warm  menstruum,  add  the  rinsings  to  the  residue  in 
the  dish  and  evaporate  it  to  pilular  consistence  at  a  temperature  not 
exceeding  70°  C.  Now  add  twenty  grammes  of  the  dried  starch,  thoroughly 
incorporate  it,  set  the  extract  aside  in  a  current  of  warm  air  until  dry, 
then  reduce  the  product  to  a  fine  powder  and  weigh  it. 

Assay  a  portion  of  this  product  as  directed  below,  and,  from  the 
alkaloidal  content  thus  determined,  ascertain  by  calculation  the  amount 
of  alkaloids  in  the  remainder  of  the  powder  and  add  to  this  enough  of 
the  dried  starch  to  make  the  finished  Extract  contain  2  per  cent, 
of  the  alkaloids  of  physostigma.    Mix  the  powders  thoroughly,  pass  the 


160  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA   OF   THE   ■ 

Extract  through  a  fine  sieve,  transfer  it  to  small,  wide-mouthed  bottles 
and  stopper  them  tightly. 

Assny — Introduce  3  Grn.  of  Extract  of  Physostigma  into  a  250  mil  flask,  add 
10  Gm.  of  washed  sand  and  mix  thoroughly.  Then  add  150  mils  of  ether  and 
proceed  aa  directed  under  Physostigma,  page  320,  second  line  of  the  Assay. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  sulphuric  acid  V.S.  consumed  corresponds  to  27.52 
milligrammes  of  the  alkaloids  of  physostigma. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.008  Gm. — Apothecaries,  %  grain. 


EXTRACTUM  RHEI 

Extract  of  Rhubarb 

Ext.  Rhel— Powdered  Extract  of  Rhubarb 
One  gramme  of  the  Extract  represents  two  grammes  of  rhubarb. 

Rhubarb,  in  No.  40  powder,  one  thousand  grammes 1000  Gm. 

Magnesium  Oxide,  fifty  grammes 50  Gm. 

Starch,  dried  at  100°  C., 

Alcohol, 

Water,  each,  a  sufficient  quantity. 

To  make,  five  hundred  grammes 500  Gm. 

Moisten  the  drug  with  sufficient  of  a  mixture  oifour  volumes  of  alcohol 
and  one  volume  of  water,  pack  it  in  a  cylindrical  percolator  and  add 
enough  of  this  menstruum  to  saturate  the  powder  and  leave  a  stratum 
above  it.  When  the  liquid  begins  to  drop  from  the  percolator  close 
the  lower  orifice,  and,  having  closely  covered  the  percolator,  macerate 
for  forty-eight  hours.  Then  allow  the  percolation  to  proceed  slowly, 
gradually  adding  menstruum  of  the  same  proportion  of  alcohol  and 
water  as  before  until  the  drug  is  exhausted.  Recover  the  alcohol  from 
the  percolate  by  distillation  at  as  low  a  temperature  as  practicable, 
and  continue  distillation  until  a  residue  of  syrupy  consistence  remains 
in  the  still.  Transfer  this  to  a  shallow  dish,  rinse  the  still  with  a  little 
warm  menstruum,  add  the  rinsings  to  the  residue  in  the  dish,  and  evap- 
orate the  mixture  to  dryness,  with  frequent  stirring,  at  a  temperature 
not  exceeding  70°  C.  Weigh  the  dry  extract  and  add  the  magnesium 
oxide  and  sufficient  of  the  dried  starch  to  make  the  product  weigh  five 
hundred  grammes.  Reduce  the  mixture  to  a  fine  powder,  mix  thoroughly, 
pass  the  Extract  through  a  fine  sieve,  transfer  it  to  small,  wide-mouthed 
bottles  and  stopper  them  tightly. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.25  Gm. — Apothecaries,  4  grains. 


tJNITED  STATES  OF  AMERICA  161 

EXTRACTUM  STRAMONII 

Extract  of  Stramonium 
Ext.  Stramon. 

Extract  of  Stramonium  yields  not  less  than  0.9  per  cent,  nor  more 
than  1.1  per  cent,  of  the  alkaloids  of  stramonium.  One  gramme  of 
the  Extract  represents  about  Jour  grammes  of  stramonium. 

Pilular  Extract  of  Stramonium 
Stramonium,  in  No.  30  powder,  one  thousand  grammes. . . .   1000  Gm. 
Glucose, 
Alcohol, 
Water,  each,  a  sufficient  quantity. 

Moisten  the  powder  with  sufficient  of  a  mixture  of  three  volumes  of 
alcohol  and  one  volume  of  water  and  pack  it  in  a  cylindrical  percolator; 
then  add  enough  of  this  menstruum  to  saturate  the  powder  and  leave 
a  stratum  above  it.  When  the  liquid  begins  to  drop  from  the  percolator, 
close  the  lower  orifice,  and,  having  closely  covered  the  percolator, 
macerate  for  forty-eight  hours.  Then  allow  the  percolation  to  proceed 
gradually  adding  menstruum  of  the  same  strength,  until  the  drug  is 
exhausted.  Recover  the  alcohol  from  the  percolate  by  distillation, 
and  evaporate  the  residue  with  frequent  stirring,  at  a  temperature 
not  exceeding  70°  C,  to  a  pilular  consistence.  Mix  the  mass  thoroughly 
and  weigh  it. 

Assay  a  portion  of  this  extract  as  directed  below,  and,  from  the 
alkaloidal  content  thus  determined,  ascertain  by  calculation  the  amount 
of  alkaloids  in  the  remainder  of  the  mass  and  to  this  add  enough  glucose 
to  make  the  finished  Extract  contain  1  per  cent,  of  the  alkaloids  of 
stramonium.    Mix  thoroughly. 

Assay — Proceed  as  directed  under  Extractum  Belladonnoe  Foliorum  (Pilular), 
page  145,  using  2  Gm.  of  Pilular  Extract  of  Stramonium. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  sulphuric  acid  V.S.  consumed  corresponds  to  28.92 
milligrammes  of  the  alkaloids  of  stramonium. 

Powdered  Extract  of  Stramonium 
Stramonium,  in  No.  40  powder,  one  thousand  grammes  .  . .   1000  Gm. 

Magnesium  Oxide,  twenty  grammes 20  Gm. 

Starch,  dried  at  100°  C, 
Alcohol,  each,  a  sufficient  quantity. 

Moisten  the  drug  with  sufficient  alcohol  and  pack  it  in  a  cylindrical 

percolator;  then  add  enough  alcohol  to  saturate  the  powder  and  leave 
16 


162  THE   PHARMACOPOEIA    OF   THE 

a  stratum  above  it.  When  the  liquid  begins  to  drop  from  the  percolator, 
close  the  lower  orifice,  and,  having  closely  covered  the  percolator,  macer- 
ate for  forty-eight  hours.  Then  allow  the  percolation  to  proceed  very 
slowly,  adding  alcohol  as  required.  Reserve  the  first  one  thousand 
mils  of  percolate  and  continue  the  percolation  until  the  second  per- 
colate measures  one  thousand  mils  or  until  the  drug  is  exhausted. 
Transfer  the  second  percolate  to  a  suitable  apparatus  and  distil  off 
the  alcohol,  at  as  low  a  temperature  as  practicable,  until  a  residue 
measuring  about  one  hundred  mils  remains,  then  add  the  reserved 
percolate  and  continue  distillation  until  the  residue  in  the  still  is  of 
syrupy  consistence. 

Transfer  this  residue  to  a  shallow  evaporating  dish,  rinse  the  flask 
or  still  with  a  small  quantity  of  warm  alcohol,  and  add  the  rinsing  to 
the  contents  of  the  dish.  Evaporate  this  to  a  soft  extract,  with  frequent 
stirring,  at  a  temperature  not  exceeding  70°  C.  Then  add  fifty  grammes 
of  the  dried  starch  and  continue  the  heating  at  the  same  temperature, 
with  frequent  stirring,  until  the  mass  is  nearly  dry.  Now  add  the  mag- 
nesium oxide,  thoroughly  incorporate  it,  and  set  the  product  aside  in  a 
current  of  warm  air,  until  thoroughly  dry.  Reduce  the  product  to  a 
fine  powder  and  weigh  it. 

Assay  a  portion  of  this  product  as  directed  below,  and,  from  the 
alkaloidal  content  thus  determined,  ascertain  by  calculation  the  amount 
of  alkaloids  in  the  remainder  of  the  powder  and  add  to  this  enough 
dried  starch  to  make  the  finished  Extract  contain  1  per  cent,  of  the 
alkaloids  of  stramonium.  IVIix  the  powders  thoroughly,  pass  the 
Extract  through  a  fine  sieve,  transfer  it  to  small,  wide-mouthed  bottles 
and  stopper  them  tightly. 

Assay — Proceed  as  directed  under  Extractum  Bdladonnce  Foliorum  (Powdered), 
page  146,  using  3  Gm.  of  Powdered  Extract  of  Stramonium. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  sulphuric  acid  V.S.  consumed  corresponds  to  28.92 
milligrammes  of  the  alkaloids  of  stramonium. 
Preparation — Unguentum  Stramonii  (from  Pilular  Extract). 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.01  Gm. — Apothecaries,  %  grain. 

EXTRACTUM  SUMBUL 

Extract  of  Sumbul 

Ext.  Sumbul 

Sumbul,  in  No.  30  powder,  one  thousand  grammes 1000  Gm. 

Alcohol, 

Water,  each,  a  sufficient  quantity. 


XmiTED   STATES    OF  AiMEIilCA  163 

Moisten  the  powder  with  sufficient  of  a  mixture  of  four  volumes  of 
alcohol  and  one  volume  of  water  and  pack  it  in  a  cylindrical  percolator; 
then  add  enough  of  this  menstruum  to  saturate  the  powder  and  leave 
a  stratum  above  it.  When  the  liquid  begins  to  drop  from  the  percolator, 
close  the  lower  orifice,  and,  having  closely  covered  the  percolator, 
macerate  for  forty-eight  hours.  Then  allow  the  percolation  to  proceed 
slowly,  gradually  adding  menstruum  of  the  same  strength  until  the 
drug  is  exhausted.  Recover  the  alcohol  from  the  percolate  by  distillation 
and  evaporate  the  residue  with  frequent  stirring,  at  a  temperature  not 
exceeding  70°  C,  to  a  pilular  consistence. 

AVERA.GB  DOSE — Metric,  0.25  Gm. — Apothecaries,  4  grains. 


EXTRACTUM  TARAXACI 

Extract  of  Taraxacum 
Ext.  Tarax. 

Taraxacum,  in  No.  30  powder,  one  thousand  grammes.  . .  .  1000  Gm. 

Alcohol, 

Water,  each,  a  su^cient  quantity. 

Mix  one  hundred  and  twenty-five  mils  of  alcohol  with  eight  hundred 
and  seventy-five  mils  of  water,  and,  having  moistened  the  powder 
with  a  portion  of  the  mixture,  pack  it  in  a  cylindrical  percolator,  then 
add  enough  of  the  menstruum  to  saturate  the  powder  and  leave  a  stratum 
above  it.  When  the  liquid  begins  to  drop  from  the  percolator,  close  the 
lower  orifice,  and,  having  closely  covered  the  percolator,  macerate  for 
twenty-four  hours.  Then  allow  the  percolation  to  proceed,  gradually 
adding  menstruum  of  the  same  strength  until  the  drug  is  exhausted. 
Recover  the  alcohol  from  the  percolate  by  distillation  and  evaporate  the 
residue  with  frequent  stirring,  on  a  water  bath,  to  a  pilular  consistence. 

Average  dose — Metric,  1  Gm. — Apothecaries,  15  grains. 


EXTRACTUM  VIBURNI  PRUNIFOLII 

Extract  of  Viburnum  Prunifolium 

Ext.  Viburn.  Prun. — Powdered  Extract  of  Viburnum  Prunifolium 

One  gramme  of  the  Extract  represents^ye  grammes  of  viburnum  pruni- 
folium. 


164  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA   OF   THE 

Viburnum  Prunifolium,  in  No.  30  powder,  one  thousand 

grammes 1000  Gm. 

Magnesium  Oxide,  Hve  grammes 5  Gm. 

Starch,  dried  at  100°  C., 

Diluted  Alcohol,  each,  a  sufficient  quantity, 

To  make  two  hundred  grammes 200  Gm. 

Moisten  the  powder  with  sufficient  diluted  alcohol  and  pack  it  in  a 
cylindrical  percolator;  then  add  enough  diluted  alcohol  to  saturate  the 
powder  and  leave  a  stratum  above  it.  When  the  liquid  begins  to  drop 
from  the  percolator,  close  the  lower  orifice,  and,  having  closely  covered 
the  percolator,  macerate  for  forty-eight  hours.  Then  allow  the  percola- 
tion to  proceed  slowly,  adding  diluted  alcohol  as  required  until  the 
viburnum  prunifolium  is  exhausted.  Recover  the  alcohol  from  the 
percolate  by  distillation  at  as  low  a  temperature  as  practicable  and 
evaporate  the  residue  to  a  soft  extract  in  a  shallow  dish  on  a  water 
bath,  at  a  temperature  not  'exceeding  70°  C.  Add  the  magnesium 
oxide,  incorporate  it  thoroughly,  spread  the  extract  on  glass  plates  and 
dry  it  by  exposure  to  currents  of  warm  air.  Reduce  the  extract  to  a 
fine  powder,  weigh  it,  and  add  sufficient  of  the  dried  starch  to  make  the 
finished  product  weigh  two  hundred  grammes.  Mix  the  powder  thor- 
oughly, pass  the  Extract  through  a  fine  sieve,  transfer  it  to  small,  wide- 
mouthed  bottles  and  stopper  them  tightly. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.5  Gm. — Apothecaries,  8  grains. 


PEL  BOVIS 

Oxgall 

The  fresh  bile  of  the  ox,  Bos  taurus  Linn^  (Fam.  Bovidoe). 

A  brownish-green  or  dark  green,  somewhat  viscid  liquid,  having  a  character- 
istic odor,  and  a  disagreeable,  bitter  taste. 

When  Oxgall  is  shaken  with  water  a  frothy  mixture  is  produced. 

Specific  gravity:    1.015  to  1.025  at  25°  C. 

It  is  neutral  or  faintly  alkaline  to  litmus. 

A  mixture  of  2  drops  of  Oxgall  and  10  mils  of  water,  when  treated,  first  with 
a  drop  of  a  freshly  prepared  solution  of  1  part  of  sugar  in  4  parts  of  water,  and 
afterwards  with  sulphuric  acid,  cautiously  added,  until  the  precipitate  first 
formed  is  redissolved,  gradually  acquires  a  brownish-red  color,  changing  suc- 
cessively to  carmine,  purple,  and  violet. 

Preparation — Extractum  Fellis  Bovis. 


tJNITED   STATES   OF  AMERICA  165 

FERRI  CARBONAS  SACCIIARATUS 

Saccharated  Ferrous  Carbonate 
Ferr.  Carb.  Sacch. 

Saccharated  Ferrous  Carbonate  contains  not  less  than  15  per  cent,  of 
FeCOa  (115,84).  Preserve  it  in  small,  well-stoppered  bottles,  exposed 
to  light. 

Ferrous  Sulphate,  fifty  grammes 50  Gm. 

Sodium  Bicarbonate,  thirty-five  grammes 35  Gm. 

Sugar  of  Milk,  ten  grammes 10  Gm. 

Sugar,  in  fine  powder, 
Diluted  Sulphuric  Acid, 

Distilled  Water,  each,  a  sufficient  quantity,  

To  make  one  hundred  grammes 100  Gm. 

Dissolve  the  ferrous  sulphate  in  two  hundred  mils  of  hot  distilled 
water,  add  a  few  drops  of  diluted  sulphuric  acid  and  filter.  Dissolve 
the  sodium  bicarbonate  in  five  hundred  mils  of  distilled  water  at  a 
temperature  not  exceeding  50°  C,  and  filter.  To  the  solution  of  sodium 
bicarbonate,  contained  in  a  flask  having  a  capacity  of  about  one  thousand 
mils,  gradually  add  the  solution  of  ferrous  sulphate,  and  mix  thoroughly 
by  rotating  the  flask.  Fill  the  flask  with  boiling  distilled  water,  cork 
it  loosely,  and  set  the  mixture  aside.  When  the  precipitate  has  sub- 
sided, draw  off  the  clear  supernatant  hquid  by  means  of  a  siphon;  fill 
the  flask  again  with  hot  distilled  water  and  shake  it.  Again  draw  off 
the  clear  liquid,  and  repeat  the  washing  with  hot  distilled  water,  in  the 
same  manner,  until  the  decanted  liquid  gives  merely  a  slight  cloudiness 
with  barium  chloride  T.S.  Drain  the  precipitate,  and  transfer  it  to 
a  porcelain  dish  containing  seventy  grammes  of  sugar  and  ten  grammes 
of  sugar  of  milk  and  mix  intimately.  Evaporate  the  mixture  to  dryness 
on  a  water  bath,  reduce  it  to  powder,  weigh,  and  mix  intimately  with 
it,  if  necessary,  enough  well-dried  sugar  to  make  the  product  weigh 
one  hundred  grammes.  To  minimize  oxidation  make  this  preparation  in 
the  shortest  possible  time. 

Saccharated  Ferrous  Carbonate  is  a  greenish-brown  powder,  gradually  be- 
coming oxidized  by  contact  with  air;  odorless,  and  having  at  first  a  sweetish, 
afterwards  slightly  ferruginous,  taste. 

Saccharated  Ferrous  Carbonate  is  only  partially  soluble  in  water,  but  is 
completely  dissolved  on  the  addition  of  hydrochloric  acid,  with  copious  evolu- 
tion of  carbon  dioxide,  forming  a  clear,  greenish-yellow  liquid. 

Dissolve  1  Gm.  of  Saccharated  Ferrous  Carbonate  in  5  mils  of  hydrochloric 
acid,  and  dilute  the  solution  with  distilled  water  until  it  measures  100  mils. 


166  THE    PHARMACOPCEIA   OF   THE 

Portions  of  this  solution  yield  a  blue  precipitate  with  either  potassium  ferro- 
cyanide  T.S.  or  potassium  ferricyanide  T.S.;  another  10  mil  portion  of  the 
solution  shows  not  more  than  a  shght  turbidity  with  barium  chloride  T.S. 
{sulphate). 

Assay — Dissolve  about  2  Gm.  of  Saccharated  Ferrous  Carbonate,  accurately 
weighed,  in  15  mils  of  diluted  sulphuric  acid,  and  dilute  the  solution  with  distilled 
water  to  about  100  mils.  Titrate  immediately  with  tenth-normal  potassium 
dichromate  V.S.,  potassium  feiTicyanide  T.S.  being  used  as  indicator.  It  shows 
not  less  than  15  per  cent,  of  FeCOa. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  potassium  dichromate  V.S.  used  corresponds  to 
0.011584  Gm.  of  FeCOa.  Each  gramme  of  Saccharated  Ferrous  Carbonate 
corresponds  to  not  less  than  13  mils  of  tenth-normal  potassium  dichromate  V.S. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.25  Gm. — Apothecaries,  4  grains. 


FERRI  CHLORIDUM 

Ferric  Chloride 

Ferr.  Chlor. — Iron  Perchloride    Sesquichloride  of  Iron 

It  contains  FeCla  (162.22)  in  a  hydrated  form  corresponding  to  not 
less  than  20  per  cent,  of  Fe.    Preserve  it  in  well-closed  glass  containers. 

Ferric  Chloride  occurs  in  orange-yellow,  crystalline  pieces,  odorless,  or  with 
a  faint  odor  of  hydrochloric  acid,  and  having  a  strongly  styptic  taste.  It  is 
very  deliquescent  in  air. 

One  Gm.  of  FeiTic  Chloride  dissolves  in  0.2  mil  of  water  at  25°  C;  freely 
soluble  in  alcohol  and  soluble  in  glycerin  or  ether. 

At  about  35.5°  C.  the  salt  fuses  to  a  reddish-brown  liquid.  When  strongly 
heated,  it  decomposes,  losing  some  ferric  chloride,  water  and  hydrochloric  acid 
and  leaving  a  residue  of  ferric  oxide. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  Ferric  Chloride,  made  by  dissolving  10  Gm.  of  the  salt 
in  15  mils  of  distilled  water,  responds  to  the  tests  for  identity  and  purity  imder 
Liquor  Ferri  Chloridi,  omitting  the  test  for  hydrochloric  acid. 

Assay — Dissolve  about  1  Gm.  of  Ferric  Chloride,  accurately  weighed  in  a 
stoppered  weighing-bottle,  in  25  mils  of  distilled  water,  add  3  mils  of  hydro- 
chloric acid  and  4  Gm.  of  potassium  iodide,  and  allow  the  mixture  to  stand 
in  a  glass-stoppered  flask  or  bottle  for  thirty  minutes  at  a  temperature  of  40°  C. 
Cool  this  solution,  then  dilute  it  with  lOO  mils  of  distilled  water  and  titrate 
with  tenth-normal  sodium  tliiosulphate  V.S.,  using  starch  T.S.  as  indicator. 
It  shows  not  less  than  20  per  cent,  of  Fe. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  sodiuip  thiosulphate  V.S.  used  corresponds  to 
0.005584  Gm.  of  Fe.  Each  gramme  of  Ferric  Chloride  corresponds  to  not  less 
than  35.8  mils  of  tenth-normal  sodium  thiosulphate  V.S. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.06  Gm. — Apothecaries,  1  grain. 


FERRI  ET  AMMONII  CITRAS 

Iron  and  Ammonium  Citrate 

Ferr.  et  Ammon,  Cit. — Soluble  Ferric  Citrate    Ammonio-ferric  Citrate 

Ferric  citrate  rendered  more  readily  soluble  by  the  presence  of  ammo- 
nium citrate  and  containing  not  less  than  16  per  cent,  nor  more  than 


UNITED   STATES   OF   AMEUICA  167 

18  per  cent,  of  Fe.     Preserve  it  in  well-closed  containers,  protected 
from  light. 

Iron  and  Ammonium  Citrate  occurs  as  thin,  transparent,  garnet-red  scales, 
odorless  and  having  a  saUne,  mildly  ferruginous  taste.  It  is  deliquescent  in 
moist  air. 

Iron  and  Ammonium  Citrate  is  readily  and  completely  soluble  in  water; 
insoluble  in  alcohol. 

An  aqueous  solution  (1  in  20)  is  neutral  or  but  slightly  acid  or  alkaUne  to 
litmus. 

When  strongly  heated,  it  chars,  and  finally  leaves  a  residue  of  ferric  oxide. 

Heat  Iron  and  Ammonium  Citrate  with  jiotassium  hydroxide  T.S.;  it  yields 
a  brownish-red  precipitate,  and  ammonia  is  evolved. 

Ammonia  water,  added  to  an  aqueous  solution,  produces  no  precipitate,  but 
darkens  the  solution. 

Remove  the  iron  from  10  mils  of  an  aqueous  solution  of  Iron  and  Ammonium 
Citrate  (1  in  10)  bj'  boihng  it  with  an  excess  of  potas.sium  hydroxide  T.S.,  filter, 
and  then  slightly  acidulate  the  filtrate  with  acetic  acid.  A  portion  of  the  cooled 
filtrate,  when  mixed  with  2  mils  of  calcium  chloride  T.S.,  and  again  heated  to 
boiling,  gradually  deposits  a  white  crystalline  precipitate.  Another  portion  of 
the  filtrate,  when  acidulated  more  strongly  with  acetic  acid  and  allowed  to  stand 
for  twenty-four  hours,  does  not  j-ield  a  white  crystalhne  precipitate  {tartrate). 

An  aqueous  solution  of  Iron  and  Ammonium  Citrate  (1  in  100)  does  not  jield 
a  blue  precipitate  with  potassium  ferrocyanide  T.S.  unless  it  is  acidulated  with 
hydrochloric  acid  (difference  from  ferric  citrate). 

Assay — Dissolve  about  1  Gm.  of  Iron  and  Ammoniimi  Citrate,  accurately 
weighed,  in  25  mils  of  distilled  water  and  7  mils  of  hydrochloric  acid,  in  a  glass- 
stoppered  flask  or  bottle,  add  4  Gm.  of  pota.ssium  iodide,  stopper  the  bottle 
securely  and  keep  it  at  a  temperature  of  40°  C.  for  thii-ty  minutes.  Then  cool, 
and  titrate  with  tenth-normal  sodium  thiosulphato  V.S.,  using  starch  T.S.  as 
indicator.     It  shows  not  less  than  16  per  cent,  nor  more  than  IS  per  cent  of  Fe. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  sodium  thiosulphate  V.S.  used  corresponds  to 
0.005584  Gm.  of  Fe.  Each  gramme  of  Iron  and  Ammonium  Citrate  corre- 
sponds to  not  less  than  28.6  mils  nor  more  than  32.2  mils  of  tenth-normal 
sodium  thiosulphate  V.S. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.25  Gm. — Apothecaries,  4  grains. 


FERRI  ET  QUININiE  CITRAS 

Iron  and  Quinine  Citrate 

Ferr.  et  Quin.  Cit. — Ferri  ct  Quininse  Citras  Solubilis,  U.S.P.  VIII 
Soluble  Iron  and  Quinine  Citrate 

Iron  citrate  and  quinine  citrate  rendered  more  soluble  by  the  pres- 
ence of  ammonium  citrate  and  containing  not  less  than  11.5  per  cent, 
of  anhydrous  quinine  (C20H24O2X2)  and  not  less  than  13  per  cent,  of 
Fe.  Preserve  it  in  amber-colored,  well-stoppered  bottles,  protected  from 
light. 

Iron  and  Quinine  Citrate  occurs  as  thin,  transparent  scales,  of  a  greenish  or 
golden-yellow  color,  odorless,  and  having  a  bitter,  mildly  ferruginous  taste. 
It  is  deliquescent. 


168  THE  PHARMACOPCEIA  OF  THE 

Iron  and  Quinine  Citrate  is  rapidly  and  completely  soluble  in  cold  water, 
partly  soluble  in  alcohol. 

An  aqueous  solution  (1  in  10)  is  acid  to  litmus. 

When  strongly  heated,  Iron  and  Quinine  Citrate  chars,  and  finally  leaves  a 
residue  of  ferric  oxide. 

When  heated  with  potassium  hydroxide  T.S.,  a  brown  precipitate  is  produced 
and  ammonia  is  evolved. 

On  the  addition  of  a  slight  excess  of  ammonia  water  to  an  aqueous  solution 
of  Iron  and  QuLaine  Citrate  (1  in  10),  the  color  of  the  Mquid  is  deepened,  and 
a  white,  curdy  precipitate  is  produced. 

A  portion  of  the  filtrate  from  this  precipitate  does  not  yield  a  blue  color  or 
precipitate  with  potassium  ferrocyanide  T.S.  unless  it  is  acidulated  with  hydro- 
chloric acid. 

Boil  an  aqueous  solution  of  Iron  and  Quinine  Citrate  (1  in  10)  with  an  excess 
of  potassium  hydroxide  T.S.  until  completely  precipitated,  and  slightly  acidulate 
the  filtrate  with  acetic  acid.  A  portion  of  the  cooled  filtrate,  mixed  with  2  mils 
of  calcium  chloride  T.S.  and  again  heated  to  boihng,  gradually  deposits  a  white, 
crystalline  precipitate.  Another  portion  of  the  filtrate,  more  strongly  acidulated 
with  acetic  acid  and  allowed  to  stand  for  twenty-four  hours,  does  not  yield  a 
white,  crystalline  precipitate  {tartrate). 

Assay  for  Quinine — Dissolve  about  1  Gm.  of  Iron  and  Quinine  Citrate,  accu- 
rately weighed,  in  20  mils  of  distilled  water  in  a  separator,  add  5  mils  of  am- 
monia water  and  10  mils  of  chloroform,  and  shake  the  separator  for  one  minute. 
Allow  the  hquids  to  separate,  draw  off  the  chloroform  layer  through  a  small 
filter  moistened  with  chloroform,  into  a  tared  dish,  and  shake  the  residuary 
hquid  a  second  and  a  third  time  with  portions  of  10  mils  each  of  chloroform, 
passing  the  chloroform  through  the  filter  each  time  and  finally  washing  the  filter 
with  5  mils  of  chloroform.  Evaporate  the  combined  chloroform  solutions, 
redissolve  the  residue  in  3  mils  of  alcohol,  again  evaporate  and  then  dry  the 
residue  to  constant  weight  at  100°  C.  This  residue  corresponds  to  not  less 
than  11.5  per  cent,  of  the  amount  of  Iron  and  Quinine  Citrate  taken  for  the 
assay  and  conforms  to  the  identity  tests  under  Quinina. 

Assay  for  Iron — Heat  the  aqueous  hquid,  from  which  the  quinine  has  been 
removed  in  the  manner  just  described,  on  a  water  bath,  until  the  odors  of  chloro- 
form and  of  ammonia  have  disappeared,  allow  to  cool  and  dilute  with  distilled 
water  to  a  volume  of  25  mils.  Transfer  the  hquid  to  a  glass- stoppered  bottle, 
add  15  mils  of  hydrochloric  acid  and  3  Gm.  of  potassium  iodide,  and,  after  se- 
curely closing  the  bottle,  allow  the  mixture  to  stand  for  thirty  minutes  at 
40°  C.  Then  cool  and  titrate  with  sodium  thiosulphate  V.S.,  using  starch  T.S. 
as  indicator.    It  shows  not  less  than  13  per  cent,  of  Fe. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  sodium  thiosulphate  V.S.  used  corresponds  to 
0.005584  Gm.  of  Fe.  Each  gramme  of  Iron  and  Quinine  Citrate  corresponds 
to  not  less  than  23.3  mils  of  tenth-normal  sodium  thiosulphate  V.S. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.25  Gm. — Apothecaries,  4  grains. 


FERRI  IIYDROXIDUM  CUM  MAGNESII  OXIDO 

Ferric  Hydroxide  with  Magnesium  Oxide 

Ferr.  Hydrox.  cum  Mag.  Oxid. — Arsenic  Antidote    Ferric  Hydrate  with  Magnesia 

Solution  of  Ferric  Sulphate,  forty  milliliters 40  mils 

Magnesium  Oxide,  ten  grammes 10  Gm, 

Water,  a  sufficient  quantity. 


UNITED  STATES  OF  AMERICA  169 

Mix  the  solution  of  ferric  sulphate  with  one  hundred  and  twenly-five 
mils  of  water,  and  keep  the  hquid  in  a  large,  well-stoppered  bottle.  Rub 
the  magnesium  oxide  with  cold  water  to  a  smooth  and  thin  mixture, 
transfer  this  to  a  bottle  capable  of  holding  about  one  thousand  mils, 
fill  it  with  water  to  about  three-fourths  of  its  capacity,  and  keep  it 
tightly  stoppered.  When  the  preparation  is  wanted  for  use,  shake  the 
magnesium  oxide  mixture  until  of  a  thin,  creamy  consistence,  slowly 
add  to  it  the  diluted  solution  of  ferric  sulphate,  and  shake  them  together 
until  a  uniformly  smooth  mixture  results. 

Note — In  this  process  the  10  Gm.  of  magnesium  oxide  may  be 
replaced  by  300  mils  of  magnesia  magma,  diluting  it  with  sufficient 
water  to  make  the  required  volume. 

Always  keep  the  diluted  solution  of  ferric  sulphate  and  the  magnesia 
mixture  on  hand  in  separate  bottles,  ready  for  immediate  use,  so  that 
the  antidote  may  be  quickly  prepared. 

Average  dose — Metric,  120  mils — Apothecaries,  4  fluidounces. 


FERRI  PHOSPHAS 

Ferric  Phosphate 

Ferr.  Phos.— Ferri  Phosphas  Solubllis,  U.S.P.  VIII 
Soluble  Ferric  Phosphate 

Ferric  Phosphate  rendered  soluble  by  the  presence  of  sodium  citrate. 
It  contains  not  less  than  12  per  cent,  of  Fe.  Preserve  it  in  amber- 
colored,  well-stoppered  bottles,  protected  from  light. 

Ferric  Phosphate  occurs  as  thin,  bright  green,  transparent  scales,  without 
odor,  and  having  an  acidulous,  slightly  saline  taste.  The  salt  is  permanent  in 
dry  air  when  excluded  from  light,  but  when  unprotected,  soon  becomes  discolored. 

Ferric  Phosphate  is  freely  and  completely  soluble  in  water;  insoluble  in  alcohol. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  Ferric  Phosphate  (1  in  10)  is  sUghtly  acid  to  htmus. 

The  addition  of  ammonia  water  to  an  aqueous  solution  of  Ferric  Phosphate 
gives  a  reddish-brown  color,  but  does  not  produce  a  precipitate. 

Ferric  Phosphate,  when  boiled  with  potassium  hydroxide  T.S.,  produces  a 
brownish-red  precipitate  without  evolving  ammonia. 

Boil  an  aqueous  solution  of  Ferric  Phosphate  (1  in  10)  with  an  excess  of 
potassium  hydroxide  T.S.  until  deprived  of  its  iron,  strongly  acidulate  the 
filtrate  v.'ith  hydrochloric  acid  and  cool  a  portion  of  the  hquid.  When  mixed 
with  an  equal  volume  of  magnesia  mixture  T.S.,  followed  by  a  slight  excess 
of  ammonia  water,  this  liquid  affords  an  abundant,  white,  crystaUine  precipi- 
tate. This  precipitate  turns  yellow  when  washed  and  treated  with  a  few  drops 
of  silver  nitrate  T.S.  (distinction  from  pyrophosphate). 

Assay — Dissolve  about  1  Gm.  of  Ferric  Phosphate,  accurately  weighed,  in 
25  mils  of  distilled  water  and  15  mils  of  hydrochloric  acid  in  a  glass-stoppered 
bottle,  then  add  3  Gm.  of  potassium  iodide,  securely  stopper  the  bottle,  keep 


170  THE    PHARMACOPCEIA   OF   THE 

it  at  a  temperature  of  40°  C.  for  thirty  minutes,  then  cool  and  titrate  with 
tenth-normal  sodium  thiosulphate  V.S.,  using  starch  T.S.  as  indicator.  It 
shows  not  less  than  12  per  cent,  of  Fe. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  sodium  thiosulphate  V.S.  used  corresponds  to 
0.005584  Gm.  of  Fe.  Each  gramme  of  Ferric  Phosphate  corresponds  to  not  less 
than  21.5  mils  of  tenth-normal  sodium  thiosulphate  V.S. 

A\t:rage  dose — Metric,  0.25  Gm. — Apothecaries,  4  grains. 


FERRI  SULPHAS 

Ferrous  Sulphate 

Ferr.  Sulph. — Iron  Protosulphate 

It  contains  not  less  than  54.36  nor  more  than  57.07  per  cent,  of 
anhydrous  ferrous  sulphate,  corresponding  to  about  99.5  per  cent,  of  the 
crystallized  salt  [FeS04+7H20  =  278.02].  Preserve  it  m  well-closed 
containers. 

Ferrous  Sulphate  occurs  as  pale  bluish-green,  monoclinic  prisms,  without 
odor,  and  having  a  saline,  styptic  taste;  efflorescent  in  dry  air.  On  exposure 
to  moist  air,  the  crystals  rapidly  oxidize,  and  become  coated  with  browTiish- 
yellow,  basic  ferric  sulphate.  When  it  has  thus  deteriorated  the  salt  must  not 
be  used  for  any  official  purpose. 

One  Gm.  of  Ferrous  Sulphate  dissolves  in  1.4  mils  of  water  at  25°  C;  in  0.4 
mil  of  boiling  water;  insoluble  in  alcohol. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  20)  is  acid  to  Utmus. 

When  slowly  heated  to  115°  C,  the  crystals  disintegrate,  and  the  salt  loses 
the  greater  part  of  its  water  of  crystalhzation. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt,  even  when  higlily  diluted,  gives  with  potassium 
ferricyanide  T.S.  a  blue  color  or  precipitate,  and  with  baaium  chloride  T.S.  a 
white  precipitate  insoluble  in  hydrocliloric  acid. 

Di-ssolve  1  Gm.  of  the  salt  in  about  50  mils  of  distilled  water  containing  1  mil 
of  diluted  sulphuric  acid,  heat  the  solution  to  boiling,  o.xidize  it  with  nitric  acid 
and  then  mix  it  with  a  slight  excess  of  ammonia  water  and  filter.  The  filtrate 
is  colorless,  and,  after  acidulating  with  hydrochloric  acid,  it  does  not  respond 
to  the  Test  for  heavy  metals  (see  Part  II,  Test  No.  3). 

Agitate  1  Gm.  of  Ferrous  Sulphate  in  small  fragments  during  four  or  five 
minutes,  with  10  mils  of  alcohol,  and  filter  the  mixture;  the  filtrate  does  not 
immediately  redden  moistened  blue  litmus  paper  {free  acid). 

Assay — Dissolve  about  1  Gm.  of  Ferrous  Sulphate,  accurately  weighed, 
in  about  25  mils  of  diluted  sulphuric  acid  and  titrate  with  tenth-normal  potas- 
sium permanganate  V.S.  until  a  permanent  pink  color  is  produced.  It  shows 
not  less  than  54.3G  per  cent,  nor  more  than  57.07  per  cent,  of  FeS04. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  potassium  permanganate  V.S.  used  corresponds  to 
0.015191  Gm.  of  FeS04.  Each  gramme  of  Ferrous  Sulphate  corresponds  to  not 
less  than  35.78  mils  nor  more  than  37.57  mils  of  tenth-normal  potassium  perman- 
ganate V.S. 

Preparations — Ferri  Sulphas  Exsiccatus     Ferri  Sulphas  Granulatus. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.1  Gm. — Apothecaries,  1)4.  grains. 


UNITED   STATES   OF  AMERICA  171 

FERRI  SULPHAS  EXSICCATUS 

Exsiccated  Ferrous  Sulphate 

Ferr.  Sulph.  Exsic— Dried  Ferrous  Sulphate 

Exsiccated  Ferrous  Sulphate  contains  the  equivalent  of  not  less  than 
80  per  cent,  of  the  anhydrous  salt  [FeS04  =  151.91]. 
Ferrous    Sulphate,   in    coarse    powder,    one    hundred 

grammes 100  Gm. 

Allow  the  salt  to  effloresce  at  a  temperature  of  about  40°  C.  in  dry 
air,  and  then  heat  it  in  a  porcelain  dish  on  a  water  bath,  constantly 
stirring,  until  the  product  weighs  from  sixty-four  to  sixty-five  grammes. 
Lastly,  reduce  the  residue  to  a  fine  powder,  and  transfer  it  at  once  to 
dry,  well-stoppered  bottles. 

Exsiccated  Ferrous  Sulphate  is  a  grayish-white  powder,  slowly  soluble  in 
water.  A  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  20)  in  distilled  water  which  has  been  recently 
boiled  and  cooled  is  not  more  than  slightly  tm-bid,  and  conforms  to  the  reactions 
and  tests  under  Ferri  Sulphas,  except  the  test  for  free  acid,  when  taken  in 
proportionate  amount. 

Assay — Dissolve  about  0.8  Gm.  of  Exsiccated  Ferrous  Sulphate,  accurately 
weighed  in  a  stoppered  weighing-bottle,  in  about  25  mils  of  diluted  sulphuric 
acid  and  titrate  with  tenth-normal  potassium  permanganate  V.S.  until  a  per- 
manent pink  color  is  produced.    It  shows  not  less  than  80  per  cent,  of  FeS04. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  potassium  permanganate  V.S.  used  corresponds  to 
0.015191  Gm.  of  FeS04.  Each  gi-amme  of  Exsiccated  Ferrous  Sulphate  corre- 
sponds to  not  less  than  52.7  mils  of  tenth-normal  potassium  permanganate  V.S. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.06  Gm. — Apothecaries,  1  grain. 


FERRI  SULPHAS  GRANULATLS 

Granulated  Ferrous  Sulphate 

Ferr.  Sulph.  Gran. — ^Precipitated  Ferrous  Sulphate 

Ferrous  Sulphate,  one  hundred  grammes 100  Gm. 

Distilled  Water,  one  hundred  milliliters 100  mils 

Diluted  Sulphuric  Acid,  five  milliliters 5  mils 

Alcohol,  twenty-five  milliliters 25  mils 

Dissolve  the  ferrous  sulphate  in  the  distilled  water  previously  heated 
to  boiling,  add  the  diluted  sulphuric  acid,  and  filter  the  solution  while 
hot.  Evaporate  the  solution  immediately  in  a  tared  porcelain  dish  on  a 
sand  bath  until  it  weighs  one  hundred  and  fifty  grammes,  and  then  cool 
it  quickly  with  constant  stirring.  Transfer  the  product  to  a  glass  funnel 
stopped  vnih.  a  plug  of  purified  cotton,  and,  when  it  has  thoroughly 
drained,  pour  the  alcohol  upon  it.    When  this  has  also  drained  spread 


172  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA    OF   TH:fi 

the  crystalline  powder  on  bibulous  paper,  dry  it  quickly  at  room  tem- 
perature, and  transfer  it  at  once  to  dry,  well-stoppered  bottles. 

Granulated  Ferrous  Sulphate  is  a  very  pale  bluish-green,  crystalline  powder, 
which  conforms  in  every  respect  to  the  reactions  and  tests  for  purity  under 
Ferri  Sulphas. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.1  Gm. — Apothecaries,  13^2  grains. 


FERRUM 

Iron 
Ferr. 

Metallic  iron  [Fe  =  55.84]  in  the  form  of  fine,  bright  wire. 

FERRUM  REDUCTUM 

Reduced  Iron 

Ferr.  Reduct. — Ferrum  Redactum     Iron  by  Hydrogen    Quevenne's  Iron 

Iron  reduced  to  the  metallic  state  by  the  action  of  hydrogen  upon 
ferric  oxide.  It  contains  not  less  than  90  per  cent,  of  metallic  iron 
[Fe  =  55.84].    Preserve  it  in  well-closed  containers. 

Reduced  Iron  occiu's  as  a  very  fine,  grayish-black,  lusterless  powder,  without 
odor  or  taste;  permanent  in  dry  air. 

Reduced  Iron  is  insoluble  in  water  or  alcohol. 

When  ignited  in  contact  with  air,  it  glows  and  is  converted  into  black  ferroso- 
ferric  oxide. 

Shake  1  Gm.  of  Reduced  Iron  with  5  mils  of  distilled  water  and  filter;  the 
hquid  does  not  change  the  color  of  litmus.  • 

One  Gm.  of  Reduced  Iron,  when  treated  with  20  mils  of  diluted  sulphuric 
acid  in  a  flask,  causes  the  evolution  of  nearly  odorless  hydrogen  gas,  which 
does  not  affect  paper  moistened  with  lead  acetate  T.S.  within  two  minutes 
(sulphide),  and,  on  applying  a  gentle  heat,  the  Iron  dissolves  in  the  acid  without 
leaving  more  than  1  per  cent,  of  residue. 

Add  20  mils  of  diluted  sulphuric  acid  to  0.5  Gm.  of  Reduced  Iron  contained 
in  a  small,  covered  beaker,  and,  after  the  reaction  has  somewhat  subsided,  warm 
the  liquid  on  a  water  bath  until  the  reaction  ceases.  Collect  any  minute,  un- 
dissolved residue  upon  a  very  small  filter,  rinse  the  beaker  with  distilled  water, 
add  the  rinsings  to  the  filter,  and  then  wash  the  residue  with  distilled  water 
until  free  from  acid  reaction.  Transfer  the  residue  to  the  beaker  by  rinsing  it 
back,  and,  after  adding  about  0.25  Gm.  of  potassium  chlorate  and  5  mils  of 
hydrochloric  acid,  slowly  evaporate  the  solution  to  dryness  on  a  water  bath. 
Dis.solve  the  residue  in  sufficient  distilled  water  to  measure  50  mils,  and  add 
5  mils  of  this  solution  to  5  mils  of  a  saturated  solution  of  sulphurous  acid  and 
heat  the  liquid  on  a  water  bath  for  fifteen  minutes,  or  until  all  traces  of  sulphur- 
ous acid  have  been  removed.  The  resulting  solution  meets  the  requirements 
of  the  Test  for  arsenic  (see  Part  II,  Test  No.  1). 

Assay — Introduce  into  a  100  mil  fla.sk  about  1  Gm.  of  Reduced  Iron,  pre- 
viously well  triturated  and  accurately  weighed,  and  add  10  Gm.  of  finely  powd- 
ered mercuric  chloride  and  50  mils  of  boiling  distilled  water.  Boil  the  mixture 
for  five  minutes,  shying  it  frequently,  then  fill  the  flask  to  the  100  mil  mark 


UNITED   STATES   OF  AMERICA  173 


with  distilled  water,  recently  boiled  and  cooled,  and  cool  it  to  room  temperature. 
Again  fill  the  flask  to  the  mark  with  distilled  water,  stopper,  agitate  the  con- 
tents well,  and  allow  it  to  stand  for  a  few  minutes.  Now  filter  the  contents  of 
the  flask  and  immediately  titrate  20  mils  of  the  filtrate  to  which  has  been  added 
20  mils  of  diluted  sulphuric  acid,  with  tenth-normal  potassium  permanganate 
V.S.  until  a  permanent  pink  color  is  produced.  It  shows  not  less  than  90  per 
oent.  of  Fe  when  calculated  from  the  original  weight  of  Reduced  Iron  taken. 
Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  potassium  permanganate  V.S.  used  corresponds 
to  0.005584  Gm.  of  Fe.  Each  gi-amme  of  Reduced  Iron  corresponds  to  not 
less  than  161.2  mils  of  tenth-normal  potassium  permanganate  V.S. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.06  Gm. — Apothecaries,  1  grain. 


FLUIDEXTRACTA 

Fluidextracts 

Fluidextracts  are  concentrated  liquid  preparations  of  vegetable  drugs, 
containing  alcohol  either  as  a  solvent  or  as  a  preservative,  and  bearing 
a  uniform  relation  to  the  drug  used  so  that  one  mil  of  the  fiuidextract 
closely  represents  the  activity  of  one  gramme  of  the  air-dried  and 
powdered  drug  of  standard  quality. 

The  fluidextracts  of  this  Pharmacopoeia,  with  few  exceptions,  may  be 
classified  according  to  the  menstrua  used  in  the  extraction  of  the  drugs 
and  the  processes  of  manufacture  employed.  Several  drugs  require 
special  manipulation  to  obtain  satisfactory  fluidextracts,  and  for  these 
appropriate  formulas  have  been  devised  and  are  printed  in  full  in  the 
text.  The  following  type  processes  are  described,  and  in  each  formula 
the  process  to  be  used  is  designated  by  reference  to  the  type  process: 

Type  Process  A — In  this  class  are  included  those  fluidextracts  that 
are  made  with  a  menstruum  of  alcohol  or  a  mixture  of  alcohol  and  water 
by  the  usual  process  of  percolation. 

Type  Process  B — In  this  class  are  included  those  fluidextracts  in  which 
glycerin  or  an  acid  is  used  in  the  extraction  and  two  menstrua  are  suc- 
cessively employed.  Menstruum  I  contains  the  glycerin  or  acid  in 
definite  proportion  to  the  amount  of  the  drug,  and  INIenstruum  II,  a 
mixture  of  alcohol  and  water  intended  for  completing  the  exhaustion 
of  the  drug. 

Type  Process  C — The  process  oi  fractional  or  divided  percolation.  This 
is  especially  recommended  for  drugs  containing  volatile  ingredients 
or  constituents  injured  by  exposure  to  heat.  This  process  may  like- 
wise be  used  as  an  alternative  process  in  the  formulas  in  which  Type 
Process  A  is  directed. 

Type  Process  D — In  this  class  are  included  those  fluidextracts  in 
which  extraction  is  effected  by  infusion  and  percolation  with  boiling 


174  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA    OF   THE 

water,  alcohol  being  added  to  the  concentrated  liquid  as  a  preservative. 

In  the  preparation  of  fluidextracts  by  either  Process  A,  B,  or  C,  the 
rate  of  percolation  must  be  carefully  controlled  and,  for  the  quantities 
directed  in  the  formulas  of  the  Pharmacopoeia,  the  flow  should  not 
exceed  ten  drops  per  minute  until  the  reserved  percolate  is  collected, 
and  twenty  drops  per  minute  thereafter.  As  a  rule  one  thousand  grammes 
of  powdered  drug  may  be  exhausted  by  percolation  with  sufficient  men- 
struum to  yield  three  thousand  mils  of  percolate. 

Fluidextracts  should  be  kept  in  tightly-stoppered  containers  for  one 
month  and  then,  if  perfectly  clear,  they  should  be  stored  in  amber- 
colored  bottles  protected  from  sunlight  and  extremes  of  temperature. 
If  sedimentation  has  occurred  the  clear  portion  should  be  decanted, 
the  remainder  filtered  and  the  liquids  thoroughly  mixed  before  storing. 

The  percentage  of  alcohol  in  fluidextracts  made  by  type  processes 
A,  B,  or  C  is  variable  and  always  less  than  that  in  the  menstruum 
employed,  due,  among  other  causes,  to  loss  of  alcohol  by  evaporation 
during  manufacture,  to  the  presence  of  a  variable  proportion  of  water 
in  the  air-dried  drug,  and  to  the  extraction  from  the  drug  of  its  soluble 
constituents,  which  also  often  vary  greatly  in  different  lots  of  the  same 
drug.  The  percentage  of  alcohol  in  the  finished  product  can  therefore 
only  be  ascertained  by  an  actual  determination  (see  Determination  of 
Alcohol  in  Official  Preparations,  Part  II,  No.  14). 

Type  Processes 

Type  Pi'ocess  A — Moisten  one  thousand  grammes  of  the  powdered 
drug  directed  with  a  sufficient  quantity  of  the  prescribed  menstruum 
to  render  it  evenly  and  distinctly  damp  and  to  maintain  it  so,  after 
macerating  for  six  hours  in  a  tightly-covered  container.  Then  pack  it 
in  a  cylindrical  percolator  and  add  enough  of  the  menstruum  to  saturate 
the  powder  and  leave  a  stratum  above  it.  When  the  liquid  begins  to 
drop  from  the  percolator,  close  the  lower  orifice,  and,  having  closely 
covered  the  percolator,  macerate  for  forty-eight  hours.  Then  allow  the 
percolation  to  proceed  slowly,  gradually  adding  more  menstruum  until 
the  drug  is  exhausted.  Reserve  the  first  eight  hundred  and  fifty  mils  of 
the  percolate  (unless  otherwise  specified  in  the  formula);  recover  the 
alcohol  from  the  remainder  and  concentrate  the  residue  to  a  soft  extract 
at  a  temperature  not  exceeding  60°  C;  dissolve  this  in  the  reserved 
portion,  mix  thoroughly,  and  finally  add  a  sufficient  quantity  of  the 
menstruum  to  obtain  one  thousand  mils  or  the  volume  determined  by 
calculation  from  the  assay. 


UNITED    STATES   OF  AMERICA  175 

Type  Process  B — Moisten  one  thousand  grammes  of  the  powdered 
drug  directed  with  a  sufficient  quantity  of  the  prescribed  Menstruum  I, 
to  render  it  evenly  and  distinctly  damp  and  to  maintain  it  so  after 
macerating  for  six  hours  in  a  tightly-covered  container.  Then  pack  it 
in  a  cylindrical  percolator,  add  the  remainder  of  Menstruum  I,  and, 
when  this  has  just  disappeared  from  the  surface,  gradually  add  Men- 
struum II,  constantly  maintaining  a  stratum  of  liquid  above  the  drug. 
When  the  liquid  begins  to  drop  from  the  percolator,  close  the  lower 
orifice,  and,  having  closely  covered  the  percolator,  macerate  for  forty- 
eight  hours,  and  then  allow  the  percolation  to  proceed  slowly,  gradually 
adding  Menstruum  II  until  the  drug  is  exhausted.  Reserve  the  first 
eight  hundred  and  fifty  mils  of  the  percolate  (unless  otherwise  specified 
in  the  formula) ;  recover  the  alcohol  from  the  remainder  and  concentrate 
the  residue  to  a  soft  extract  at  a  temperature  not  exceeding  60°  C. ; 
dissolve  this  in  the  reserved  portion,  mix  thoroughly,  and  finally  add  a 
sufficient  quantity  of  Menstruum  II  to  obtain  one  thousand  mils,  or  the 
volume  determined  by  calculation  from  the  assay. 

Type  Process  C — Divide  one  thousand  grammes  of  the  powdered  drug 
directed  into  three  portions  of  five  hundred  grammes,  three  hundred 
grammes,  and  two  hundred  grammes,  respectively.  Moisten  the  first  por- 
tion of  the  drug  (500  Gm.)  with  a  sufficient  quantity  of  the  prescribed  men- 
struum to  render  it  evenly  and  distinctly  damp  and  to  maintam  it  so  after 
macerating  for  six  hours  in  a  tightly-covered  container.  Then  pack  it  in 
a  cylindrical  percolator  and  add  enough  of  the  menstruum  to  saturate  the 
powder  and  leave  a  stratum  above  it.  When  the  liquid  begins  to  drop 
from  the  percolator,  close  the  lower  orifice,  and,  having  closely  covered 
the  percolator,  macerate  for  forty-eight  hours  and  then  allow  the  perco- 
lation to  proceed  slowly,  gradually  adding  more  of  the  menstruum. 
Reserve  the  first  two  hundred  mils  of  percolate  and  continue  the  process 
until  the  additional  percolate  measures  fifteen  hundred  mils,  the  latter 
being  collected  in  successive  portions  of  three  hundred  mils  each. 

Moisten  the  second  portion  of  the  powdered  drug  (300  Gm.)  with  a 
sufficient  quantity  of  the  percolate  collected  in  the  preceding  operation 
immediately  after  the  reserved  portion,  to  render  it  evenly  and  distinctly 
damp  and  to  maintain  it  so  after  macerating  for  six  hours  in  a  tightly- 
covered  container.  Then  pack  it  in  a  cylindrical  percolator  and  macerate 
and  percolate  as  directed  for  the  first  part  of  the  drug,  using  as  menstruum 
the  several  portions  of  percolate  from  the  preceding  operation  in  the 
order  in  which  they  have  been  collected,  and,  if  this  be  insufficient, 
follow  with  some  of  the  original  menstruum.    Reserve  the  first  three 


176  THE   PHARMACOPOEIA   OF   THE 

hundred  mils  of  percolate  and  continue  the  process  until  the  additional 
percolate  measures  eight  hundred  mils,  collecting  the  weaker  percolate 
in  successive  portions  of  two  hundred  mils  each. 

Moisten  the  third  portion  of  the  powdered  drug  (200  Gm.)  with  a 
sufficient  quantity  of  the  percolate  collected  in  the  preceding  opera- 
tion immediately  after  the  reserved  portion,  to  render  it  evenly  and 
distinctly  damp  and  to  maintain  it  so  after  macerating  for  six  hours  in 
a  tightly-covered  container.  Then  pack  it  in  a  cylindrical  percolator 
and  macerate  and  percolate  as  before,  using  as  menstruum  the  several 
portions  of  percolate  from  the  preceding  operation  in  the  order  in  which 
they  have  been  collected,  and,  if  this  be  insufficient,  follow  with  more 
of  the  original  menstruum.  Collect  five  hundred  mils  of  percolate  and 
mix  this  with  the  two  portions  previously  reserved  so  as  to  make  one 
thousand  mils  of  finished  fluidextract. 

When  Type  Process  C  is  directed  for  fluidextracts  which  are  adjusted 
by  assay  to  a  definite  alkaloidal  standard,  collect  only  Jour  hundred  and 
twenty  mils  of  percolate  from  the  third  portion  of  drug  instead  of  the 
five  hundred  mils  directed  above.  Mix  this  percolate  with  the  tAvo 
portions  previously  reserved,  assay  a  portion  of  the  mixture  and  then 
adjust  its  volmne,  by  the  addition  of  the  menstruum  directed,  so  that 
each  one  hundred  mils  of  finished  fluidextract  will  contain  the  prescribed 
amount  of  alkaloid. 

Type  Process  D — To  one  thousand  grammes  of  the  ground  drug  add 
five  thousand  mils  of  boiling  water,  mix  thoroughly  and  allow  it  to 
macerate  in  a  covered  container  for  two  hours  in  a  warm  place.  Then 
transfer  the  moist  drug  to  a  tinned  or  enameled  metallic  percolator 
and  allow  percolation  to  proceed,  gradually  adding  boiling  water  until 
the  drug  is  exhausted.  Evaporate  the  percolate  on  a  water  bath  or  steam 
bath  to  the  volume  specified  and  when  cold  add  the  alcohol  directed  and 
mix  thoroughly. 

FLUIDEXTRACTUM  ACONITI 

Fluidextract  of  Aconite 

FIdext.  Aeon  it.— Fluid  Extract  of  Aconite 

One  hundred  mils  of  Fluidextract  of  Aconite  yields  not  less  than  0.45 
Gm.  nor  more  than  0.55  Gm.  of  the  ether-soluble  alkaloids  of  aconite. 
If  assayed  biologically  the  minimum  lethal  dose  should  not  be  greater 
than  0.00004  mil  for  each  gramme  of  body  weight  of  guinea-pig. 

Aconite,  in  No.  40  powder,  one  thousand  grammes 1000  Gm. 


UNITED   STATES   OP   AMERICA  177 

Prepare  a  Fluidextract  by  Type  Process  C,  as  modified  for  alkaloidal 
drugs  (see  page  175),  using  a  mixture  of  three  volumes  of  alcohol  and 
one  volume  of  water  as  the  menstruum  and  adjusting  the  volume  of 
the  finished  Fluidextract  so  that  each  one  hundred  mils  contains  0.5  Gm. 
of  the  ether-soluble  alkaloids  of  aconite. 

Assay — From  a  pipette  drop  15  mils  of  Fluidextract  of  Aconite  evenly  over 
the  surface  of  15  Gm.  of  purified  sawdust  (see  page  546)  and  evaporate  to  dryness 
at  a  temperature  not  exceeding  75°  C.  Transfer  the  mixture  to  a  250  mil  flask, 
add  150  mils  of  ether,  and  proceed  as  directed  under  BcUadonnce  Radix,  page  73, 
third  line  of  the  Assay,  modifying  the  process  there  given  by  using  the  ammonia 
water  with  a  small  quantity  of  distilled  water  to  rinse  the  dish  in  which  the 
mixture  was  evaporated,  and  ether  only  in  the  final  shaking  out  of  the  alkaloids. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  sulphuric  acid  V.S.  consumed  corresponds  to  64.539 
milligrammes  of  the  ether-soluble  alkaloids  of  aconite. 

For  an  alternative  method  of  assaying  Fluidextract  of  Aconite  see  Biological 
Assays  (Part  II). 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.03  mil — Apothecaries,  Y2  minim. 


FLUIDEXTRACTUM  AROMATICUM 

Aromatic  Fluidextract 

FIdext.  Aromat. — Aromatic  Fluid  Extract 

Aromatic  Powder,  one  thousand  grammes 1000  Gm. 

Prepare  a  Fluidextract  by  Type  Process  C  (see  page  175),  using 
alcohol  as  the  menstruum. 

A"\'ERAge  dose — Metric,  1  mil — Apothecaries,  15  minims. 


FLUIDEXTRACTUM  ASPIDOSPER^LATIS 

Fluidextract  of  Aspidosperma 

FIdext.  Aspidosp. — Fluid  Extract  of  Aspidosperma      Fluidextract  of  Quebracho 

Aspidosperma,  in  No.  30  powder,  one  thousand  grammes. .   1000 Gm. 

Prepare  a  Fluidextract  by  Tj'pe  Process  B  (see  page  175),  using  a 
mixture  of  one  hundred  and  ten  mils  of  gh'cerin,  six  hundred  and  seventy 
mils  of  alcohol  and  two  hundred  and  twenty  mils  of  water  as  ]\Ienstruum  I, 
and  a  mixture  of  two  volumes  of  alcohol  and  one  volume  of  water  as 
Menstruum  II. 

Average  dose — Metric,  4  mils — Apothecaries,  1  fiuidrachm, 
17 


178  THE   PHARMACOPEIA   OF   THE 

FLUIDEXTRACTUM  AURANTII  AMARI 

Fluidextract  of  Bitter  Orange  Peel 

FIdext.  Aurant.  Amar.— Fluid  Extract  of  Bitter  Orange  Peel 

Bitter  Orange  Peel,  in  No.  20  powder,  one  thousand 

grammes 1000  Gm. 

Prepare  a  Fluidextract  by  Type  Process  C  (see  page  175),  using  a 
mixture  of  three  volumes  of  alcohol  and  one  volume  of  water  as  the  men- 
struum. 

Average  dose — Metric,  1  mil — Apothecaries,  15  minims. 

FLUIDEXTRACTUM  BELLADONNyE  RADICIS 

Fluidextract  of  Belladonna  Root 

FIdext.  Bellad.  Rad.— Fluid  Extract  of  Belladonna  Root 
One  hundred  mils  of  Fluidextract  of  Belladonna  Root  yields  not  less 
than  0.405  Gm.  nor  more  than  0.495  Gm.  of  the  alkaloids  of  belladonna 
root. 

Belladonna  Root,    in    No.    40    powder,    one    thousand 

grammes 1000  Gm. 

Prepare  a  Fluidextract  by  Type  Process  A  (see  page  174),  using  a 
mixture  of  five  volumes  of  alcohol  and  one  volume  of  water  as  the  men- 
struum, and  reserving  the  first  eight  hundred  mils  of  the  percolate. 

After  dissolving  the  soft  extract  in  the  reserve  liquid,  assay  a  portion 
as  directed  below,  and,  from  the  result  thus  obtained,  ascertain  by 
calculation  the  amount  of  alkaloids  in  the  remainder  of  the  liquid  and 
dilute  this  with  enough  menstruum  to  make  each  one  hundred  mils  of 
the  finished  Fluidextract  contain  0.45  Gm.  of  the  alkaloids  of  bella- 
donna root. 

Assay — Introduce  10  mils  of  Fluidextract  of  Belladonna  Root  into  a  separator 
and  add  10  mils  of  distilled  water  and  2  mils  of  ammonia  water.  Completely 
extract  the  alkaloids  by  shaking  out  repeatedly  witli  chloroform  and  then  extract 
the  alkaloids  from  the  cliloroform  solution  by  shaking  out  repeatedly  with  weak 
sulphuric  acid  until  the  alkaloids  are  completely  removed.  Collect  the  acid 
washings  in  a  separator,  add  ammonia  water  until  the  solution  is  decidedly 
alkaline  to  litmus,  and  completely  extract  the  alkaloids  by  shaking  out  repeatedly 
with  chloroform.  Evaporate  the  combined  chloroform  washings  to  dryness, 
dissolve  the  alkaloids  from  the  residue  in  exactly  5  mils  of  tenth-normal  sul- 
phuric acid  V.S.  and  titrate  the  excess  of  acid  with  fiftieth-normal  potassium 
hydroxide  V.S.,  using  cochineal  T.S.  as  indicator. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  sulphuric  acid  V.S.  consumed  corresponds  to  28.92 
milligrammes  of  the  alkaloids  of  belladonna  root  (see  Proximate  Assays,  Part  II). 
Preparation — Linimentum  Belladonna'. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.05  mil — Apothecaries,  1  minim. 


UNITED    STATES   OF   AMERICA  179 


FLUIDEXTRACTUM  BUCHU 

Fluidextract  of  Bucliu 

FIdext.  Buchu— Fluid  Extract  of  Buchu 

BucHU,  in  No.  40  powder,  one  thousand  grammes 1000  Gm. 

Prepare  a  Fluidextract  by  Type  Process  A  (see  page  174),  using 
alcohol  as  the  menstruum. 

Average  dose— Metric,  2  mils— Apothecaries,  30  minims. 

FLUIDEXTRACTUM  CANNABIS 

Fluidextract  of  Cannabis 

Fldext.  Cannab.— Fluidextractum  Cannabis  Indict.  U.S.P.  VIII 
Fluid  Extract  of  Cannabis 

When  assayed  biologically  Fluidextract  of  Cannabis  produces  inco- 
ordination when  administered  to  dogs  in  a  dose  of  not  more  than  0.03 
mil  per  kilogramme  of  body  weight. 

Cannabis,  hi  No.  30  powder,  one  thousand  grammes 1000  Gm. 

Prepare  a  Fluidextract  by  Type  Process  A  (see  page  174),  using 
alcohol  as  the  menstruum. 

After  dissolving  the  soft  extract  in  the  reserve  liquid,  assay  a  portion 
as  directed  below  and  from  the  result  thus  obtained  adjust  the  volume 
of  the  finished  Fluidextract  to  conform  to  the  above  biological  standard. 
Assay — Proceed  as  directed  under  Biological  Assays  (Part  II). 
Average  dose — Metric,  0.1  mil — Apothecaries,  \]/2  minims. 

FLUIDEXTRACTUM  CASCAR.^  SAGRAD.E 

Fluidextract  of  Cascara  Sagrada 

Fldext.    Case.   Sagr. — Fluidextractum  Rhamni  Purshianae,  U.S.P.  VIII 
Fluid  Extract  of  Cascara  Sagrada 

Cascara  Sagrada,  in  No.  40  powder,  one  thousand  grammes  1000  Gm. 
Alcohol,  two  hundred  and  fifty  milliliters 250  mils 

Prepare  a  Fluidextract  by  Tj'pe  Process  D  (see  page  176).  Evaporate 
the  aqueous  percolate  to  seven  hundred  and  fifty  mils  and  when  cold 
gradually  add  the  alcohol  and,  if  necessary,  sufficient  water  to  make 
the  product  measure  one  thousand  mils.  -^ 

Average  dose — ^Metric,  1  mil — Apothecaries,  15  minims.  Jlf 


180  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA   OF   THE 

FLUIDEXTRACTUM  CASCAR^  SAGRAD.E 
AROMATICUM 

Aromatic  Fluidextract  of  Cascara  Sagrada 

FIdext.   Case.   Sagr.  Arom. — Fluidextractum  Rhamni  Purshianse  Aromaticum, 
U.S.P.  VIII      Aromatic  Fluid  Extract  of  Cascara  Sagrada 

Cascara   Sagrada,   in   No.   40  powder,  one  thousand 

grammes 1000.0  Gm. 

Magnesium  Oxide,  one  hundred  and  twenty-five  grammes  125.0  Gm. 

Pure  Extract  of  Glycyrrhiza,  forty  grammes 40.0  Gm. 

Glycerin,  two  hundred  milliliters 200.0  mils 

Alcohol,  two  hundred  and  fifty  milliliters 250.0  mils 

Benzosulphinide,  one  gramme 1.0  Gm. 

Oil  of  Anise,  two  and  five-tenths  milliliters 2.5  mils 

Oil  of  Cinnamon,  two-tenths  of  a  milliliter 0.2  mil 

Oil  of  Coriander,  one-tenth  of  a  milliliter 0.1  mil 

Methyl  Salicylate,  two-tenths  of  a  milliliter 0.2  mil 

Boiling  Water,  a  sufficient  quantity,  

To  make  one  thousand  milliliters 1000    mils 

Thoroughly  mix  the  cascara  sagrada  with  the  magnesium  oxide, 
moisten  the  mixture  with  two  thousand  mils  of  boiling  water,  set  it 
aside  for  two  hours,  stirring  occasionally,  and  then  pack  it  in  a  per- 
colator. Now  pour  on  boiling  water  and  allow  the  percolation  to  pro- 
ceed until  the  drug  is  exhausted.  Evaporate  the  percolate  to  five  hundred 
mils  and  while  yet  warm  dissolve  in  it  the  extract  of  glycyrrhiza.  When 
cold,  add  the  glycerin,  then  the  alcohol  in  which  the  benzosulphinide 
and  the  oils  have  been  dissolved,  and  finally  sufficient  water  to  make 
the  Fluidextract  measure  one  thousand  mils. 

Average  dose — Metric,  2  mils — Apothecaries,  30  minims. 

FLUIDEXTRACTUM  CIMICIFUG^ 

Fluidextract  of  Cimicifuga 

Fldext.  Citnicif. — Fluid  Extract  of  Cimicifuga     Fluidextract  of  Black  Cohosh 
Fluidextract  of  Black  Snakeroot 

Cimicifuga,  in  No.  40  powder,  one  thousand  grammes 1000  Gm. 

Prepare  a  Fluidextract  by  Type  Process  A  (see  page  174),  using 
alcohol  as  the  menstruum. 

Average  dose — Metric,  1  mil — Apothecaries,  15  minims. 


UNITED   STATES  OP  AMERICA  181 

FLUIDEXTRACTUM  CINCHONyE 

Fliiidextract  of  Cinchona 

FIdext.  Cinchon. — Fluid  Extract  of  Cinchona    Fluidextract  of  Calisaya  Bark 

One  hundred  mils  of  Fluidextract  of  Cinchona  yields  not  less  than 
4  Gm.  nor  more  than  5  Gm.  of  the  alkaloids  of  cinchona. 

Cinchona,  in  No.  40  powder,  one  thousand  grammes 1000  Gm. 

■  Prepare  a  Fluidextract  by  Type  Process  B  (see  page  175),  using  a 
mixture  of  one  hundred  mils  of  glycerin,  one  hundred  mils  of  diluted 
hydrochloric  acid  and  eight  hundred  mils  of  alcohol  as  Menstruum  I 
and  a  mixture  of  four  volumes  of  alcohol  and  one  volume  of  water  as 
Menstruum  II. 

After  dissolving  the  soft  extract  in  the  reserve  liquid,  assay  a  portion 
as  directed  below,  and,  from  the  result  thus  obtained,  ascertain  by 
calculation  the  amount  of  alkaloids  in  the  remainder  of  the  liquid,  and 
dilute  this  with  enough  of  Menstruum  II  to  make  each  one  hundred 
mils  of  the  finished  Fluidextract  contain  4.5  Gm.  of  the  total  alkaloids  of 
cinchona. 

Assay — From  a  pipette  drop  5  mils  of  Fluidextract  of  Cinchona  evenly  over 
the  surface  of  10  Gm.  of  purified  sawdust  (see  page  546)  and  evaporate  it  to 
dryness  at  a  temperature  not  exceeding  80°  C.  Transfer  the  mixture  to  a 
500  mil  flask,  and  proceed  as  directed  under  Cinchona,  page  112,  second  line 
of  the  Assay,  modifying  the  process  there  given  by  increasing  the  amount 
of  ammonia  water  to  10  mils,  using  this  in  divided  portions  to  rinse  the  dish  in 
which  the  mixture  was  evaporated,  and  adding  the  rinsings  to  the  flask. 

The  weight  of  the  residue  is  the  amount  of  total  alkaloids  from  4  mils  of 
Fluidextract  of  Cinchona. 

Average  dose — Metric,  1  mil — Apothecaries,  15  minims. 


FLUIDEXTRACTUM  COLCHICI  SEMINIS 

Fluidextract  of  Colchicum  Seed 

FIdext.  Colch.  Sem.— Fluid  Extract  of  Colchicum  Seed 

One  hundred  mils  of  Fluidextract  of  Colchicum  Seed  yields  not  less 
than  0.36  Gm.  nor  more  than  0.44  Gm.  of  colchicine. 

Colchicum  Seed,  in  No,  40  powder,  one  thousand  grammes  1000  Gm. 
Purified  Petroleum  Benzin,  a  sufficient  quantity. 

Pack  the  colchicum  seed  in  a  cylindrical  percolator  and  slowly  per- 
colate with  purified  petroleum  benzin  until  a  few  drops  of  the  percolate 


182  THE    PHARMACOPCEIA    OF   THE 

leave  no  greasy  stain  when  evaporated  on  a  piece  of  filter  paper. 
Reject  the  benzin  solution,  remove  the  powder  from  the  percolator 
and  dry  it  by  exposure  to  the  air.  Then  proceed  to  make  the  Fluid- 
extract  by  Type  Process  A  (see  page  174),  using  a  mixture  of  two  volumes 
of  alcohol  and  one  volume  of  water  as  the  menstruum. 

After  dissolving  the  soft  extract  in  the  reserve  liquid,  assay  a  portion 
as  directed  below,  and,  from  the  result  thus  obtained,  ascertain  by 
calculation  the  amount  of  alkaloids  in  the  remainder  of  the  liquid,  and 
dilute  this  with  enough  menstruum  to  make  each  one  hundred  mils  of 
the  finished  Fluidextract  contain  0.4  Gm.  of  colchicine. 

Assay — Introduce  15  mils  of  Fluidextract  of  Colchicum  Seed  into  a  500  mil 
flask,  add  10  mils  of  solution  of  lead  subacetate,  previously  diluted  with  35  mils 
of  distilled  water,  shake  the  mixture  thoroughly,  then  add  240  mils  of  distilled 
water,  again  agitate  the  mixture  and  proceed  as  directed  under  Colchici  Semen, 
page  120,  fifth  line  of  the  Assay. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.2  mil — Apothecaries,  3  minims. 


FLUIDEXTRACTUM  DIGITALIS 

Fluidextract  of  Digitalis 

Fldext.  Digital.— Fluid  Extract  of  Digitalis 

If  assayed  biologically  the  minimum  lethal  dose  should  not  be 
greater  than  0.0006  mil  of  the  Fluidextract,  or  the  equivalent  in 
Fluidextract  of  0.0000005  Gm.  of  ouabain,  for  each  gramme  of  body 
weight  of  frog. 

Digitalis,  in  No.  30  powder,  one  thousand  grammes 1000  Gm. 

Prepare  a  Fluidextract  by  Type  Process  A  (see  page  174),  using 

a  mixture  of  five  volumes  of  alcohol  and  one  volume  of  water  as  the 

menstruum. 

Assay — For  a  method  of  assaying  Fluidextract  of  Digitalis  see  Biological 
Assays  (Part  II). 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.05  mil — Apothecaries,  1  minim. 


•    FLUIDEXTRACTUM  ERGOT.E 

Fluidextract  of  Ergot 

Fldext.  Ergot. — Fluid  Extract  of  Ergot    Secalis  cornuti  extractum  fluidum  P.I. 

Ergot,  recently  ground  and  in  No.  40  powder,  one  thou- 
sand grammes 1000  Gm. 


UNITED   STATES   OF   AMERICA  183 

Prepare  a  Fluidextract  by  Type  Process  B  (see  page  175),  using  a 
mixture  of  twenty  mils  of  hydrochloric  acid  and  nine  hundred  and  eighty 
mils  of  diluted  alcohol  as  MeD«t,ruum  I,  and  diluted  alcohol  as  Men- 
struum II. 

Average  dose — Metric,  2  mils — Apothecaries,  30  minims. 

FLUIDEXTRACTUM  ERIODICTYI 

Fluidextract  of  Eriodictyon 

FIdext.  Eriodlct. — Fluid  Extract  of  Eriodictyon    Fluidextract  of  Yerba  Santa 

Eriodictyon,  in  No.  30  powder,  ojic  thousand  grammes. .  . .   1000  Gm. 

Prepare  a  Fluidextract  by  Type  Process  A  (see  page  174),  using  a 
mixture  of  four  volumes  of  alcohol  and  one  volume  of  water  as  the  men- 
struum, and  reserving  the  first  eight  hundred  mils  of  percolate. 

Average  dose — Metric,  1  mil — Apothecaries,  15  minims. 

FLUIDEXTRACTUM  EUCALYPTI 

Fluidextract  of  Eucalyptus 

FIdext.  Eucalypt. — Fluid  Extract  of  Eucalj-ptus 

Eucalyptus,  in  No.  30  powder,  one  thousand  grammes ....  1000  Gm. 

Prepare  a  Fluidextract  by  Type  Process  A  (see  page  174),  using  a 
mixture  of  three  volumes  of  alcohol  and  one  volume  of  water  as  the  men- 
struum, and  reserving  the  first  eight  hundred  mils  of  percolate. 

Average  dose — Metric,  2  mils — Apothecaries,  30  minims. 

FLUIDEXTRACTUM  FRANGUL^ 

Fluidextract  of  Frangula 

FIdext.  Frangul. — Fluid  Extract  of  Frangula     Fluidextract  of  Buckthorn  Bark 

Frangula,  in  No.  30  powder,  one  thousand  grammes 1000  Gm. 

Alcohol,  two  hundred  and  fifty  milliliters 250  mils 

Prepare  a  Fluidextract  by  Type  Process  D  (see  page  176).  Evaporate 
the  aqueous  percolate  to  seven  hundred  and  fifty  77iils  and,  when  cold, 
add  the  alcohol  and,  if  necessary,  sufficient  water  to  make  the  product 
measure  one  thousand  mils. 

Average  dose — Metric,  1  mil — Apothecaries,  15  minims. 


184  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA   OF   THE 

FLUIDEXTRACTUM  GELSEMII 

riuidextract  of  Gelsemium 

FIdext.  Qelsem. — Fluid  Extract  of  Gelsemium 

Gelsemium,  in  No.  40  powder,  one  thousand  grammes 1000  Gm. 

Prepare  a  Fluidextract  by  Type  Process  A  (see  page  174),  using  a 
mixture  of  four  volumes  of  alcohol  and  one  volume  of  water  as  the  men- 
struum. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.03  mil — Apothecaries,  ^  minim. 

FLUIDEXTRACTUM  GENTIANiE 

Fluidextract  of  Gentian 

Fldext.  Gentian. — Fluid  Extract  of  Gentian 
Gentian,  in  No.  30  powder,  one  thousand  grammes 1000  Gm. 

Prepare  a  Fluidextract  by  Type  Process  A  (see  page  174),  using 
diluted  alcohol  as  the  menstruum. 

Average  dose — Metric,  1  mil — Apothecaries,  15  minims. 

FLUIDEXTRACTUM  GLYCYRRHIZ^ 

Fluidextract  of  Glycyrrhiza 

Fldext.  Qlycyrrh. — Fluid  Extract  of  Glycyrrhiza    Fluidextract  of  Licorice 

Glycyrrhiza,  in  No.  20  powder,  one  thousand  grammes .  . .   1000  Gm. 

Alcohol,  two  hundred  and  fifty  7nilliliters 250  mils 

Ammonia  Water, 
Chloroform  Water, 

Water,  each,  a  sufficient  quantity,  

To  make  one  thousand  milliliters 1000  mils 

Mix  three  hundred  mils  of  ammonia  water  with  twenty-seven  hundred 
mils  of  chloroform  water  and  moisten  the  glycyrrhiza  with  a  sufficient 
quantity  of  the  mixture;  pack  it  in  a  cylindrical  percolator  and  add 
enough  of  the  menstruum  to  saturate  the  powder  and  leave  a  stratum 
above  it.  When  the  liquid  begins  to  drop  from  the  percolator,  close 
the  lower  orifice,  and,  having  closely  covered  the  percolator,  macerate 
for  forty-eight  hours.  Then  allow  the  percolation  to  proceed  slowly, 
gradually  adding  more  of  the  same  menstruum  until  the  glycyrrhiza  is 
exhausted.  Reserve  the  first  five  hundred  mils  of  the  percolate  and 
evaporate  the  remainder  on  a  water  bath  to  a  soft  extract;  dissolve 
this  in  the  reserve  portion  and  add  enough  water  to  make  the  product 


UNITED   STATES   OF  AMERICA  185 

measure  seven  hundred  and  fifty  mils.  A  few  drops  of  ammonia  water 
may  be  added  if  necessary  to  facilitate  solution.  Now  gradually  add  the 
alcohol,  allow  the  product  to  stand  for  seven  days  in  a  stoppered  con- 
tainer, then  decant  the  clear  liquid,  filter  the  remainder  and  wash  the 
residue  on  the  filter  with  enough  of  a  mixture  of  one  volume  of  alcohol  and 
three  volumes  of  water  to  make  the  Fluidextract  measure  one  thousand  mils. 
Preparation — Elixir  GlycjTrhizae. 

Average  dose — Metric,  2  mils — Apothecaries,  30  minims. 

FLUIDEXTRACTUM  GRANATI 

Fluidextract  of  Pomegranate 

FIdext.  Qranat.— Fluid  Extract  of  Pomegranate 

Pomegranate,  in  No.  30  powder,  one  thousand  grammes. .  1000  Gm. 

Prepare  a  Fluidextract  by  Type  Process  B  (see  page  175),  using  a 

mixture  of  one  hundred  mils  of  glycerin,  five  hundred  mils  of  alcohol 

and  four  hundred  mils  of  water  as  Menstruum  I,  and  diluted  alcohol  as 

Menstruum  II. 

Average  dose — Metric,  2  mils — Apothecaries,  30  minims. 

FLUIDEXTRACTUM  GRINDELI^ 

Fluidextract  of  Grindelia 

FIdext.  Qrindel.— Fluid  Extract  of  Grindelia 

Grindelia,  in  No.  30  powder,  one  thousand  grammes 1000  Gm. 

Prepare  a  Fluidextract  by  Type  Process  A  (see  page  174),  using  a 
mixture  of  three  volumes  of  alcohol  and  one  volume  of  water  as  the  men- 
struum. 

Average  dose — Lletric,  2  mils — Apothecaries,  30  minims. 

FLUIDEXTRACTUM  GUARANyE 

Fluidextract  of  Guarana 

FIdext.  Quaran. — Fluid  Extract  of  Guarana 

One  hundred  mils  of  Fluidextract  of  Guarana  yields  not  less  than  3.6 
Gm.  nor  more  than  4.4  Gm.  of  caffeine. 
Guarana,  in  No.  60  powder,  one  thousand  grammes 1000  Gm. 


186  THE    PHARMACOPCEIA   OF   THE 

Prepare  a  Fluidextract  by  Type  Process  A  (see  page  174),  using  a 
mixture  of  three  volumes  of  alcohol  and  one  volume  of  water  as  the  men- 
struum, and  reserving  the  first  eight  hundred  mils  of  percolate. 

After  dissolving  the  soft  extract  in  the  reserve  liquid,  assay  a  portion 

as  directed  below,  and,  from  the  result  thus  obtained,  ascertain  by 

calculation  the  amount  of  alkaloid  in  the  remainder  of  the  liquid  and 

dilute  this  with  enough  menstruum  to  make  each  one  hundred  mils  of 

thg  finished  Fluidextract  contain  4  Gm.  of  caffeine. 

Assay — Introduce  5  mils  of  Fluidextract  of  Guarana  into  a  separator,  add 
1  mil  of  ammonia  water,  and  shake  out  the  alkaloid  with  chloroform  until  com- 
pletely extracted,  as  shown  by  testing  with  iodine  T.S.  Evaporate  the  com- 
bined chloroform  solutions  to  drj^ness  and  dissolve  the  residue  in  20  mils  of 
distilled  water  with  the  aid  of  heat.  Allow  this  to  cool,  filter  it  into  a  separator 
and  wash  the  container  and  filter  with  several  small  portions  of  distilled  water, 
adding  the  rinsings  to  the  liquid  in  the  separator.  Then  shake  out  the  alkaloid 
with  chloroform  until  completely  extracted,  as  shown  by  testing  with  iodine 
T.S.,  evaporate  the  combined  chloroform  solutions  and  dry  the  residue  to  con- 
stant weight  at  80°  C.  The  weight  represents  the  alkaloid  in  5  mils  of  Fluid- 
extract  of  Guarana  (see  Proximate  Assays,  Part  II). 

Average  dose — Metric,  2  mils — Apothecaries,  30  minims. 


FLUIDEXTRACTUM  HYDRASTIS 

Fluidextract  of  Hydrastis 

Fldext.  Hydrast. — Fluid  Extract  of  Hydrastis    Fluidextract  of  Golden  Seal 

One  hundred  mils  of  Fluidextract  of  Hydrastis  yields  not  less  than 
1.8  Gm.  nor  more  than  2.2  Gm.  of  the  ether-soluble  alkaloids  of  hydrastis. 

Hydrastis,  in  No.  40  powder,  one  thousand  grammes 1000  Gm. 

Prepare  a  Fluidextract  by  Type  Process  B  (see  page  175),  using  a 
mixture  of  one  hundred  mils  of  glycerin,  six  hundred  mils  of  alcohol 
and  two  hundred  mils  of  water  as  Menstruum  I,  and  a  mixture  of  two 
volumes  of  alcohol  and  one  volume  of  water  as  Menstruum  II.  Reserve 
the  first  seven  hundred  and  fifty  mils  of  percolate. 

After  dissolving  the  soft  extract  in  the  reserve  liquid,  assay  a  portion 

as  directed  below,  and,  from  the  result  thus  obtained,  ascertain  by 

calculation  the  amount  of  alkaloids  in  the  remainder  of  the  liquid  and 

dilute  this  with  enough  of  Menstruum  II  to  make  each  one  hundred 

mils  of  the  finished  Fluidextract  contain  2  Gm.  of  the  ether-soluble 

alkaloids  of  hydrastis. 

Assay — Proceed  as  directed  under  Fluidextradum  BelladonruB  Radicis,  page  178, 
modifying  the  process  there  given  by  using  .5  mils  of  Fluidextract  of  Hydrastis 
instead  of  10  mils  of  the  fluidextract  of  lielladonna  root  and  using  only  ether 


UNITED    STATES   OF   AMERICA  187 

as  the  immiscible  solvent  throughout  the  assay.  Dry  the  residue  to  constant 
weight  at  100°  C,  instead  of  titrating  it.  The  weiglit  represents  the  amount  of 
ether-soluble  alkaloids  in  5  mils  of  the  Fluidextract  of  Hydrastis. 

Average  dose — Metric,  2  mils — Apothecaries,  30  minims. 


FLUIDEXTRACTUM  HYOSCYA]VII 

Fluidextract  of  Hyoscyamus 

FIdext.  Hyosc. — Fluid  Extract  of  Hyoscyamus    Fluidextract  of  Henbane 

One  hundred  mils  of  Fluidextract  of  Hyoscyamus  yields  not  less  than 
0.055  Gm.  nor  more  than  0.075  Gm.  of  the  alkaloids  of  hyoscyamus. 

Hyoscyamus,  in  No.  40  powder,  one  thousand  grammes. . . .  1000  Gm. 

Prepare  a  Fluidextract  by  Type  Process  A  (see  page  174),  using  a 
mixture  of  three  volumes  of  alcohol  and  one  volume  of  water  as  the 
menstruum. 

After  dissolving  the  soft  extract  in  the  reserve  liquid,  assay  a  portion 
as  directed  below,  and,  from  the  result  thus  obtained,  ascertain  by 
calculation  the  amount  of  alkaloids  in  the  remainder  of  the  liquid  and 
dilute  this  with  enough  menstruum  to  make  each  one  hundred  mils 
of  the  finished  Fluidextract  contain  0.065  Gm.  of  the  alkaloids  of 
hyoscyamus. 

Assay — Proceed  as  directed  under  Fluidextractiim  Belladonnte  Radicis,  page 
178,  modifying  the  process  there  given  by  using  25  mils  of  the  Fluidextract 
of  Hyoscyamus  in  place  of  10  mils  of  fluidextract  of  belladonna  root,  and  before 
titrating  treating  the  residue  twice  with  5  mils  of  ether  and  evaporating  to 
dryness  each  time. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  sulphuric  acid  V.S.  consumed  corresponds  to  28.92 
miUigrammes  of  the  total  alkaloids  of  hyoscyamus. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.2  mil — Apothecaries,  3  minims. 


FLUIDEXTRACTUM  IPECACUANHA 

Fluidextract  of  Ipecac 

Fldext.  Ipecac. — Fluid  Extract  of  Ipecac 

One  hundred  mils  of  Fluidextract  of  Ipecac  yields  not  less  than  1.8 
Gm.  nor  more  than  2.2  Gm.  of  the  ether-soluble  alkaloids  of  ipecac. 

Ipecac,  in  No.  60  powder,  one  thousand  grammes 1000  Gm. 


188  THE   PHABMACOPCEIA  OF  THE 

Prepare  a  Fluidextract  by  Type  Process  B  (see  page  175),  using  a 
mixture  of  one  hundred  mils  of  diluted  hydrochloric  acid,  two  hundred 
mils  of  alcohol  and  two  hundred  mils  of  water  as  Menstruum  I,  and  a 
mixture  of  two  volumes  of  alcohol  and  three  volumes  of  water  as  Men- 
struum II.    Reserve  the  first  eight  hundred  mils  of  percolate. 

After  dissolving  the  soft  extract  in  the  reserve  liquid,  assay  a  portion 
as  directed  below,  and,  from  the  result  thus  obtained,  ascertain  by 
calculation  the  amount  of  alkaloids  m  the  remainder  of  the  liquid  and 
dilute  this  with  enough  of  Menstruum  II  to  make  each  one  hundred 
mils  of  the  finished  Fluidextract  contain  2  Gm.  of  the  ether-soluble 
alkaloids  of  ipecac. 

Assay — From  a  pipette  drop  10  mils  of  Fluidextract  of  Ipecac  evenly  over 
the  smiace  of  10  Gm.  of  purified  sawdust  (see  page  546),  and  evaporate  it  to 
dryness  at  a  temperature  not  exceeding  80°  C.  Transfer  the  impregnated 
sawdust  to  a  250  mil  flask  and  add  100  mils  of  ether.  Rinse  the  dish  in  which 
the  mixture  was  evaporated  with  6  mils  of  ammonia  water,  previously  diluted 
with  an  equal  volume  of  water,  used  in  several  portions,  and  add  the  rinsings 
to  the  flask.  Stopper  the  flask  and  shake  it  vigorously  every  few  minutes, 
during  two  hours.  Now  add  15  mils  of  distilled  water,  again  shake  the  flask 
well,  and  when  the  sawdust  has  subsided  decant  50  mils  of  the  ether  solution, 
representing  5  mils  of  the  Fluidextract.  Completely  extract  the  alkaloids  from 
this  solution  by  shaking  out  with  weak  sulphuric  acid.  Collect  the  acid  washings 
in  a  separator;  add  ammonia  water  until  the  solution  is  decidedly  alkahne  to 
litmus,  and  completely  extract  the  alkaloids  by  shaking  out  repeatedly  with 
ether.  Evaporate  the  combined  ether  washings  to  dryness,  dissolve  the  alka- 
loid from  the  residue  in  exactly  10  mils  of  tenth-normal  sulphuric  acid  V.S. 
and  titrate  the  excess  of  acid  with  fiftieth-normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S., 
cochineal  T.S.  being  used  as  indicator  (see  Proximate  Assays,  Part  II). 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  sulphuric  acid  V.S.  consumed  corresponds  to  24 
milligrammes  of  the  ether-soluble  alkaloids  of  ipecac. 

Preparation — Syrupus  Ipecacuanhae. 

Average  dose — Expectorant,  Metric,  0.05  mil — Apothecaries, 
1  minim. 


FLUIDEXTRACTUM  LOBELIiE 

Fluidextract  of  Lobelia 

FIdext.  Lobel.— Fluid  Extract  of  Lobelia 

Lobelia,  in  No.  30  powder,  one  thousand  grammes 1000  Gm. 

Prepare  a  Fluidextract  by  Type  Process  B  (see  page  175),  using  a 
mixture  of  fifty  mils  of  acetic  acid,  five  hundred  mils  of  alcohol  and  four 
hundred  and  fifty  mils  of  water  as  Menstruum  I,  and  diluted  alcohol  as 
Menstruum  II. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.15  mil — Apothecaries,  23^  minims. 


UNITED   STATES   OF  AMERICA  189 

FLUIDEXTRACTUM  NUCIS  VOMICA 

Fluidextract  of  Nux  Vomica 

FIdext.  Nuc.  Vom.— Fluid  Extract  of  Nux  Vomica 

One  hundred  mils  of  Fluidextract  of  Nux  Vomica  yields  not  less  than 
2.37  Gm.  nor  more  than  2.63  Gm.  of  the  alkaloids  of  nux  vomica. 

Nux  Vomica,  in  No.  40  powder,  one  thousand  grammes . . .  1000  Gm. 

Prepare  a  Fluidextract  by  Type  Process  A  (see  page  174),  using  a 
mixture  of  three  volumes  of  alcohol  and  one  volume  of  water  as  the  men- 
struum, and  reserving  the  first  eight  hundred  mils  of  percolate. 

After  dissolving  the  soft  extract  in  the  reserve  liquid,  assay  a  portion 
as  directed  below,  and,  from  the  result  thus  obtained,  ascertain  by 
calculation  the  amount  of  alkaloids  in  the  remainder  of  the  liquid  and 
dilute  this  with  enough  menstruum  to  make  each  one  hundred  mils  of 
the  finished  Fluidextract  contain  2.5  Gm.  of  the  alkaloids  of  nux 
vomica. 

Assay — Proceed  as  directed  under  Fluidexlraclum  BelladonncB  Radicis,  page 
178,  using  10  mils  of  Fluidextract  of  Nux  Vomica,  modifying  the  process  there 
given  by  dissolving  the  alkaloidal  residue  in  10  mils  of  tenth-normal  sulphuric 
acid  V.S.  instead  of  5  mils. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  sulphuric  acid  V.S.  consumed  corresponds  to  36.42 
milligrammes  of  the  alkaloids  of  nux  vomica. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.05  mil — Apothecaries,  1  minim. 


FLUIDEXTRACTUM  PILOCARPI 

Fluidextract  of  Pilocarpus 

FIdext.  Pilocarp.— Fluid  Extract  of  Pilocarpus     Fluidextract  of  Jaborandi 

One  hundred  mils  of  Fluidextract  of  Pilocarpus  yields  not  less  than 
0.55  Gm.  nor  more  than  0.65  Gm.  of  the  alkaloids  of  pilocarpus. 

Pilocarpus,  in  No.  30  powder,  one  thousand  grammes. . . .  1000  Gm. 

Prepare  a  Fluidextract  by  Type  Process  A  (see  page  174),  using  a 
mixture  of  two  volumes  of  alcohol  and  one  volume  of  water  as  the  men- 
struum, and  reserving  the  first  eight  hundred  mils  of  percolate. 

After  dissolving  the  soft  extract  in  the  reserve  liquid,  assay  a  portion 
as  directed  below,  and  from  the  result  thus  obtained,  ascertain  by  calcu- 
lation the  amount  of  alkaloids  in  the  remainder  of  the  liquid  and  dilute 
this  with  enough  menstruum  to  make  each  one  hundred  mils  of  the 
finished  Fluidextract  contain  0.6  Gm.  of  the  alkaloids  of  pilocarpus. 


190  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA   OF  THE 

Assay — From  a  pipette  drop  15  mils  of  Fluidextract  of  Pilocarpus  evenly 
over  the  surface  of  15  Gm.  of  purified  sawdust  (see  page  546),  and  evaporate 
it  to  dryness  on  a  water  bath.  Transfer  the  mixture  to  a  250  mil  flask,  add  150 
mils  of  chloroform,  and  proceed  as  directed  under  Belladonnce  Radix,  page  73, 
third  line  of  the  Assay,  beginning  with  the  word  "  Stopper, "  modifying  the 
process  there  given  by  increasing  the  amoimt  of  ammonia  water  to  6  mils, 
mixed  with  5  mils  of  distilled  water,  which  is  to  be  used,  in  divided  portions, 
to  rinse  the  dish  in  which  the  mixture  was  evaporated,  the  rinsings  being  added 
to  the  mixture  in  the  flask;  the  100  mils  of  chloroform  solution  must  be  drawn 
off'  from  the  bottom  of  the  flask. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  sulphuric  acid  V.S.  corresponds  to  20.815  milli- 
grammes of  the  alkaloids  of  pilocarpus. 

Average  dose — Metric,  2  mils — Apothecaries,  30  minims. 

FLUIDEXTRACTUM  PODOPHYLLI 

Fluidextract  of  Podophyllum 

Fldext.  Podophyll.— Fluid  Extract  of  Podophyllum 

Podophyllum,  in  No.  40  powder,  one  thousand  grammes.. .  1000  Gm. 
Prepare  a  Fluidextract  by  Type  Process  A  (see  page  174),  using 
alcohol  as  the  menstruum. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.5  mil — Apothecaries,  8  minims. 

FLUIDEXTRACTUM  RHEI 

Fluidextract  of  Rhubarb 

Fldext.  Rhei— Fluid  Extract  of  Rhubarb 

Rhubarb,  in  No.  30  powder,  one  thousand  grammes 1000  Gm. 

Prepare  a  Fluidextract  by  Type  Process  A  (see  page  174),  using  a 
mixture  of  four  volumes  of  alcohol  and  one  volume  of  water  as  the  men- 
struum. 

Preparation — Syrupus  Rhei. 

Average  dose — Metric,  1  mil — Apothecaries,  15  minims. 

FLUIDEXTRACTUM  ROS.E 

Fluidextract  of  Rose 

Fldext.  Rosae— Fluid  Extract  of  Rose 

Red  Rose,  in  No.  20  powder,  one  thousand  grammes 1000  Gm. 

Prepare  a  Fluidextract  by  Type  Process  B  (see  page  175),  using  a  mix- 
ture of  one  hundxed  mils  of  glycerin,  five  hundred  mils  of  alcohol  and 
four  hundred  mils  of  water  as  Menstruum  I,  and  diluted  alcohol  as 
Menstruum  II. 

Preparation — Mel  Rosae. 

Average  dose — Metric,  2  mils — Apothecaries,  30  minims. 


UNITED    STATES   OF  AMERICA  191 

FLUIDEXTRACTUM  SABAL 

Fluidextract  of  Sabal 

Fldext.  Sabal— Fluid  Extract  of  Sabal     Fluidextract  of  Saw  Palmetto 

Sabal,  in  No.  20  powder,  one  thousand  grammes 1000  Gm. 

Prepare  a  Fluidextract  by  Type  Process  A  (see  page  174),  using  a 
mixture  of  four  volumes  of  alcohol  and  one  volume  of  water  as  the  men- 
struum. 

Average  dose — Metric,  1  mil — Apothecaries,  15  minims. 


FLUIDEXTRACTUM  SARSAPARILL.E 

Fluidextract  of  Sarsaparilla 

Fldext.  Sarsap. — Fluid  Extract  of  Sarsaparilla 

Sarsaparilla,  in  No.  20  powder,  one  thousand  grammes. . .   1000  Gm. 

Prepare  a  Fluidextract  by  Type  Process  A  (see  page  174),  using 
diluted  alcohol  as  the  menstruum. 

Preparation — Syrupus  SarsaparillfiB  Compositus. 

Average  dose — Metric,  2  mils — Apothecaries,  30  minims. 


FLUIDEXTRACTUM  SARSAPARILLA 
COMPOSITUM 

Compound  Fluidextract  of  Sarsaparilla 

Fldext.  Sarsap.  Co. — Compound  Fluid  Extract  of  Sarsaparilla 

Sarsaparilla,  in  No.  20  powder,  seven  hundred  and  fifty 

grammes 750  Gm. 

Glycyrrhiza,  in  No.  20  powder,  one  hundred  and  twenty 

grammes 120  Gm. 

Sassafras,  in  No.  30  powder,  one  hundred  grammes 100  Gm. 

Mezereum,  in  No.  30  powder,  thirty  grammes 30  Gm. 

Mix  the  powders  and  prepare  a  Fluidextract  by  Type  Process  B  (see 
page  175),  using  a  mixture  of  one  hundred  mils  of  glycerin,  five  hundred 
m,ils  of  alcohol  and  four  hundred  mils  of  water  as  Menstruum  I,  and 
diluted  alcohol  as  Menstruum  II. 

Average  dose — Metric,  2  mils — Apothecaries,  30  minims. 


192  THE  PHARMACOPCEIA   OF  THE 

FLUIDEXTRACTUM  SCILL.E 

Fluidextract  of  Squill 

FIdext.  Sclll.— Fluid  Extract  of  Squill 

If  assayed  biologically  the  minimum  lethal  dose  should  not  be  greater 
than  0.0006  mil  of  Fluidextract,  or  the  equivalent  in  Fluidextract  of 
0.0000005  Gm.  of  ouabain,  for  each  gramme  of  body  weight  of  frog. 

Squill,  in  No.  20  powder,  07ie  thousand  grammes 1000  Gm. 

Diluted  Alcohol, 

Alcohol, 

Water,  each,  a  sufficient  quantity, 

To  make  one  thousand  milliliters 1000  mils 

Mix  two  thousand  mils  of  alcohol  with  one  thousand  mils  of  water, 
moisten  the  squill  thoroughly  with  sufficient  of  the  mixture  and  allow 
it  to  macerate  for  two  hours  in  a  tightly-covered  container.  Then 
transfer  it  to  a  percolator,  shake  it  do^vn  evenly  without  packing,  and 
pour  on  enough  of  the  menstruum  to  saturate  the  powder  and  leave 
a  stratum  above  it.  When  the  liquid  begins  to  drop  from  the  percolator, 
close  the  lower  orifice,  and,  having  closely  covered  the  percolator, 
macerate  for  forty-eight  hours.  Then  allow  the  percolation  to  proceed 
slowly,  gradually  adding  more  menstruum  composed  of  two  volumes  of 
alcohol  and  one  volume  of  water.  When  the  percolate  measures  one 
thousand  mils,  close  the  lower  orifice  and  macerate  the  drug  twelve 
hours  before  continuing  the  percolation.  Then  collect  a  second  one 
thousand  mils  of  percolate,  again  interrupt  the  percolation,  macerate 
for  twelve  hours  and  then  continue  the  percolation  until  the  total  per- 
colate measures  five  thousand  mils.  Recover  the  alcohol  from  the 
percolate  at  as  low  a  temperature  as  possible  and  then  concentrate  the 
residue  to  a  volume  measuring  eight  hundred  mils.  When  the  residue 
is  cold,  add  slowly,  with  continuous  agitation,  two  thousand  mils  of 
alcohol  and  set  the  mixture  aside  in  a  tightly-stoppered  container  for 
twelve  hours.  Decant  the  supernatant  liquid  from  the  syrupy  layer, 
filter  the  decanted  liquid  and  wash  the  syrupy  residue  with  two  por- 
tions of  three  hundred  mils  each  of  a  mixture  of  four  volumes  of  alcohol 
and  one  volume  of  water,  passing  the  washings  through  the  filter  into 
the  previously  collected  alcoholic  liquid.  Reduce  the  combined  alcoholic 
liquids  to  eight  hundred  mils  by  distillation  and  .finally  add  enough 


UNITED   STATES   OF  AMERICA  193 

diluted  alcohol  to  make  the  finished  Fluidextract  measure  one  thousand 
mils. 

Assay — For  a  method  of  assaying  Fluidextract  of  Squill  see  Biological  Assays 
(Part  II). 

Preparation — SyTupus  Scillae  Compositus. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.1  mil — Apothecaries,  1^  minims. 

FLUIDEXTRACTUM  SENEGA 

Fluidextract  of  Senega 

Fldext.  Seneg.— Fluid  Extract  of  Senega 

Senega,  in  No.  30  powder,  one  thousand  grammes 1000  Gm. 

Ammonia  Water, 
Alcohol, 

Water,  each,  o  sufficient  quantity,  

To  make  one  thousand  milliliters 1000  mils 

Mix  two  thousand  mils  of  alcohol  with  one  thousand  mils  of  water, 
and,  having  moistened  the  powder  with  sufficient  of  this  mixture,  pack 
it  in  a  cylindrical  percolator  and  add  enough  menstruum  to  saturate 
the  powder  and  leave  a  stratum  above  it.  When  the  liquid  begins 
to  drop  from  the  percolator,  close  the  lower  orifice,  and,  having  closely 
covered  the  percolator,  macerate  for  forty-eight  hours.  Then  allow 
the  percolation  to  proceed  slowly,  gradually  adding  menstruum,  com- 
posed of  a  mixture  of  two  volumes  of  alcohol  and  one  volwne  of  water, 
until  the  drug  is  exhausted.  Reserve  the  first  eight  hundred  mils  of 
the  percolate  and  evaporate  the  remainder  to  a  soft  extract;  dissolve 
this  in  the  reserved  liquid  and  then  gradually  add  ammonia  water  until 
the  product  is  faintly  alkaline  and  possesses  a  slight  odor  of  ammonia. 
Finally  add  enough  of  the  menstruum  to  make  the  Fluidextract 
measure  one  thousand  mils. 

Preparations — SyTupus  Scillae  Compositus        Syrupus  Senegae. 

Average  dose — Metric,  1  mil — Apothecaries,  15  minims. 

FLUIDEXTRACTUM  SENN^E 
Fluidextract  of  Senna 

Fldext.  Senn.— Fluid  Extract  of  Senna 

Alexandria   Senna,    in   No.    40   powder,    one   thousand 

grammes 1000  Gm. 

18 


194  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA   OF   THE 

Prepare  a  Fluidextract  by  Type  Process  A  (see  page  174),  using  a 
mixture  of  one  volume  of  alcohol  and  two  volumes  of  water  as  the  men- 
struum, and  reserving  the  first  eight  hundred  mils  of  percolate. 
Preparations — SjTupus  Sarsaparillse  Compositus     SjTupus  Sennae. 

Average  dose — Metric,  2  mils — Apothecaries,  30  minims. 


FLUIDEXTRACTUM  SPIGELLE 

Fluidextract  of  Spigelia 

FIdext.  Spigel.— Fluid  Extract  of  Spigelia    Fluidextract  of  Pink  Root 

Spigelia,  in  No.  40  powder,  one  thousand  grammes 1000  Gm. 

Prepare  a  Fluidextract  by  Type  Process  A  (see  page  174),  using 
diluted  alcohol  as  the  menstruum. 

Average  dose — Metric,  5  mils — Apothecaries,  1  fluidrachm. 


FLUIDEXTRACTUM  STAPHISAGRI^ 

Fluidextract  of  Staphisagria 

Fldext.  Staphisag. — Fluid  Extract  of  Staphisagria     Fluidextract  of  Stavesacre 

Staphisagria,  in  No.  20  powder,  one  thousand  grammes. .  .   1000  Gm. 

Prepare  a  Fluidextract  by  Type  Process  A  (see  page  174),  using 
alcohol  as  the  menstruum. 

The  oil  which  separates  in  the  freshly  prepared  Fluidextract  may  be 
removed  by  chilling  and  filtering  the  cold  Fluidextract  through  a  filter 
moistened  with  alcohol. 


FLUIDEXTRACTUM  STILLINGI.E 

Fluidextract  of  Stillingia 

FIdext.  Stilling.— Fluid  Extract  of  Stillingia 

Stillingia,  in  No.  30  powder,  one  thousand  grammes 1000  Gm. 

Prepare  a  Fluidextract  by  Type  Process  A  (see  page  174),  using 
diluted  alcohol  as  the  menstruum. 

Average  dose — Metric,  2  mils — Apothecaries,  30  minims. 


UNITED   STATES  OF  AMERICA  195 

FLUIDEXTRACTUM  SUMBUL 

Fluidextract  of  Sumbul 

Fldext.  Sumbul — Fluid  Extract  of  Sumbul    Fluidextract  of  Musk  Root 

Sumbul,  in  No.  30  powder,  one  thousand  grammes 1000  Gm. 

Prepare  a  Fluidextract  by  Type  Process  A  (see  page  174),  using  a 
mixture  of  four  volumes  of  alcohol  and  one  volume  of  water  as  the  men- 
struum. 

Average  dose — Metric,  2  mils — Apothecaries,  30  minims. 

FLUIDEXTRACTUM  TARAXACI 

Fluidextract  of  Taraxacum 

Fldext.  Tarax. — Fluid  Extract  of  Taraxacum    Fluidextract  of  Dandelion 

Taraxacum,  in  No.  30  powder,  one  thousand  grammes ....   1000  Gm. 

Prepare  a  Fluidextract  by  Type  Process  B  (see  page  175),  using  a 
mixture  of  one  hundred  mils  of  glycerin,  five  hundred  mils  of  alcohol 
and  four  hundred  mils  of  water  as  Menstruum  I,  and  diluted  alcohol  as 
Menstruum  II. 

Average  dose — Metric,  10  mils — Apothecaries,  23/2  fluidrachms. 

FLUIDEXTRACTUM  TRITICI 

Fluidextract  of  Triticum 

Fldext.  Trltic. — Fluid  Extract  of  Triticum    Fluidextract  of  Couch  Grass 

Triticum,  finely  cut,  one  thousand  graynmes 1000  Gm. 

Alcohol,  two  hundred  milliliters 200  mils 

Prepare  a  Fluidextract  by  Type  Process  D  (see  page  176),  evaporate 
the  aqueous  percolate  to  eight  hundred  mils  and  when  cold  add  the 
alcohol  and,  if  necessary,  sufficient  water  to  make  the  product  measure 
one  thousand  mils. 

Average  dose — Metric,  10  mils — Apothecaries,  23^2  fluidrachms. 

FLUIDEXTRACTUM  UV^E  URSI 
Fluidextract  of  Uva  Ursi 

Fldext.  Uvse  Ursi — Fluid  Extract  of  Uva  Ursi 

TJvA  Ursi,  in  No.  30  powder,  one  thousand  grammes 1000  Gm. 

Prepare  a  Fluidextract  by  Type  Process  B  (see  page  175),  using  a 
mixture  of  one  hundred  mils  of  glycerin,  three  hundred  miU  of  alcohol 


196  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA   OF   THE 

and  five  hundred  mils  of  water  as  Menstruum  I,  and  a  mixture  of  one 
volume  of  alcohol  and  two  volumes  of  water  as  Menstruum  11.  Reserve 
the  first  eight  hundred  mils  of  percolate. 

Average  dose — Metric,  2  mils — Apothecaries,  30  minims. 


FLUIDEXTRACTUM  VERATRI  MRIDIS 

Fluidextract  of  Veratruin  Virlde 

FIdext.  Verat.  Vir. — Fluid  Extract  of  Veratrum  Viride    Fluidextract  of  Green  Hellebore 

Veratrum  Viride,  in  No.  40  powder,  one  thousand  grammes  1000  Gm. 

Prepare  a  Fluidextract  by  Type  Process  A  (see  page  174),  using 
alcohol  as  the  menstruum. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.1  mil — Apothecaries,  13^  minims. 

FLUIDEXTRACTUM   VIBURNI   PRUNIFOLII 

Fluidextract  of  Viburnum  Prunifolium 

FIdext.  Viburn.  Prun. — Fluid  Extract  of  Viburnum  Prunifolium      Fluidextract  of 

Black  Haw 

Viburnum  Prunifolium,  in  No.  30  powder,  one  thousand 

grammes 1000  Gm. 

Prepare  a  Fluidextract  by  Type  Process  A  (see  page  174),  using  a 
mixture  of  two  volumes  of  alcohol  and  one  volume  of  water  as  the 
menstruum. 

Average  dose — Metric,  2  mils — Apothecaries,  30  minims. 

FLUIDEXTRACTUM  XANTHOXYLI 

Fluidextract  of  Xanthoxylum 

FIdext.  Xanthox. — Fluid  Extract  of  Xanthoxylum    Fluidextract  of  Prickly  Ash 

Xanthoxylum,  in  No.  30  powder,  one  thousand  grammes. .   1000  Gm. 

Prepare  a  Fluidextract  by  Type  Process  A  (see  page  174),  using  a 
mixture  of  three  volumes  of  alcohol  and  07ie  volume  of  water  as  the  men- 
struum. 

Average  dose — Metric,  2  mils — Apothecaries,  30  minima. 


UNITED   STATES   OF  AMERICA  197 


FLUIDEXTRACTUIVI  ZIXGIBERIS 

Fluidextract  of  Ginger 

Fldext.  Zingib.— Fluid  Extract  of  Gmger 

Jamaica  Ginger,  in  No.  40  powder,  one  thousand  grammes .  1000  Gm. 

Prepare  a  Fluidextract  by  Type  Process  A  (see  page  174),  using 
alcohol  as  the  menstruum. 

Preparation — Syrupus  Zingiberis. 

Average  dose — Metric,  1  mil — Apothecaries,  15  minims. 

FCENICULUM 

Fennel 

Foenic— Fennel  Seed 
The  dried,  ripe  fruit   of   cultivated  varieties  of  Foeniculum  vulgare 
Miller  (Fam.  Umhelliferm),  without  the  presence  or  admixture  of  more 
than  4  per  cent,  of  foreign  matter. 

Mericarps  usually  separate,  each  being  broadly  elliptical,  more  or  less  curved, 
from  4  to  10  mm.  in  length  and  from  1  to  3.5  mm.  in  breadth,  some  having  a 
slender  stalk  from  2  to  10  mm.  in  length;  dorsal  surface  convex,  yellowish-green  to 
grayish-brown,  with  tliree  prominent,  longitudinal  primary  ribs  and  at  the 
summit  a  short,  conical  stylopodium;  commissural  surface  with  three  narrow, 
light  brown,  longitudinal  areas  separated  by  two  dark  brown  or  brownish- 
black  areas  containing  the  vittse  or  oil-tubes;  odor  and  taste  aromatic  and 
characteristic. 

Under  the  microscope,  transverse  sections  of  Fennel  show  a  pentagonal  meri- 
carp,  four  of  the  edges  being  nearly  equal  and  slightly  concave,  the  other  or  com- 
missural surface  being  much  longer  and  more  or  less  undulate ;  cells  of  the  seed- 
coat  closel}'  united  with  those  of  the  pericarp,  giving  the  section  two  very  distinct 
areas,  the  inner  and  larger  portion  (endosperm)  more  or  less  rounded-pentagonal 
and  somewhat  reniform,  composed  of  polygonal  cells,  filled  with  aleurone  grains 
containing  rosette  aggregates  of  calcium  oxalate  and  a  thin  protoplasmic  layer 
enclosing  a  fixed  oil;  the  outer  or  pericarp  laj-er  distinguished  by  large  elliptical 
vittae  with  thick,  brown  walls,  occurring  singly  and  alternating  with  the  primary 
ribs,  and  two  vittae  on  the  dorsal  surface,  making  usually  six  vitta;  in  all,  there 
sometimes  being,  however,  one  or  two  vittse  additional;  in  the  central  portion  of 
each  of  the  ribs  occurs  a  nearly  circular,  fibro-vascular  bundle  with  a  few  traches 
and  numerous  thin-walled,  strongly  lignified  sclerenchymatous  fibers. 

The  powder  is  yellowish-brown  consisting  of  irregular  angular  fragments; 
tissues  of  endosperm,  colorless,  the  cells  filled  with  aleurone  grains,  each  containing 
a  rosette  aggregate  of  calcium  oxalate,  about  0.002  mm.  in  diameter;  fragments 
containing  yellowish-browTi  vittse,  from  0.1  to  0.2  mm.  in  width;  sclerenchy- 
matous fibers  few,  strongly  hgnified  and  with  numerous,  obhque,  simple  pores; 
parenchjTna  cells  with  more  or  less  thick  walls  and  simple  pores  and  occasionally 
reticulately  thickened;  tracheae  few  and  either  spiral  or  annular;  in  mounts  made 
with  hydrated  chloral  T.S.,  numerous  globules  of  a  fixed  oil  separate. 

Fennel  jields  not  more  than  9  per  cent,  of  ash. 

Preparation — Infusum  Sennae  Compositum, 

Average  dose — Metric,  1  Gm. — Apothecaries,  15  grains. 


198  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA   OF  THii 

FRANGULA 

Frangula 

Frang.— Buckthorn  Bark 

The  dried  bark  of  Rhamnus  Frangula  Linne  (Fam.  RhamnacecB). 

In  quills  varying  in  length,  frequently  flattened  or  crushed;  from  0.5  to  1  mm. 
in  thickness;  outer  surface  grayish-brown  or  purplish-black,  with  numerous,  promi- 
nent, lighter-colored,  transverse  lenticels  and  occasional  patches  of  foliaceous 
lichens  bearing  small,  blackish  apothecia;  inner  surface  smooth,  dark  brown  with 
occasional  purplish  blotches,  longitudinally  striate,  becoming  red  when  moistened 
with  solutions  of  the  alkahes;  fracture  short,  slightly  fibrous  in  the  irmer  layer; 
odor  distinctive;  taste  slightly  bitter. 

Under  the  microscope,  transverse  sections  of  Frangula  show  a  distinctly  undu- 
late corky  layer,  composed  of  about  12  rows  of  reddish-brown  cells;  parenchyma 
cells  of  the  primary  cortex  with  numerous  rosette  aggregates  of  calcium  oxalate, 
from  0.01  to  0.025  mm.  in  diameter;  inner  bark  with  bast-fibers  in  narrow, 
interrupted  rows,  the  groups  of  fibers  being  separated  radially  by  the  medullary 
rays;  bast-fibers  with  thick,  strongly  lignified,  yellowish  walls  and  narrow  lumina 
and  each  group  surrounded  by  a  layer  of  crystal  fibers,  the  prismatic  crystals 
of  calcium  oxalate  varying  from  0.007  to  0.015  mm.  in  diameter,  medullary 
rays  one  to  two  cells  in  width,  occasionally  three;  cells  of  the  parenchyma  and 
medullary  rays  with  numerous  starch  grains,  0.003  mm.  in  diameter. 

The  powder  is  yellowish-brown;  stone  cells  absent  (distinguishing  it  from  the 
powder  of  Cascara  Sagrada). 

Add  0.1  Gm.  of  powdered  Frangula  to  10  mils  of  hot  distilled  water,  shake 
the  mixture  occasionally  until  cold  and  filter;  on  the  addition  of  a  few  drops  of 
ammonia  water,  the  filtrate  is  colored  a  deep  red. 

Macerate  0.1  Gm.  of  powdered  Frangula  with  10  drops  of  alcohol,  boil 
with  10  mils  of  distilled  water  and  filter  when  cold.  Shake  this  filtrate  with 
10  mils  of  ether;  a  yellow,  ethereal  solution  separates,  and  3  mils  of  this  ethereal 
solution,  when  shaken  with  3  mils  of  ammonia  water,  yields  an  alkaline  solu- 
tion, which,  on  being  diluted  with  20  mils  of  distilled  water,  still  possesses  a 
distinct  cherry-red  color. 

Frangula  yields  not  more  than  6  per  cent,  of  ash. 

Preparation — Fluidextractum  Franguls. 

Average  dose — Metric,  1  Gm. — Apothecaries,  15  grains. 


GALLA 

Nutgall 

Qall. — Aleppo  Galls    Smyrna  Galls 

Excrescences  on  the  young  twigs  of  Quercus  infedoria  Olivier  and 

other  alUed  species  of  Quercus  (Fam.  Fagaceoe),  induced  by  the  punctures 

on  the  leaf-buds  and  by  the  deposited  ova  of  Cynips  tinctoria  Hartig 

(Order  HymenopteroB).    Not  more  than  5  per  cent,  of  Galls  float  in  water. 

Nearly  globular,  from  0.8  to  2.2  cm.  in  diameter;  externally  blackish-olive- 
green  or  blackish-gray,  more  or  less  tuberculated  on  the  upper  portion,  the  basal 
portion  being  nearly  smooth  and  contracted  into  a  short  stalk;  heavy,  sinking 
in  water,  excepting  the  smaller  galls;  fracture  short-horny;  internally  grayish 
or  dark  brown,  consisting  of  a  central  portion  sUghtly  radiating  and  resinous, 
occasionally   hollow   and    traversed   by  a    narrow  radial  canal  extending  to 


UNITED   STATES   OF  AMERICA  199 

the  exterior  as  shown  by  the  perforation  in  the  whole  gall;  odor  slight;  taste 
strongly  astringent. 

The  powder  consists  of  numerous  fragments  of  thick-walled  starch-bearing 
parenchyma;  starch  grains  numerous;  more  or  less  free  in  the  powder  and  vary- 
ing in  8ha,pe  from  spherical  or  ellipsoidal  to  polygonal,  and  from  0.005  to  0.03 
mm.  in  diameter;  stone-cells  few,  resembling  those  found  in  fruits  and  seeds, 
varying  considerably  in  shape  and  size,  and  from  0.025  to  0.3  mm.  in  length; 
occasional  fragments  with  spiral  or  reticulate  trachea^;  fragments  mounted  in 
dilute  ferric  chloride  T.S.  assume  a  deep  blue  or  greeni.sh-blue  color. 
Macerate  0.5  Gm.  of  the  powdered  Nutgall  with  2  mils  of  alcohol  for  a  few 

minutes,  add  500  mils  of  water,  stir  the  mixture  well  for  five  minutes  and  filter. 

Take  1  mil  of  the  light  yellowish-brown  solution,  and  dilute  it  with  10  mils  of 

water;  it  shows  a  distinct  blue  or  violet-blue  color  upon  the  addition  of  a  drop 

of  ferric  chloride  T.S. 

Preparation — Unguentum  Gallse. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.5  Gm. — Apothecaries,  8  grains. 


GAMBIR 

Gambir 

Pale  Catechu 

A  dried  extract  prepared  from  decoctions  of  the  leaves  and  twigs  of 

Ouroupana  Gambir  (Hunter)  Baillon  (Fam.  Ruhiacece). 

Usually  in  cubical  or  rectangular  pieces  from  20  to  30  mm.  in  diameter; 
externally  pale  grayish-brown  to  reddish-brown,  more  or  less  dull  and  porous; 
friable;  internally  of  a  light  brown  or  dull  earthy  color;  inodorous;  taste  bitterish 
and  very  astringent. 

Upon  scraping  a  piece  of  Gambir  and  mounting  the  separated  fragments  in 
hydrated  chloral  T.S.  and  examining  them  under  the  microscope,  numerous 
acicular  crystals,  from  0.01  to  0.03  mm.  in  length,  seixirate  at  the  edges  of  the 
fragments  and  gradually  dissolve,  lea\ang  a  few,  thick-wallcd,  non-glandular  hairs 
which,  when  entire,  may  be  0.35  mm.  in  length;  a  few  fragments  of  leaves  may 
also  be  present  showing  either  epidermal  cells  or  small  narrow  tracheae  with 
spiral  or  annular  markings;  a  few  starch  grains  either  single  or  compound,  of 
variable  shapes  and  from  0.005  to  0.015  mm.  in  diameter;  a  number  of  bacteria 
may  also  be  present. 

Macerate  1  Gm.  of  Gambir  with  50  mils  of  water,  and  filter;  the  pale  yellowish- 
brown  solution  obtained  gives  an  intense,  green  color  with  dilute  ferric  chloride 
T.S. ;  but  yields  no  precipitate  with  copper  sulphate  T.S. 

Not  less  than  65  per  cent,  of  Gambir  is  soluble  in  water  and  not  less  than  60 
per  cent,  is  soluble  in  alcohol. 

Gambir  j'ields  not  more  than  9  per  cent,  of  ash. 
Preparation — Tinctura  Gambir  Composita. 

Average  dose — IMetric,  1  Gm. — Apothecaries,  15  grains. 

GELATINUM 

Gelatin 
Gelat. 

The  purified  product  obtained  from  animal  tissues,  as  skin,  ligaments, 
and  bones,  by  treatment  with  boiling  water. 


200  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA   OP   THE 

An  amorphous  solid,  in  sheets  or  flakes  or  in  ground,  powdered  or  shredded  form, 
colorless  or  slightly  yellowish,  and  having  a  very  slight,  characteristic  odor  and 
taste;  unalterable  in  the  air  when  dry,  but  decomposing  when  moist  or  in  solution. 

Gelatin  is  insoluble  in  cold  water  but  swells  and  softens  when  immersed  in  it, 
gradually  absorbing  from  5  to  10  times  its  own  weight  of  water;  soluble  in  hot 
water,  acetic  acid  or  glycerin;  insoluble  in  alcohol,  chloroform,  ether,  benzene, 
carbon  disulphide  or  fixed  or  volatile  oils. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  Gelatin  (1  in  5000)  is  at  once  rendered  turbid  by  the 
addition  of  tannic  acid  T.S. 

A  hot  solution  of  Gelatin  in  distilled  water  (1  in  40)  is  free  from  putrid  odor, 
and  is  not  more  than  slightly  acid  to  litmus;  it  appears  not  more  than  slightly 
opalescent  in  a  stratum  2  cm.  in  thickness,  and,  on  cooling  to  6°  C.  and  standing 
for  several  hours,  it  forms  a  firm,  transparent  or  translucent  jelly. 

Incinerate  about  0.5  Gm.  of  Gelatin;  not  more  than  2  per  cent,  of  ash  remains. 
A  solution  of  the  ash  in  25  nails  of  distilled  water,  made  with  the  aid  of  heat 
and  a  few  drops  of  hydrochloric  acid,  does  not  respond  to  the  Test  for  heavy 
metals  (see  Part  II,  Test  No.  3). 

Heat  1.5  Gm.  of  Gelatin  with  30  mils  of  hydrochloric  acid  (1  in  4)  in  a  150  mil 
Erlenmeyer  flask  on  a  water  bath,  and,  when  the  Gelatin  has  dissolved,  add  3 
mils  of  saturated  bromine  water  and  heat  it  on  a  water  bath  for  fifteen  minutes, 
shaking  the  flask  occasionally.  Then  add  0.5  Gm.  of  potassium  iodide  and  follow 
it  immediately  with  0.5  mil  of  a  25  per  cent,  solution  of  stannous  chloride.  Heat 
the  solution  for  five  minutes  on  a  water  bath,  cool  and  subject  it  to  the  Test  for 
arsenic  (see  Part  II,  Test  No.  1).  The  .stain  produced,  if  any,  is  not  greater  than 
that  produced  in  a  test  made  with  the  same  quantities  of  the  reagents  to  which 
2  mils  of  the  standard  arsenic  test  solution  (see  Part  II,  Test  No.  1)  has  been 
added. 

Dissolve  20  Gm.  of  Gelatin  in  150  mils  of  hot  distilled  water  in  a  flask  having 
a  round  bottom  and  a  long  neck,  add  5  mils  of  phosphoric  acid  and  1  Gm.  of 
sodium  bicarbonate,  and  at  once  connect  the  flask  with  a  condenser.  Distil 
50  mils,  receiving  the  distillate  under  the  surface  of  50  mils  of  tenth-normal 
iodine  V.S.  Acidulate  the  distillate  with  a  few  drops  of  hydrochloric  acid,  add 
2  mils  of  barium  chloride  T.S.,  and  heat  on  a  water  bath  until  the  hquid  is  nearly 
colorless.  The  precipitate  of  barium  sulphate,  if  any,  when  filtered,  washed 
and  ignited,  weighs  not  more  than  0.0015  Gm.,  corresponding  to  not  more  than 
0.002  per  cent,  of  sulphur  dioxide  in  the  Gelatin,  correction  being  made  for  any 
sulphate  which  may  be  present  in  50  mils  of  the  tenth-normal  iodine  V.S. 

Note — Gelatin  used  for  making  capsules  for  medicines  contains  not  more 
than  0.15  per  cent,  of  sulphur  dioxide. 

Preparation — Gelatinum  Glycerinatum. 

GELATINUM  GLYCERINATUM 

Glycerinated  Gelatin 
Qelat.  Glycerin. 

Gelatin",  one  hundred  grammes 100  Gm. 

Glycerin,  one  hundred  grammes 100  Gm. 

Water,  a  sufficient  quantity, 

To  make  two  hundred  grammes 200  Gm. 

Pour  upon  the  gelatin  sufficient  water,  which  has  been  previously 
boiled  and  cooled,  to  cover  it;  allow  it  to  stand  one  hour;  pour  off  the 
water  and  allow  the  gelatin  to  drain  for  a  few  minutes;  then  transfer 


UNITED  STATES  OF  AMERICA  201 

it  to  a  dish,  add  the  glycerin,  and  heat  it  on  a  water  bath  until  the 
gelatin  is  dissolved.  Strain  the  solution  while  hot,  transfer  to  a  tared 
dish  and  continue  the  heat  on  the  water  bath  until  the  product  weighs 
two  hundred  grammes.  When  cold,  cut  the  mass  into  pieces,  and  preserve 
them  in  well-closed  containers. 


GELSElSnUM 

Gelsemium 

Qelsem. — Yellow  Jasmine  Root    Yellow  Jessamine 

The  dried  rhizome  and  roots  of  Gelsemium  sempervirens  (Linne)  Alton 
filius  (Fam.  Loganiacece). 

Rhizome  cylindrical,  usually  in  pieces  from  3  to  20  cm.  in  length  and  from  3 
to  30  mm.  in  diameter;  externally  light  yellowish-brown,  longitudinally  wrinkled, 
with  purplish-brown  longitudinal  lines  and  transverse  fissures ;  the  upper  surface 
with  a  few  stem-scars,  the  under  and  side  portions  with  numerous  roots  and  root- 
scars;  fracture  tough,  splintery;  internally  light  brown  or  pale  yellow,  bark  thin, 
wood  distinctly  radiate,  excentral,  pith  disintegrated;  odor  slight;  taste  bitter. 
Roots  light  brown;  fracture  one-half  transverse,  the  other  oblique  or  splintery. 

Under  the  microscope,  sections  of  the  rhizome  of  Gelsemium  show  a  strong 
development  of  cork,  the  walls  being  grayish  or  yellowish-brown  and  more  or 
less  lignified;  a  cortex  made  up  chiefly  of  parenchyma  containing  starch  and 
having  in  the  outer  portion  small  scattered  groups  of  stone  cells  or  sclerenchy- 
matous  fibers,  and  in  the  inner  portion  in  the  region  of  the  medullary  ray  prisms 
of  calcium  oxalate;  woody  portion  made  up  of  broad  wedges  consisting  of  large 
tracheae  and  fiber-tracheids  separated  by  starch-bearing  medullary  rays,  the 
innermost  cells,  or  those  nearer  the  pith,  being  strongly  lignified,  while  the  outer- 
most layers,  or  those  nearer  the  cortex,  are  non-lignified  and  may  contain  prisms 
of  calcium  oxalate ;  an  internal  phloem  or  sieve,  the  cells  forming  distinct,  more 
or  less  rounded  groups,  the  latter  being  partly  surrounded  by  a  thin-walled  starch- 
bearing  pith. 

The  powder  is  dark  yellow,  tracheae  with  bordered  pores  numerous  and  con- 
spicuous- spiral  tracheae  few;  bast-fibers  and  fiber-tracheids  long  and  narrow, 
strongly  lignified;  starch  grains  spherical,  from  0.004  to  0.008  mm.  in  diameter- 
calcium  oxalate  in  monochnic  prisms  from  0.015  to  0.03  mm.  in  length;  occasional 
groups  of  stone  cells  or  sclerenchymatous  fibers,  the  walls  being  very  thick, 
porous,  and  strongly  lignified. 
Preparations — Extractum  Gelsemii         Fluidextractum  Gelsemii         Tinctura 

Gelsemii. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.03  Gm. — Apothecaries,  3^  grain. 


GENTIANA 

Gentian 

Gentian. — Yellow  Gentian  Root 

The  dried  rhizome  and  roots  of  Gentiana  lutea  Linn^  (Fam.  Genti 
anacece). 


202  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA   OF   THE 

In  nearly  cylindrical,  sometimes  branching  pieces,  of  variable  length,  from  5 
to  35  mm.  in  thickness;  externally  yellowish-brown,  the  rhizome  portion  annulate, 
the  roots  longitudinally  wrinkled;  fracture  short  and  uneven  when  dry,  but 
tough  and  flexible  when  damp;  internally  yellowish-brown,  the  bark  from  0.5 
to  2  mm.  in  thickness,  separated  from  the  somewhat  spongy  woody  portion  by 
a  dark  brown  cambium  zone;  odor  strong,  characteristic;  taste  slightly  sweetish, 
then  strongly  and  persistently  bitter. 

The  powder  is  light  brown  or  yellowish-brown,  consisting  chiefly  of  paren- 
ch>Tnatous  cells  with  fragments  of  scalariform  or  reticulate  tracheae;  starch 
grains  few  or  none.    Stone  cells  and  sclerenchymatous  fibers  are  absent. 
Gentian  yields  not  more  than  6  per  cent,  of  ash. 

Preparations — Extractum  Gentianae    Fluidextractum  Gentianae    TincturaGen- 
tianae  Composita. 

Average  dose — Metric,  1  Gm. — Apothecaries,  15  grains. 


GLUCOSUM 

Glucose 

QIucos. — Syrupy  Glucose    Liquid  Glucose 

A  syrupy  product  obtained  by  the  incomplete  hydrolysis  of  starch, 
consisting  chiefly  of  dextrose  (d-glucose)[C6Hi206  =  180.10]  and  dextrins. 

Glucose  occurs  as  a  colorless  or  slightly  colored,  thick,  syrupy  liquid.  It  is 
odorless  or  nearly  so  and  has  a  sweet  taste. 

It  is  very  soluble  in  water,  sparingly  soluble  in  alcohol. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  Glucose  is  neutral  or  slightly  acid  to  litmus. 

Add  a  few  drops  of  an  aqueous  solution  of  Glucose  (1  in  20)  to  5  mils  of  hot 
alkaline  cupric  tartrate  T.S.;  a  copious  red  precipitate  of  cuprous  oxide  is  pro- 
duced {distinction  from  cane  sugar). 

Introduce  about  0.5  Gm.  of  Glucose  into  a  wide-mouthed,  tared  weighing- 
bottle,  weigh  accurately,  add  2  mils  of  distilled  water,  evaporate  the  water  at 
about  70°  C.  and  dry  the  residue  to  constant  weight  at  90°  C.  The  loss  in  weight 
of  the  Glucose  does  not  exceed  21  per  cent,  {water). 

Incinerate  Glucose  at  a  temperature  not  exceeding  a  low  red  heat;  not  more 
than  1  per  cent,  of  ash  remains. 

A  solution  of  5  Gm.  of  Glucose  in  15  mils  of  distilled  water,  mixed  with  5  drops 
of  phenolphthalein  T.S.,  requires  not  more  than  0.6  mil  of  tenth-normal  potas- 
sium hydroxide  V.S.  to  produce  a  pink  color  {free  acid). 

Dissolve  about  2  Gm.  of  Glucose  in  50  mils  of  distilled  water,  boil  the  solution 
for  one  minute  and  cool;  the  addition  of  one  drop  of  tenth-normal  iodine  V.S. 
to  this  solution  produces  no  blue  color  {starch).  On  now  adding  a  few  drops  of 
starch  T.S.  to  the  solution  a  blue  color  is  produced  {limit  of  sulphur  dioxide). 

An  aqueous  solution  of  Glucose  does  not  respond  to  the  Test  for  heavy  metals 
(see  Part  II,  Test  No.  3).  If  the  solution  of  Glucose  is  not  colorless,  comparison 
must  be  made  with  10  mils  of  the  same  solution,  to  which  a  volume  of  distilled 
water,  equal  to  that  of  the  hydrogen  sulphide  T.S.,  has  been  added. 

Dissolve  1.5  Gm.  of  Glucose  in  5  mils  of  distilled  water;  add  5  mils  of  diluted 
sulphuric  acid  and  1  mil  of  bromine  water  and  heat  for  five  minutes  on  a  water 
bath.  Then  add  0.5  Gm.  of  potassium  iodide,  follow  it  with  5  drops  of  stannous 
chloride  T.S.,  cool  and  subject  the  solution  to  the  Test  for  arsenic  (see  Part  II, 
Test  No.  1).  The  stain  produced,  if  any,  is  not  greater  than  that  produced 
in  a  test  made  with  the  same  quantities  of  the  reagents  to  which  2  mils  of  the 
standard  arsenic  teat  solution  (see  Part  II,  Test  No.  1)  has  been  added. 


tNlTED    STATES   OF  AMERICA                                           203 
m  

GLYCERINUM 

Glycerin 

Glycerin.— Glycerol 

A  liquid  obtained  by  the  hydrolysis  of  vegetable  or  animal  fats,  or 
fixed  oils,  purified  by  distillation,  and  containing  not  less  than  95  per 
cent,  of  the  trihydric  alcohol  C3H5(0H)3  or  CHzOH.CHOH.CHaOH 
(92.06).    Preserve  it  in  well-closed  containers. 

Glycerin  is  a  clear,  colorless  liquid,  of  a  thick,  syrupy  consistence,  having  not 
more  than  a  slight,vcharacteristic  odor  which  is  neither  harsh  nor  disagreeable, 
sweet  to  the  taste  and  producing  a  sensation  of  warmth  in  the  mouth;  when 
exposed  to  the  air,  it  absorbs  moisture. 

Glycerin  is  miscible  with  water  or  alcohol;  in.soluble  in  chloroform,  ether, 
benzene,  petroleum  benzin,  carbon  disulphide  or  fixed  or  volatile  oils. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  Glycerin  (1  in  20)  is  neutral  to  litmus. 

Specific  gravity:  not  below  1.249  at  25°  C. 

Glycerin  does  not  appreciably  volatilize  from  weak  aqueous  solutions.  When  of  a 
strength  between  70  and  100  per  cent.,  it  rapidly  volatilizes  at  boiling  temperatures. 

Heat  a  few  drops  of  Glycerin  with  about  0.5' Gni.  of  potassium  bisulphate; 
pungent  vapors  of  acrolein  are  evolved. 

Glycerin  is  colorless  when  viewed  transversely  in  a  tube  of  colorless  glass 
about  30  mm.  in  diameter,  held  in  a  vertical  position. 

Heat  50  Gm.  of  Glycerin  in  an  opeh,  shallow,  100  mil  porcelain  or  platinum 
dish  until  it  ignites,  then  allow  it  to  burn  without  further  application  of  heat  in 
a  place  free  from  draught;  not  more  than  0.015  per  cent,  of  carbonaceous  and 
mineral  residue  remains.  Subject  this  residue  to  a  low  red  heat,  until  com- 
bustion is  complete;  not  more  than  0.007  per  cent,  of  mineral  ash  remains.  This 
ash,  when  dissolved  in  10  mils  of  distilled  water  and  titrated  with  hundredth- 
normal  silver  nitrate  V.S.,  using  potassium  chromate  T.S.  as  indicator,  shows, 
in  the  original  50  Gm.  of  Glycerin,  not  more  than  0.001  per  cent,  of  chlorides 
calculated  as  sodium  chloride.  Each  mil  of  hundredth-normal  silver  nitrate 
V.S.  consumed  corresponds  to  0.0005846  Gm.  of  NaCl. 

Mix  5  mils  of  Glycerin  by  vigorous  shaking  with  an  equal  volume  of  sulphuric 
acid  in  a  glass-stoppered  cyhnder;  the  liquid  does  not  become  darker  than  yellow 
on  standing  for  one  hour  {readily  carbonizable  impurities). 

Mix  50  Gm.  of  Glj^cerin  with  50  mils  of  freshly  boiled  distilled  water  and  5  mils 
of  half-normal  potassium  hydroxide  V.S.  and  boil  the  mixture  for  five  minutes. 
When  cold,  it  requires  not  less  than  4  mils  of  half-normal  hydrochloric  acid  V.S. 
for  neutralization,  using  phenolphthalein  T.S.  as  indicator  (JcUly  acids  and  esters). 

An  aqueous  solution  of  Glycerin  (1  in  10)  remains  clear  on  the  addition  of 
calcium  chloride  T.S.  (oxalic  acid);  another  portion  of  the  solution  is  not 
affected  by  barium  chloride  T.S.  after  acidulation  with  a  few  drops  of  diluted 
hydrochloric  acid  (sulphate). 

An  aqueous  solution  of  Glycerin  does  not  respond  to  the  Test  for  heavy  metals 
(see  Part  II,  Test  No.  3). 

An  aqueous  solution  of  Glycerin  meets  the  requirements  of  the  Test  for 
arsenic  (see  Part  II,  Test  No.  1). 

A  mixture  of  5  mils  of  Glycerin  and  5  mils  of  an  aqueous  solution  of  potassium 
hydroxide  d  in  10)  does  not  become  yellow  when  kept  for  five  minutes  at  60°  C. 
(acrolein,  glucose),  nor  emit  an  odor  of  ammonia  (ammonium  compounds). 

Preparations — Gelatinum  Glycerinatum       Suppositoria  Glycerini      Glycerites. 
Average  dose — Metric,  4  mils — Apothecaries,  1  fiuidrachm. 


204  THE    PHARMACOPCEIA   OF   THE 

GLYCERITUM  ACIDI  TANNICI 

Glycerite  of  Tannic  Acid 

Qlycer.  Acid.  Tann. — Glycerite  of  Tannin 

Tannic  Acid,  twenty  grammes 20  Gm. 

Glycerin,  eighty  grammes 80  Gm. 

To  make  one  hundred  grammes 100  Gm. 

Weigh  the  glycerin  into  a  tared,  wide-mouthed  bottle  with  a  capacity 
of  about  one  hundred  and  twenty-five  mils.  Place  the  bottle  and  contents 
in  a  water  bath,  heat  the  water  until  it  boils,  and  continue  the  heat  for 
a  few  minutes;  add  the  tannic  acid  to  the  hot  glycerin  in  small,  suc- 
cessive portions,  agitate  the  mixture  until  the  tannic  acid  is  dissolved 
and  strain  the  solution  while  warm  through  purified  cotton. 

Average  dose — Metric,  2  mils — Apothecaries,  30  minims. 

GLYCERITUM  AMYLI 

Glycerite  of  Starch 

Qlycer.  Amyl. 

Starch,  ten  grammes 10  Gm. 

Water,  ten  milliliters 10  mils 

Glycerin,  eighty  grammes 80  Gm. 

Triturate  the  starch  with  the  water,  until  a  homogeneous  mixture  is 
produced.  Then  gradually  add  this  to  the  glycerin,  contained  in  a 
porcelain  dish,  and  heated  to  about  140°  C.  Continue  the  heat,  with 
constant  stirring,  keeping  it  below  144°  C,  until  a  translucent  jelly  is 
formed.  Transfer  the  product  to  suitable  vessels,  provided  with  well- 
fitting  covers. 

GLYCERITUM  BOROGLYCERINI 

Glycerite  of  Boroglycerin 

Qlycer.  Boroglyc. 

Boric  Acid,  in  fine  powder,  three  hundred  and  ten  grammes    310  Gm. 
Glycerin,  a  sufficient  quantity, 

To  make  one  thousand  grammes 1000  Gm. 

Heat  four  hundred  and  sixty  grammes  of  glycerin,  in  a  tared  porcelain 
dish  on  a  sand  bath,  to  a  temperature  between  140°  C.  and  150°  C.,  and 


UNITED    STATES   OF   AMERICA  205 

add  the  boric  acid  in  portions,  constantly  stirring.  When  all  is  added  and 
dissolved,  continue  the  heat  at  the  same  temperature,  frequently  stir- 
ring, and  breaking  up  the  film  which  forms  on  the  surface  until  the  mix- 
ture has  been  reduced  to  the  weight  of  five  hundred  grammes,  then  add 
to  it  five  hundred  grammes  of  glycerin,  mix  thoroughly,  and  imme- 
diately transfer  it  to  bottles  and  stopper  them  tightly. 


GLYCERITUM  HYDRASTIS 

Glycerite  of  Hydrastis 

Glycer.  Hydrast.— Glycerite  of  Golden  Seal 

One  hundred  mils  of  Glycerite  of  Hydrastis  yields  not  less  than 
1.12  Gm.  nor  more  than  1.37  Gm.  of  the  ether-soluble  alkaloids  of 
hydrastis. 

Hydrastis,  in  No.  60  powder,  one  thousand  grammes 1000  Gm. 

Glycerin, 

Alcohol, 

Water,  each,  a  sufficient  quantity, 


To  make  about  one  thousand  milliliters 1000  mils 

Moisten  the  hydrastis  with  three  hundred  and  fifty  mils  of  alcohol, 
pack  it  firmly  in  a  cylindrical  percolator,  and  add  enough  alcohol  to 
saturate  the  powder  and  leave  a  stratum  above  it.  When  the  liquid 
begins  to  drop  from  the  percolator,  close  the  lower  orifice,  and,  having 
closely  covered  the  percolator,  macerate  for  forty-eight  hours.  Then 
allow  the  percolation  to  proceed  slowly,  gradually  adding  alcohol,  until 
the  drug  is  exhausted.  Remove  nearly  all  of  the  alcohol  by  dis- 
tillation or  evaporation,  pour  the  thick  concentrated  liquid  into  four 
hundred  and  fifty  mils  of  ice-cold  water,  and  set  it  aside,  in  a  cold 
place,  for  twenty-four  hours.  Then  filter  and  assay  a  portion  of  this 
filtrate  b}'  the  process  given  below,  and,  from  the  result  thus  obtained, 
ascertain  by  calculation  the  amount  of  ether-soluble  alkaloids  in  the  re- 
mainder of  the  liquid.  Add  to  this  enough  cold  water  to  make  each  one 
hundred  mils  of  the  product  contain  2.5  Gm.  of  the  ether-soluble  alkaloids 
of  hydrastis.     Finally  add  an  equal  volume  of  glycerin,  and  mix. 

Assay — Proceed  as  directed  under  Fluidextractum  Belladonnoe  Radicis,  page 
178,  first  line  of  the  Assav,  modifying  the  process  there  given  by  using  5  mils  of 
Glycerite  of  Hydrastis  instead  of  10  mils  of  fluidextract  of  belladonna  root  and 
using  only  ether  as  the  immiscible  solvent  throughout  the  assay.  Wash  the  final 
ether  extractions  with  10  mils  of  distilled  water,  draw  off  the  water  and  discard  it. 


206  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA   OF   THE 

Then  filter  the  ether  solution  through  a  pledget  of  purified  cotton,  wash  the  cotton 
with  ether,  evaporate  the  filtrate  and  washings,  and  dry  the  residue  at  100°  C.  to 
constant  weight  instead  of  titrating  it.  The  weight  represents  the  amount  of 
ether-soluble  alkaloids  in  5  mils  of  the  Glycerite  of  Hydrastis. 

Average  dose — Metric,  2  mils — Apothecaries,  30  minims. 


GLYCERITUM  PHENOLIS 

Glycerite  of  Phenol 

Qlycer.  Phenol.— Glycerite  of  Carbolic  Acid 

Liquefied  Phenol,  twenty  milliliters 20  mils 

Glycerin,  eighty  milliliters 80  mils 

To  make  one  hundred  milliliters 100  mils 

Add  the  liquefied  phenol  to  the  glycerin  and  thoroughly  mix. 
Average  dose — Metric,  0.3  mil — Apothecaries,  5  minims. 


GLYCYRRHIZA 

Glycyrrhiza 

Glycyrrh. — Licorice    Liquorice  Root 

The  dried  rhizome  and  roots  of  Glycyrrhiza  glabra  typica  Regel  et 
Herder,  known  in  commerce  as  Spanish  Licorice,  or  of  Glycyrrhiza  glabra 
glandulifera  Regel  et  Herder,  known  in  commerce  as  Russian  Licorice 
(Fam.  Leguminosoe) . 

Preserve  powdered  and  whole  Glycyrrhiza  in  tightly-closed  containers 
to  which  a  few  drops  of  chloroform  or  carbon  tetrachloride  are  added 
from  time  to  time  to  prevent  attack  by  insects. 

SpanishXicorice  (also  known  as  Italian,  Levant,  Persian,  Turkish,  or  Arabian 
Licorice) — Nearly  cylindrical,  upper  portion  more  or  less  knotty;  usually  in 
pieces  from  14  to  20  cm.  or  more  in  length  and  from  5  to  20  mm.  in  thickness; 
externally  yellowish-brown  or  dark  brown,  longitudinally  wrinkled,  the  thinner 
rhizomes  often  having  prominent  alternate  buds,  the  thicker  rhizomes  haying 
distinct  corky  patches;  fracture  coarsely  fibrous;  internally  lemon-yellow,  radiate; 
bark  from  1  to  3  mm.  in  thickness;  wood  porous,  in  narrow  wedges,  rhizome  with 
small  i)ith;  odor  distinctive;  taste  sweetish  and  slightly  acrid. 

Under  the  micros(!ope,  transverse  sections  of  pieces  of  the  older  rhizome  of 
Spanish  Licorice  show  a  periderm  of  numerous  layers  of  yellowish-brown  cork 
cells,  a  phellogen  and  one  or  more  rows  of  cells  of  the  f)helloderm,  the  cells  show- 
ing a  tendency  to  coUenchjTnatous  thickenings  and  with  occasional  monoclinic 
prisms  of  calcium  oxalate ;  a  middle  bark  of  starch-bearing  parenchyma  and  whitish 
groups  of  bast-fibers  surrounded  with  crystal-fibers;  inner  bark  with  a  very  char- 
acteristic radial  arrangement  of  phloem  and  medullary  rays,  the  phloem  con- 


UNITED   STATES  OF  AMERICA  207 

sisting  of  wedges  of  small  groups  of  bast-fibers  and  parenchyma,  separated  by  an 
almost  continuous,  obliterated  sieve  tissue,  the  cells  of  the  latter  being  very  irreg- 
ular in  outline  anclwith  thick,  highly  refracting  walls;  medullary  rays  from  1  to  8 
cells  wide;  wood  characterized  by  broad  wedges  consisting  of  large  trache;e 
with  yellowish  walls,  small  com])act  grou])s  of  wood-fibers  and  starch-bearing 
parenchyma  alternating  with  the  broad  medullary  rays;  pith  composed  of  j)aren- 
chyma,  the  cells  being  large,  more  or  less  polj-gonal  in  outline  and  containing 
numerous  starch  grains,  or  prisms  of  calcium  oxalate.  In  sections  of  roots  the 
pith  is  absent. 

Russian  Licorice — Nearly  cyhndrical,  somewhat  tapering,  sometimes  split 
longitudinally,  from  15  to  30  cm.  in  length  and  from  1  to  5  cm.  in  diameter;  when 
deprived  of  the  outer  corky  layer,  it  is  externally  pale-yellow;  fracture  coarsely 
fibrous;  internally  lemon-yellow;  wood  radially  cleft;  odor  distinct;  taste  sweetish. 

Under  the  microscope,  transverse  sections  of  the  rhizome  and  roots  of  Russian 
Licorice  somewhat  resemble  those  of  Spanish  Licorice,  but  the  cork  cells  are 
absent. 

Powdered  GlycjTrhiza  is  pale  brownish-yellow  (Spanish  Licorice)  or  pale 
yellow  (Russian  Licorice);  starch  grains  numerous,  mostly  single  and  elliptical 
or  oval,  and  from  0.002  to  0.02  mm.  in  diameter;  trachete  mostly  with  bordered 
pores;  wood-  and  bast-fibers  numerous,  strongly  hgnificd,  very  long,  much 
attenuated  at  the  ends  and  about  0.01  mm.  in  width;  crystal-fibers  with  mono- 
chnic  prisms  of  calcium  oxalate,  the  latter  from  0.01  to  0.02  mm.  in  diameter ; 
occasional  fragments  of  reddish-browTi  cork  cells  occur  in  Spanish  Licorice,  but 
are  practically  absent  in  the  Russian  Licorice. 

Add  10  Gm.  of  powdered  Glycyrrhiza  to  100  mils  of  distilled  water,  allow  the 
mixture  to  macerate  for  fifteen  minutes  with  occasional  stirring;  and  then  heat 
it  for  one-half  hour  on  a  water  bath.  Filter  the  mixture  and  add  through  the 
filter  enough  water  to  make  the  filtrate  measure  100  mils;  not  less  than  0.2  Gm.  of 
residue  remains  on  evaporating  10  mils  of  this  filtrate  and  drying  it  at  100°  C. 
Gl3-C3Trliiza  yields  not  more  than  7  per  cent,  of  ash. 

Preparations — Extractum  Glycyrrhizae  Purum  Fluidextractum  Glycyrrhizae 
Elixir  Glycyrrliizse  (from  Fluidextract)  Mistura  Glycyrrhizae  Composita 
(from  Extract)     Pulvis  Glycyrrhizae  Compositus. 

Average  dose — Metric,  2  Gm. — Apothecaries,  30  grains. 


GLYCYRRHIZINUM  AMMONIATUM 

Ammoniated  Glycyrrhizin 
Glycyrrh.  Ammon. 

A  sweet  principle  combined  with  ammonia  obtained  from  glyc^Trhiza. 

Ammoniated  Glycyrrhizin  occurs  in  dark  brown  or  brownish-red  scales,  with- 
out odor,  and  having  a  very  sweet  taste. 

It  is  freely  soluble  in  water  and  soluble  in  alcohol. 

Its  aqueous  solution  when  heated  with  potassium  hydroxide  T.S.  evolves 
ammonia. 

Supersaturate  an  aqueous  solution  of  Ammoniated  GlycjTrhizin  with  an  acid; 
a  precipitate  is  produced  (consisting  essentiallj-  of  glycyrrhizin),  which,  when 
dissolved  in  hot  water,  forms  a  jelly  on  cooling.  This  substance,  after  being 
washed  with  diluted  alcohol  and  dried,  appears  as  an  amorphous,  yellow  powder, 
having  a  strong,  bitter-sweet  taste,  and  an  acid  reaction. 

Incinerate  0.5  Gm.  of  Ammoniated  Glycj-rrhizin;  not  more  than  0.5'per  cent, 
of  ash  remains. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.25  Gm. — Apothecaries,  4  grains. 


208  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA   OF   THE 

GOSSYPIUM  PURIFICATUM 

Purified  Cotton 

Qossyp.  Purif.— Absorbent  Cotton 
The  hairs  of  the  seed  from  one  or  mere  of  the  cultivated  varieties  of 
Gossypium  herbaceum  Liime   (Fam.  Malvaceoe),  freed  from  adhering 
impurities  and  linters  and  deprived  of  fatty  matter. 

Purified  Cotton  occurs  in  white,  soft,  fine  filaments,  appearing  under  the  micro- 
scope as  hollow,  flattened  and  twisted  bands,  spirally  striate,  and  slightly  thick- 
ened at  the  edges;  inodorous  and  almost  tasteless;  insoluble  in  ordinary  solvents, 
but  soluble  in  an  ammonia  solution  of  cupric  oxide. 

When  Purified  Cotton,  previously  compressed  in  the  hand,  is  thrown  on  the 
surface  of  cold  water,  it  readily  absorbs  the  latter  and  sinks. 

Incinerate  5  Gm.  of  Purified  Cotton;  not  more  than  0.2  per  cent,  of  ash  remains. 

Thoroughly  saturate  about  10  Gm.  of  Purified  Cotton  with  100  mils  of  distilled 
water,  then  with  the  aid  of  a  glass  rod  press  out  two  portions  of  the  water,  25 
mils  each,  into  white  porcelain  dishes.  Add  to  one  portion  3  drops  of  phenol- 
phthalein  T.S.  and  to  the  other  portion  1  drop  of  methyl  orange  T.S.;  no  pink 
color  develops  in  either  portion  {alkali  or  acid). 

Extract  5  Gm.  of  Purified  Cotton,  tightly  packed  in  a  narrow  percolator, 
with  ether,  until  the  percolate  measures  20  mils,  and  evaporate  this  to  dryness;  the 
residue  does  not  exceed  0.6  per  cent,  {falty  matter). 

Extract  10  Gm.  of  Purified  Cotton,  in  a  narrow  percolator,  with  alcohol,  until 
the  percolate  measures  100  mils.  When  observed  downward  tlirough  a  column 
20  cm.  in  depth,  the  percolate  may  show  a  yellowish  color,  but  no  blue  or  green 
tint  (dyes);  and,  on  evaporating  this  percolate  to  dryness,  the  weight  of  the 
residue  does  not  exceed  0.5  per  cent,  (resins  and  soap). 

GRANATUM 

Pomegranate 

Granat. — Pomegranate  Bark 
The  dried  bark  of  the  stems  and  roots  of  Punica  Granatum  Linn(5 
(Fam.  PunicacecB)  fVnihont  the  presence  or  admixture  of  more  than  2  per 
cent,  of  wood  or  other  foreign  matter.    Preserve  it  in  tightly-closed 
containers. 

The  stem  bark  is  mostly  in  somewhat  flattened  or  transversely  curved  pieces,  to 
some  extent  in  quills,  from  2  to  8  cm.  in  length;  bark  from  0.5  to  3.5  mm.  in 
thickness;  outer  surface  yellowish  to  grayish-brown,  with  grayish  patches  of 
foliaceous  lichens  with  their  browni.sh-black  apothecia,  longitudinally  wrinkled, 
also  marked  with  small,  broadly  elliptical  lenticels  and  with  more  or  less  abraded 
patches  of  cork;  inner  surface  light  yellow  or  yellowish-brown,  finely  striate; 
fracture  short,  smooth,  inner  bark  yellowish-green;  odor  slight;  taste  astringent, 
somewhat  bitter  and  nauseous. 

The  root  bark  is  in  transversely  curved  pieces;  externally  brownish-yellow  to 
dark  brown  with  irregular  patches  of  cork;  internally  dark  yellow,  the  medullary 
rays  extending  nearly  to  the  outer  surface. 

The  powder  is  yellowish-brown  to  dark  brown:  calcium  oxalate  crystals  in 
rosette  aggregates,  monoclinic  prisms  or  crystal  fibers,  the  individual  crystals 
from  0.01  to  0.018  mm.  in  diameter;  starch  grains  numerous,  spherical,  ellip- 
soidal biconvex,  polygonal  or  irregular,  and  single  or  compound,  from  0.002  to 
0.01  mm.  in  diameter;  fragments  of  whitish  cork  with  strongly  lignified  walls; 


UNITED   STATES  OF  AMERICA  209 

stone  cells  mostly  single,  occasionally  in  small  groups,  the  individual  cells  from 
0.05  to  0.18  num.  in  length,  the  walls  being  very  thick  and  strongly  lamellated; 
occasional  fragments  of  wood  with  long  wood-fibers  from  0.015  to  0.02  mm.  in 
width,  the  walls  being  slightly  lignified  and  from  0.003  to  0.008  mm.  in  thickness 
and  associated  with  tracheai  possessing  simple  and  bordered  j)ores. 

Mi.x  1  Gm.  of  powdered  Pomegranate  with  100  mils  of  distilled  water,  macerate 
it  with  occasional  agitation  for  about  an  hour  and  filter;  a  light  yellow  filtrate 
is  obtained.  Upon  the  addition  of  a  drop  of  ferric  chloride  T.S.  to  10  mils  of  this 
filtrate  a  bluish-black  precipitate  is  produced,  l^pon  the  addition  of  from  40  to 
50  mils  of  lime  water  to  another  portion  of  10  mils  of  the  filtrate,  an  orange- 
brown,  flocculent  precipitate  is  produced. 

Pomegranate  j-ields  not  more  than  IG  per  cent,  of  ash. 
Preparation — Fluidextractum  Granati. 

Average  dose — ]Metric,  2  Gm. — Apothecaries,  30  grains. 

GRINDELIA 

Grindelia 

Qrindel. 

The  dried  leaves  and  flowering  tops  of  Grindelia  camporum  Greene, 
or  Grindelia  cuneifolia  Nuttall,  or  Griyidelia  squarrosa  (Pursh)  Dunal 
(Fam.  Cotnpositw),  without  the  presence  or  admixture  of  more  than  10 
per  cent,  of  stems  or  other  foreign  matter. 

Stems  with  attached  branches  and  terminated  with  resinous  fiower-buds; 
stems  cylindrical,  not  exceeding  2  mm.  in  diameter;  light  yellow  or  rose-colored, 
with  alternate  leaf-scars,  occasionally  with  basal  portions  of  leaves,  sometimes 
more  or  less  irregularly  flexuous  and  coated  with  resin,  especially  at  the  nodes; 
leaves  usually  separate  and  more  or  less  broken  and  varying  in  shape  when  entire 
from  oblong  and  lanceolate  to  oblanceolate-spatulate  and  cuneate-spatulate, 
from  1  to  7  cm.  in  length,  mostly  sessile  or  amplexicaul  and  more  or  less  sharply 
serrate  or  evenly  spinosely-toothed,  pale  yellow  to  yellowish-green,  very  resin- 
ous, somewhat  coriaceous  and  brittle;  bracts  of  flowering  branches  almost  entire 
and  usually  more  or  less  spreading;  heads  more  or  less  resinous,  viscid,  many- 
flowered,  either  conical-urceolate  or  depressed-urceolate,  involucres  from  5  to 
20  mm.  in  breadth,  composed  of  numerous  imbricated  bracts  with  more  or  less  re- 
curved tips;  ray  flowers  j-ellow,  ligulate  and  pistillate;  disk  florets  yellow,  tubular 
and  perfect;  pappus  of  two  or  tliree  mostly  unequal  linear  awns  about  the  length 
of  the  disk  florets;  disk  achenes  more  or  less  ovoid  or  oblong;  more  or  less  com- 
pressed or  triquetrous,  and  either  biauriculate  or  broadly  imidentate  or  with  a 
broad  truncate,  corky,  thickened  summit;  odor  balsamic;  taste  aromatic  and 
bitter,  resinous. 

The  powder  is  yellowish-brown;  consisting  of  numerous  fibrous  fragments 
made  up  of  tissues  of  the  stem,  the  most  prominent  being  the  traches  with 
annular  and  spiral  thickenings  or  marked  with  simple  or  bordered  pores,  asso- 
ciated with  numerous,  narrow,  strongly  lignified  wood-fibers;  pith  cells  more 
or  less  tabular  and  containing  a  layer  of  protoplasm  in  which  are  embedded 
numerous  spheroidal  granules;  fragments  of  epidermis  of  leaves  very  characteris- 
tic and  showing  more  or  less  polygonal  areas  containing  large  chloroplastids, 
and  the  large,  colorless,  basal  cells  of  the  multicellular  glandular  hairs;  pollen 
grains  spherical,  about  0.035  mm.  in  diameter,  spinose,  and  in  section  showing 
three  pores. 
Preparation — Fluidex  tractum  Grindeliae. 

Average  dose — Metric,  2  Gm. — ^Apothecaries,  30  grains. 

19 


210 


THE  PHARMACOPCEIA   OF  THE 


GUAIACOL 

Guaiacol 

The  monomethyl  ether  [CHsOa  or  C6H4(0H)(0CH3)  1  :  2  =  124.06] 
of  ortho-dihydroxj^benzene,  obtained  from  wood-tar  creosote  or  pre- 
pared synthetically.  Preserve  it  in  well-closed  containers,  protected 
from  light. 

Guaiacol  is  a  colorless  or  yellowish,  strongly  refractive  liquid,  or  a  colorless 
or  yellowish,  crystalline  sohd,  having  an  agreeable,  aromatic  odor.  It  becomes 
darker  on  exposure  to  light  and  air.  The  solid  form  when  liquefied  may  remain 
so  for  some  time,  even  at  a  low  temperature. 

One  Gm.  of  Guaiacol  dissolves  in  53  mils  of  water  and  in  0.8  mil  of  glycerin 
at  25°  C.,  but  separates  from  the  glycerin  on  the  addition  of  water;  miscible  with 
alcohol,  chloroform,  ether  or  acetic  acid. 

The  specific  gravity  of  Hquid  Guaiacol  is  between  1.110  and  1.114  at25''C. 

Solid  Guaiacol  melts  at  about  28°  C. 

Not  less  than  85  per  cent,  of  Guaiacol  distils  between  200°  and  210°  C. 

The  addition  of  a  drop  of  ferric  chloride  T.S.  to  10  mils  of  an  alcoholic  solu- 
tion of  Guaiacol  (1  in  100)  produces  an  immediate  blue  color,  changing  to  emerald- 
green,  and  finally  becoming  yellowish. 

Incinerate  about  1  Gm.  of  Guaiacol;  not  more  than  0.1  per  cent,  of  ash  remains. 

Shake  2  mils  of  hquefied  Guaiacol  with  4  mils  of  purified  petroleum  benzin; 
the  mixture  separates  on  standing  into  two  distinct,  clear  layers.  Permanent 
turbidity  or  failure  to  separate  into  layers  indicates  the  presence  of  impurities. 

One  mil  of  liquefied  Guaiacol  dissolves  in  2  mils  of  potassium  hydroxide  solu- 
tion (15  per  cent.),  when  heated  for  one  minute  in  boiling  water;  on  cooling,  it 
congeals  to  a  nearly  white  mass.  Much  coloration  or  failure  to  congeal  indicates 
the  presence  of  impurities.  The  mass  thus  obtained  forms  a  clear  solution  with 
20  volumes  of  distilled  water  (turbidity  indicates  oily  hydrocarbons). 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.5  mil — Apothecaries,  8  minims. 


GUAIACOLIS  CARBONAS 

Guaiacol  Carbonate 
Quaiacol.  Carb. 

Aguaiacol  derivative  [(C7H70)2C03or(C6H4(OCH3)0)2.CO  =  274.11]. 

Guaiacol  Carbonate  is  a  crystalline  powder,  odorless  and  tasteless  or  having 
a  slight,  aromatic  odor  and  taste. 

Guaiacol  Carbonate  is  insoluble  in  water;  1  Gm.  dissolves  in  60  mils  of  alcohol, 
1  mil  of  chloroform,  and  in  18  mils  of  ether  at  25°  C. ;  freely  soluble  in  benzene  and 
slightly  soluble  in  glycerin  or  fixed  oils;  freely  soluble  in  boiling  alcohol. 

It  melts  between  83°  and  87°  C. 

Incinerate  1  Gm.  of  Guaiacol  Carbonate;  not  more  than  0.1  per  cent,  of  ash 

remains.  ,  ,  •  , 

A  saturated  alcoholic  solution  of  Guaiacol  Carbonate  yields  no  bluish-green 

color  on  the  addition  of  ferric  chloride  T.S.  (free  guaiacol),  and  is  not  acid  to 

litmus  paper  which  has  been  previously  moistened  with  distilled  water. 

One-tenth  Gm.  of  Guaiacol  Carbonate  dissolves  in  2  mils  of  sulphuric  acid 

without  producing  more  than  a  faint  yellow  color  [readily  carbonizable  impurities). 


UNITED   STATES  OF  AMERICA  211 

Heat  about  0.5  Gra.  of  Guaiacol  Carbonate  for  a  few  minutes  with  10  mils  of 
alcoholic  potassium  hydroxide  T.S.  and  cool  the  mixture;  a  crystalline  precipitate 
is  formed,  which  effervesces  with  acids.  If  the  alcohol  is  evaporated  from  the 
filtered  liquid,  the  residue  supersaturated  with  diluted  sulphuric  acid  and  shaken 
out  with  ether,  the  separated  ether  layer,  upon  spontaneous  evaporation  of  the 
ether,  leaves  a  residue  which  responds  to  the  tests  for  identity  under  Guaiacol. 

Average  dose — Metric,  1  Gm. — Apothecaries,  15  grains. 

GUAIACUM 

Guaiac 

Quaiac. — Guaiac  Resin 

The  resin  of  the  wood  of  Guaiacum  officinale  Linnd,  or  of  Guaiacum 
sanctum  Linne  (Fam.  ZygophyllaceoB) . 

In  irregular  fragments  or  in  large,  nearly  homogeneous  masses,  occasionally 
in  more  or  less  rounded  or  ovoid  tears,  enclosing  fragments  of  vegetable  tissues; 
externally  brown,  becoming  greenish-gray-brown  on  exposure,  the  fractured  sur- 
face having  a  glassy  luster,  the  thin  pieces  being  translucent  and  varying  in  color 
from  reddish  to  yellowish-brown;  odor  balsamic;  taste  slightly  acrid. 

Guaiac  melts  between  85°  and  90°  C.  It  is  readily  soluble  in  alcohol,  ether, 
chloroform,  creosote,  and  in  solutions  of  the  alkalies  or  in  hydrated  chloral 
T.S.  It  is  sparingly  soluble  in  carbon  disulphide  or  benzene  and  not  more  than 
15  per  cent,  is  insoluble  in  alcohol;  the  alcoholic  solution,  on  the  addition  of  an 
excess  of  chlorine  water  or  tincture  of  ferric  chloride,  becomes  blue,  changing 
quickly  to  green,  the  color  being  best  seen  when  the  solutions  are  diluted  with 
an  equal  volume  of  water. 

Macerate  the  crushed  or  powdered  Guaiac  with  4  or  5  times  its  weight  of  puri- 
fied petroleum  benzin  for  three  hours  and  then  filter;  the  filtrate  is  colorless, 
and  does  not  give  a  green  color  on  the  addition  of  an  equal  volume  of  cupric 
acetate  T.S.  {rosin). 

The  powder  is  grajnsh,  becoming  green  on  exposure  to  the  air. 

Guaiac  j-ields  not  more  than  4  per  cent,  of  ash. 

Preparations — Tinctura  Guaiaci       Tinctura  Guaiaci  Ammoniata. 

Average  dose — Metric,  1  Gm. — Apothecaries,  15  grains. 

GUARANA 

Guarana 

A  dried  paste  consisting  chiefly  of  the  crushed  seeds  of  Paullinia 
Cupana  Kunth  (Fam,  Sapindacea:) ,  yielding  not  less  than  4  per  cent,  of 
caffeine. 

Usually  in  cylindrical  sticks,  about  3  to  5  cm.  in  diameter,  externally  dark 
reddish-brown;  hard  and  heavy;  fracture  uneven,  often  fissured  in  the  center; 
internally  pale  reddish-brown,  showing  more  or  less  coarse  fragments  of  seeds 
and  occasionally  their  blackish-brown  integuments;  odor  slight;  taste  slightly 
astringent  and  bitter. 

The  powder  is  hght  pinkish-brown;  consisting  mostly  of  irregular  massee  of 
parenchyma  containing  more  or  less  altered  starch  grains;  unaltered  starch 
grains  occasional,  varying  from  spherical  and  polygonal  to  elhpsoidal  and  broadly 
ovoid,  0.01  to  0.025  mm.  in  diameter;  occasional  fragments  with  narrow,  elon- 
gated eclerenchymatous  cells;  the  walls  being  thick,  yellowish  and  non-Ugnified. 


212  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA    OF   THE 

Place  on  a  slide  a  drop  of  hydrochloric  acid,  add  about  0.001  Gm.  of  powdered 
Guarana,  then  add  a  drop  of  gold  chloride  T.S.  and  allow  the  mixture  to  stand 
for  a  few  minutes;  beginning  at  the  edge  of  the  mount,  crj'stals  of  caffeine  and 
gold  chloride  separate  in  the  form  of  orthorhombic  plates  and  needles,  the  latter 
usually  occurring  in  spheroidal  aggregates  and  finally  forming  branching  groups. 

Assay — Introduce  6  Gm.  of  Guarana,  in  No.  60  powder,  into  a  flask  and  add 
120  mils  of  chloroform  and  6  mils  of  ammonia  water.  Stopper  the  flask,  shake 
it  frequently  for  half  an  hour,  then  let  it  stand  four  hours.  Again  shake  the 
flask  vigorously  and  when  the  drug  has  settled,  filter  the  liquid  rapidly  through 
a  pledget  of  purified  cotton  and  collect  100  mils  of  the  filtrate,  representing  5  Gm. 
of  Guarana.  Evaporate  the  clear  filtrate  to  dryness  and  dissolve  the  residue  in 
weak  sulphuric  acid  with  the  aid  of  a  gentle  heat.  When  the  hquid  has  cooled, 
filter  it  into  a  separator  and  wash  the  container  and  filter  with  several  small 
portions  of  distilled  water.  Now  add  ammonia  water  until  the  hquid  is  dis- 
tinctly alkaline  to  htmus  and  shake  out  the  caffeine  with  chloroform  until 
completely  extracted,  as  shown  by  testing  with  iodine  T.S.  in  place  of  the  usual 
mercuric  potassiimi  iodide  T.S.  Evaporate  the  united  chloroform  solutions  and 
dry  the  residue  to  constant  weight  at  80°  C.  The  weight  is  the  amount  of 
caffeine  from  5  Gm.  of  Guarana  (see  Proximate  Assays,  Part  II). 

Preparation — Fluidextractum  Guaranse. 

Average  dose — Metric,  2  Gm. — Apothecaries,  30  grains. 

HEXAMETHYLENAMINA 

Hexamethylenamine 

Hexam. — Hexamethylene-tetramine 
A  condensation  product  of  ammonia  and  formaldehyde,  hexamethyl- 
ene-tetramine [(CH2)  6N4  =  140.14].    Preserve  it  in  well-closed  containers. 

Hexamethylenamine  occurs  in  colorless,  lustrous,  odorless  crystals,  or  as  a 
white,  crystalline  powder. 

One  Gm.  of  Hexamethylenamine  dissolves  in  1.5  mils  of  water,  12.5  mils  of 
alcohol  and  in  320  mils  of  ether  at  25°  C. ;  soluble  in  chloroform. 

Its  aqueous  solution  is  alkaline  to  litmus. 

At  about  263°  C.  it  sublimes  without  melting  and  with  partial  decomposition, 
emitting  a  disagreeable  odor. 

Heat  an  aqueous  solution  (1  in  10)  with  diluted  sulphuric  acid;  it  decom- 
poses with  the  liberation  of  formaldehyde  (recognized  by  its  odor  or  by  its 
darkening  paper  moistened  with  silver  ammonium  nitrate  T.S.). 

When  an  aqueous  solution  (1  in  10)  is  heated  with  diluted  sulphuric  acid 
and  then  supersaturated  with  solution  of  sodium  hydroxide,  ammonia  is 
liberated. 

Incinerate  2  Gm.  of  Hexamethylenamine;  not  more  than  0.05  per  cent,  of 
ash  remains. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  Hexamethylenamine  (1  in  50)  does  not  become 
colored  or  turbid  when  mixed  with  an  equal  volume  of  hydrogen  sulphide  T.S. 
(heavy  metals).  Separate  portions  of  10  mils  each  of  an  aqueous  solution  of 
Hexamethylenamine  (1  in  50),  acitlulaled  with  5  drops  of  nitric  acid,  are  not 
rendered  turbid  by  a  few  drops  of  barium  chloride  T.S.  {sulphate)  nor  more  than 
slightly  opalescent  by  a  few  drops  of  silver  nitrate  T.S.  (chloride). 

Add  1  mil  of  alkaline  mercuric  potassium  iodide  T.S.  to  10  mils  of  an  aqueous 
solution  of  Hexamethylenamine  (1  in  20);  no  other  color  is  produced  tlian  that 
which  results  from  the  addition  of  the  same  amount  of  the  reagent  to  10  mils  of 
distilled  water  (ammonium  salts). 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.25  Gm. — Apothecaries,  4  grains. 


UNITED   STATES   OF  AMERICA  213 


HOMATROPINiE  HYDROBROMIDUM 

Homatropine  Hydrobromide 

Homatrop.  Hydrobr.— Homatropine  Bromide 

The  hydrobromide  [Ci6H2i03N.HBr  =  356.11]  of  homatropine,  an 
alkaloid  obtained  by  the  condensation  of  tropine  and  mandelic  acid. 
Preserve  it  in  well-closed  containers,  protected  from  light. 

Homatropine  Hydrobromide  occurs  as  a  white,  odorless,  crj^stallinc  powder, 
or  in  rhombic  prisms.  Great  caution  must  be  observed  in  tasting  it,  usitig  only 
very  dilute  solutions.    Its  solution  when  locally  applied  dilates  the  pupil  of  the  eye. 

One  Gm.  of  Homatropine  Hydrobromide  dissolves  in  6  mils  of  water,  40  mils 
of  alcohol,  and  in  420  mils  of  chloroform  at  25°  C;  also  in  12  mils  of  alcohol 
at  60°  C. ;  insoluble  in  ether. 

Its  aqueoua  solution  (1  in  20)  is  neutral  to  litmus. 

It  melts  at  about  212°  C.  with  partial  decomposition. 

Shake  2  mils  of  chloroform  with  1  mil  of  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in 
10)  to  which  a  few  drops  of  chlorine  water  have  been  added;  the  chloroform 
assumes  a  brownish  color. 

When  added  to  solutions  of  Homatropine  Hydrobromide,  iodine  T.S.  produces 
a  brown  precipitate;  silver  nitrate  T.S.  in  similar  solutions  produces  a  yellowish- 
white  precipitate  insoluble  in  nitric  acid. 

No  weighable  ash  remains  on  incinerating  0.1  Gm.  of  Homatropine  Hydro- 
bromide. 

Separate  portions  of  1  mil  each  of  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  20) 
are  not  precipitated  by  tannic  acid  T.S.;  or,  after  acidulation  with  hydrochloric 
acid,  by  platinic  chloride  T.S.  {foreign  alkaloids). 

Add  a  slight  excess  of  ammonia  water  to  1  mil  of  an  aqueous  solution  of  the 
salt  (1  in  100),  shake  it  out  with  chloroform  and  evaporate  the  chloroformic 
solution  to  dryness  on  a  water  bath.  The  residue  becomes  yellow  and  finally 
brick-red  in  color  when  warmed  with  about  1.5  mils  of  a  solution  made  by 
dissolving  1  Gm.  of  mercuric  chloride  in  50  mils  of  a  mixture  of  5  volumes  of 
alcohol  and  3  volumes  of  distilled  water  (distinction  from  most  other  alkaloids 
except  atropine  and  hyoscyamine) . 

Evaporate  about  0.01  Gm.  of  Homatropine  Hydrobromide,  with  5  drops  of 
nitric  acid,  to  dryness  in  a  porcelain  dish  on  a  water  bath;  the  residue  acquires 
no  violet  color  on  the  addition  of  a  few  drops  of  alcohohc  potassium  hydroxide 
T.S.  {atropine,  hyoscyamine,  or  hyoscine). 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.0005  Gm. — Apothecaries,  3^20  grain. 

HUMULUS 

Hops 

Humul. 

The  carefully  dried  strobiles  of  Humulus  Lupulus  Linn^  (Fam. 
Moracece)  bearing  their  glandular  trichomes  and  without  the  presence 
or  admixture  of  more  than  2  per  cent,  of  stems,  leaves  or  other  foreign 
matter.    Preserve  it  in  tightly-closed  containers,  protected  from  light. 

Strobile  ovoid-cyhndrical,  about  3  cm.  in  length,  consisting  of  a  narrow,  hairy, 
flexuous  rachis  and  numerous,  imbricated,  yellowish-green  to  pale  brown, 
obliquely-ovate,  membranous  scales,  the  base  of  each  with  numerous,  yellowish- 


214  THE  tHARMACOPCElA  OF  THE 

brown  glandular  hairs,  and  frequently  infolded  on  one  side,  enclosing  a  eub- 
globular,  light  brown,  very  glandular  achene;  odor  strong  and  characteristic, 
becoming  disagreeable  and  valerian-like  on  aging;  taste  aromatic  and  bitter. 
Hops  yield  not  more  than  8  per  cent,  of  ash. 

Average  dose — Metric,  2  Gm. — Apothecaries,  30  grains. 


HYDRARGYRI  CHLORIDUM  CORROSRTFM 

Corrosive  Mercuric  Chloride 

Hydrarg.  Chlor.  Corr. — Bichloride  of  Mercury      Corrosive  Sublimate 
Mercuric  Chloride      Perchloride  of  Mercury 

It  contains,  when  dried  to  constant  weight  in  a  desiccator  over  sul- 
phuric acid,  not  less  than  99.5  per  cent,  of  HgCU  (271.52).  Preserve 
it  in  well-closed  containers. 

Corrosive  Mercuric  Chloride  occurs  as  heavy,  colorless,  rhombic  crystals,  or 
crystalline  masses,  or  as  a  white  powder,  odorless,  permanent  in  the  air,  and 
having  a  characteristic  and  persistent  metaUic  taste.  Great  caution  should  be  used 
in  tasting  it. 

One  Gm.  of  Corrosive  Mercuric  Chloride  dissolves  in  13.5  mils  of  water,  3.8 
mils  of  alcohol,  about  12  mils  of  glycerin,  and  in  22  mils  of  ether,  at  25°  C; 
also  in  2.1  mils  of  boiling  water  and  1.6  mils  of  boiling  alcohol. 

The  salt  fuses  to  a  colorless  liquid  at  265°  C.  and  at  about  300'  C.  it 
volatilizes  in  dense,  white  vapors,  leaving  not  more  than  0.1  per  cent,  of 
residue. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  Corrosive  Mercuric  Chloride  (1  in  20)  is  acid  to  litmus, 
but  becomes  neutral  upon  the  addition  of  sodium  chloride. 

Separate  portions  of  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  20)  yield  a  white 
precipitate  with  ammonia  water;  a  black  precipitate  with  an  excess  of  hydrogen 
sulphide;  a  red  precipitate,  soluble  in  an  excess  of  the  reagent,  with  potas- 
sium iodide  T.S.;  and  a  white  precipitate,  insoluble  in  nitric  acid,  with  silver 
nitrate  T.S. 

Not  more  than  0.5  per  cent,  of  residue  remains  on  dissolving  finely  powdered 
Corrosive  Mercuric  Chloride  in  ether  or  alcohol. 

Assay — Dissolve  about  0.5  Gm.  of  Corrosive  Mercuric  Chloride,  previously 
dried  to  constant  weight  in  a  desiccator  over  sulphuric  acid  and  accurately 
weighed,  in  300  mils  of  cold  distilled  water  to  which  1  mil  of  hydrochloric  acid 
has  been  added.  Pass  hj'drogen  sulphide  through  the  cold  solution  until  satu- 
rated and  the  precipitate  of  mercuric  sulphide  readily  subsides,  leaving  a  clear 
supernatant  liquid.  Collect  the  precipitate  on  counterpoised  filters,  wash  it 
well  with  cold  distilled  water  and  finally  with  three  portions  of  about  10  mils 
each  of  alcohol.  Then  close  the  tip  of  the  funnel  with  a  cork  stopper,  add 
sufficient  carbon  tetrachloride  to  cover  the  precipitate,  cover  the  funnel  with 
a  watch-glass,  and  allow  it  to  stand  for  about  half  an  hour.  Then  drain  off  the 
solvent  and  wash  the  precipitate  with  further  portions  of  carbon  tetrachloride 
until  after  evaporating  about  1  mil  of  the  filtrate  no  visible  residue  remains. 
Remove  the  adhering  carbon  tetrac^hloride  by  washing  with  several  portions  of 
10  mils  each  of  alcohol  and,  after  drying  in  the  air,  transfer  to  an  oven  and  dry 
to  constant  weight  at  about  110°  C.  The  weight  of  mercuric  sulphide  obtained, 
when  multiplied  by  1.167,  indicates  its  equivalent  in  IlgCla.  which  corresponds 
in  the  dried  salt  to  not  less  than  99.5  per  cent,  of  HgCl2. 


UNITED   STATES   OF  AMERICA  215 

Each  gramme  of  Corrosive  Mercuric  Chloride,  previously  dried  to  constant 
weight,  corresponds  to  0.8526  Cm.  of  mercuric  sulphide. 

Corrosive  Mercuric  Chloride,  previously  dried  to  constant  weight,  may  also  be 
assayed  by  the  Electrolytic  method  (see  Part  II,  Test  No.  4). 

Preparation — Toxitabelte  Hydrargyri  Chloridi  Corrosivi, 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.003  Gm. — Apothecaries,  }^o  grain. 


HYDRARGYRI  CHLORIDUM  MITE 

Mild  Mercurous  Chloride 

flydrarg.  Chlor.  Mit. — Mercurous  Chloride       Calomel       Protochloride  of  Mercury 
Subchloride  of  Mercury 

It  contains,  when  dried  to  constant  weight  in  a  desiccator  over  sul- 
phuric acid,  not  less  than  99.6  per  cent,  of  HgCl  (236.06).  Preserve  it 
in  well-closed  containers,  protected  from  light. 

Mild  Mercurous  Chloride  is  a  white,  impalpable  powder,  becoming  yellowish- 
white  on  being  triturated  with  strong  pressure,  and  showing  only  small,  isolated 
crystals  when  viewed  under  a  lens  having  a  magnifying  power  of  one  hundred 
diameters.    It  is  odorless  and  tasteless,  and  permanent  in  the  air. 

Mild  Mercurous  Chloride  is  insoluble  in  water,  alcohol,  ether  or  cold  dilute 
acids. 

When  strongly  heated,  Mild  Mercurous  Chloride  isvolatihzed  without  fusion 
or  the  evolution  of  brown  vapors,  leaving  not  more  than  O.I  per  cent,  of  residue. 

The  salt  is  blackened  by  contact  with  calcium  hydroxide  T.S.,  with  solutions 
of  alkali  hydroxides  or  with  ammonia  water. 

When  heated  with  an  equal  weight  of  dried  sodium  carbonate  (free  from 
chloride)  in  a  dry  glass  tube.  Mild  Mercurous  Chloride  j-ields  a  subUmate  of 
metallic  mercury.  Dissolve  the  residue  in  nitric  acid  and  filter;  silver  nitrate 
T.S.  produces  in  the  filtrate  a  white,  curdy  precipitate  insolul)le  in  nitric  acid. 

Shak^^  2  Gm.  of  the  salt  with  20  mils  of  ether,  filter,  evaf)orate  the  filtrate,  and 
add  10  mils  of  rlistilled  water;  not  more  than  a  slight  opalescence  results  upon 
the  adilition  of  silver  nitrate  T.S.  to  5  mils  of  the  solution  {mercuric  chloride). 

Heat  1  Gm.  of  the  salt  with  potassium  hydroxide  T.S.;  no  ammonia  is  evolved 
{ammoniated  mercury). 

Assay — Mix  well  about  1  Gm.  of  Mild  ]Merc\irous  Chloride,  previously  dried 
to  constant  weight  in  a  desiccator  over  sulphuric  acid  and  accurately  Aveighed, 
with  10  mils  of  distilled  water,  add  50  mils  of  tenth-normal  iodine  V.S.  and  5  Gm. 
of  potassium  iodide,  dissolved  in  10  mils  of  distilled  water,  stopper  the  flask, 
allow  the  mixture  to  stand,  with  occasional  agitation,  until  complete  solution 
has  taken  place  and  estimate  the  excess  of  iodine  by  titration  with  tenth-normal 
sodium  thiosulphate  V.S.,  starch  T.S.  being  used  as  indicator.  It  shows,  in  the 
dried  salt,  not  less  than  99.6  per  cent,  of  HgCl. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  iodine  V.S.  used  corresponds  to  0.023606  Gm. 
of  HgCl.  Each  gramme  of  Mild  Mercurous  Chloride,  previously  dried  to  con- 
stant weight,  corresponds  to  not  le.'^s  than  42.2  mils  of  tenth-normal  iodine  V.S. 

Mild  Mercurous  Chloride,  previously  dried  to  constant  weight,  may  also  be 
assayed  by  the  Electrolytic  method  (see  Part  II,  Test  No.  4). 

Preparation — Pilule  Catharticse  Compositae. 

Metric  Apothecaries 

Average  dose — Laxative,    0.15    Gm. — 23^^  grains. 
Alterative,  0.015  Gm.—  %  grain. 


216  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA    OF   THE 


HYDRARGYRI  lODIDUM  FLAVUM 

Yellow  Mercurous  Iodide 

tlydrarg.  lod.  Flav. — Mercurous  Iodide    Protoiodide  of  Mercury 
Yellow  Iodide  of  Mercury 

It  contains,  when  dried  to  constant  weight  in  a  desiccator  over  sul- 
phuric acid,  not  less  than  99  per  cent,  of  Hgl  (327.52).  Preserve  it  in 
well-closed  containers,  protected  from  light. 

Yellow  Mercurous  Iodide  is  a  bright  yellow,  amorphous  powder,  odorless 
and  tasteless.  By  exposure  to  light  it  becomes  greenish  in  proportion  as  it 
undergoes  decomposition  into  metallic  mercury  and  mercuric  iodide. 

Yellow  Mercurous  Iodide  is  almost  insoluble  in  water  and  wholly  insoluble 
in  alcohol  or  ether. 

When  slowly  and  moderately  heated,  it  assumes  at  first  an  orange  and  then 
a  red  color,  becoming  yellow  again  on  cooling.  When  quickly  and  strongly 
heated,  it  is  at  first  partially  decomposed  into  mercury  and  mercuric  iodide, 
and  finally  is  volatilized,  leaving  not  more  than  0.2  per  cent,  of  residue.  When 
heated  with  an  equal  weight  of  dried  sodium  carbonate,  in  a  dry  glass  tube, 
Yellow  Mercurous  Iodide  yields  a  sublimate  of  metallic  mercury. 

When  Yellow  Mercurous  Iodide  is  heated  with  sulphuric  acid  and  a  little 
manganese  dioxide,  the  vapor  of  iodine  is  evolved. 

When  0.5  Gm.  of  the  salt  is  thoroughly  shaken  with  10  mils  of  alcohol  and 
the  mixture  filtered,  5  mils  of  the  perfectly  clear  filtrate  is  not  affected  by  an 
equal  volume  of  hydrogen  sulphide  T.S.  {jyiercuric  iodide). 

Assay — Transfer  to  a  flask  about  1  Gm.  of  Yellow  Mercurous  Iodide,  pre- 
viously dried  to  constant  weight  in  a  desiccator  over  sulphuric  acid  and  accu- 
rately weighed,  add  50  mils  of  tenth-normal  iodine  V.S.  and  5  Gm.  of  potassium 
iodide,  dissolved  in  10  mils  of  distilled  water,  stopper  the  flask,  and  allow  the 
mixture  to  stand  in  the  tightly-stoppered  flask,  with  occasional  agitation,  until 
complete  solution  has  taken  place.  Then  titrate  with  tenth-normal  sodium 
thiosulphate  V.S.,  using  starch  T.S.  as  indicator.  It  shows,  in  the  dried  salt, 
not  less  than  99  per  cent,  of  Hgl. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  iodine  V.S.  used  corresponds  to  0.032752  Gm.  of 
Hgl.  Each  gramme  of  Yellow  Mercurous  Iodide,  previously  dried  to  constant 
weight,  corresponds  to  not  less  than  30.2  mils  of  tenth-normal  iodine  V.S. 

Yellow  Mercurous  Iodide,  previously  dried  to  constant  weight,  may  also  be 
assayed  by  the  Electrolytic  method  (see  Part  II,  Test  No.  4). 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.01  Gm. — Apothecaries,  %  grain. 


HYDRARGYRI  lODIDUM  RUBRUM 

Red  Mercuric  Iodide 

Hydrarg.  lod.  Rub. — Biniodide  of  Mercury      Mercuric  Iodide      Red  Iodide  of 

Mercury 

It  contains,  when  dried  to  constant  weight  in  a  desiccator  over  sul- 
phuric acid,  not  less  than  99  per  cent,  of  Hgl2  (454.44).  Preserve  it 
in  well-closed  containers,  protected  from  light. 

Red  Mercuric  Iodide  is  a  scarlet-red,  amorphous  powder,  odorless,  nearly 
tasteless,  and  permanent  in  the  air. 


UNITED   STATES   OF  AMERICA  217 

Red  Mercuric  Iodide  is  almost  insoluble  in  water;  1  Gin.  dissolves  in  115  mils 
of  alcohol,  910  mils  of  chloroform,  and  in  120  mils  of  ether  at  25°  C;  also  in  20 
mils  of  boiling  alcohol;  soluble  in  solutions  of  the  soluble  iodides,  mercuric 
chloride,  sodium  thiosulphate,  and  hot  solutions  of  the  alkali  chlorides. 

When  heated  to  about  150°  C,  the  salt  becomes  yellow,  but  again  assumes 
a  red  color  on  cooling;  upon  further  heating,  it  fuses  to  a  dark  yellow  liquid 
which,  on  cooling,  forms  a  yellow,  crystalline  mass;  at  higher  temperatures  it 
is  finally  volatilized,  leaving  not  more  than  0.2  per  cent,  of  residue. 

Heat  the  salt  with  potassium  hydroxide  T.S.,  and  add  a  little  sugar  of  milk; 
the  compound  is  reduced  and  metallic  mercury  is  precipitated. 

Boil  about  0.1  Gm.  of  the  salt  with  2  mils  of  potassium  hydroxide  T.S.,  filter 
and  supersaturate  the  filtrate  with  nitric  acid.  The  liquid  becomes  yellow  from 
the  liberation  of  iodine  which  produces  a  blue  color  upon  the  addition  of  a  few 
drops  of  starch  T.S. 

Agitate  thoroughly  about  0.^  Gm.  of  Red  Mercuric  Iodide  with  10  mils  of 
distilled  water  and  filter;  the  filtrate  does  not  become  more  than  slightly  colored 
by  hydrogen  sulphide  T.S.  {soluble  vicrcurij  salts). 

Two  Gm.  of  Red  Mercuric  Iodide  di.ssolves  quickly  in  100  mils  of  distilled 
water,  containing  2  Gm.  of  potassium  iodide,  without  leaving  more  than  0.004 
Gm.  of  insoluble  matter. 

Assay — Red  Mercuric  Iodide,  when  previously  dried  to  constant  weight  in  a 
desiccator  over  sulphuric  acid  and  assayed  by  the  Electrolytic  method  (see 
Part  II,  Test  No.  4)  shows  not  less  than  99  per  cent,  of  Hgl2. 

Preparation — Liquor  Arseni  et  Hydrargyri  lodidi. 

Average  dose — ^Metric,  0.003  Gm. — Apothecaries,  3'^o  grain. 


HYDRARGYRI  OXIDLIM  FLAVUM 

Yellow  Mercuric  Oxide 

Hydrarg.  Oxid.  Flav. 

It  contains,  when  dried  to  constant  weight  at  150°  C,  not  less  than 
99.5  per  cent,  of  HgO  (216.60).  Preserve  it  in  well-closed  containers, 
protected  from  light. 

Yellow  Mercuric  Oxide  is  a  light  orange-yellow,  amorphous,  heavy,  impalpa- 
ble powder;  odorless,  and  having  a  somewhat  metallic  taste;  permanent  in  the 
air,  but  turning  darker  on  exposure  to  light. 

Yellow  Mercuric  Oxide  is  almost  insoluble  in  water;  insoluble  m  alcohol; 
readily  dissolved  by  diluted  hydrochloric  or  nitric  acid,  forming  colorless  solutions. 

When  moistened  with  hot  distilled  water,  Yellow  Mercuric  Oxide  is  not 
alkaline  to  litmus. 

When  moderately  heated,  Yellow  Mercuric  Oxide  assumes  a  red  color.  At 
a  red  heat  it  is  completely  decomposed  into  oxygen  and  metallic  mercury,  and 
is  finallv  volatihzed,  leaving  not  more  than  0.2  per  cent,  of  residue. 

A  solution  of  0.5  Gm.  of  Yellow  Mercuric  Oxide  in  25  mils  of  either  diluted 
hydrochloric  or  diluted  nitric  acid  is  not  more  than  slightly  turbid. 

Heat  0.5  Gm.  of  Yellow  Mercuric  Oxide  for  two  hours  in  a  test  tube,  on  a 
water  bath,  with  a  solution  of  1  Gm.  of  oxalic  acid  in  10  mils  of  distilled  water 
and  1  mil  of  ammonia  water,  replacing  from  time  to  time  the  waterlost  by  evapo- 
ration; it  is  converted  into  white  or  yellowish-white  mercuric  oxalate  (distmctmn 
irom  red  mercuric  oxide).  •    r^  ■ ,  •      ,      ,  ■   , 

Assay— Dissolve  about  0.5  Gm.  of  Yellow  Mercuric  Oxide,  previously  dried 
to  constant  weight  at  150°  C.  and  accurately  weighed,  in  10  mils  of  distilled 


218  THE   PHARMACOPOEIA   OF   THE 

water,  and  5  mik  of  nitric  acid,  and  further  dilute  the  solution  with  150  mils  of 
distilled  water.  Then  add  2  mils  of  ferric  ammonium  sulphate  T.S.,  and  titrate 
with  tenth-normal  potassium  sulphocyanate  V.S.  to  the  production  of  a  per- 
manent yellowish-red  color.  It  shows,  in  the  dried  Oxide,  not  less  than  99.5 
per  cent,  of  HgO. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  potassium  sulphocyanate  V.S.  used  corresponds 
to  0.01083  Gm.  of  HgO.  Each  gramme  of  Yellow  Mercuric  Oxide,  previously 
dried  to  constant  weight,  corresponds  to  not  less  than  91.9  mils  of  tenth-normal 
potassium  sulphocyanate  V.S. 

Yellow  Mercuric  Oxide,  previously  dried  to  constant  weight,  may  also  be 
assayed  by  the  Electrolytic  method  (see  Part  II,  Test  No.  4). 

Preparation — Unguentum  Hydrargyri  Oxidi  Flavi. 


HYDRARGYRI  OXIDUM  RUBRUM 

Red  INIercuric  Oxide 

Hydrarg.  Oxid.  Rub.— Red  Precipitate 

It  contains,  when  dried  to  constant  weight  at  150°  C,  not  less  than 
99.5  per  cent,  of  HgO  (216.60).  Preserve  it  in  well-closed  containers, 
protected  from  light. 

Red  Mercuric  Oxide  occurs  as  heavy,  orange-red,  crystalline  scales,  or  as  a 
crystalline  powder,  acquiring  a  yellow  color  when  finely  divided;  odorless  and 
having  a  somewhat  metallic  taste,  permanent  in  the  air. 

Red  Mercuric  Oxide  is  almost  insoluble  in  water;  insoluble  in  alcohol;  readily 
dissolved  by  diluted  nitric  acid,  or  by  hydrocldoric  acid. 

When  heated  to  about  400°  C,  Red  Mercuric  Oxide  becomes  dark  violet 
or  almost  black,  but  assumes  its  original  color  on  cooling.  At  a  red  heat  it  is 
completely  decomposed  into  oxygen  and  metallic  mercury,  and  is  finally  vola- 
tihzed  without  leaving  more  than  0.2  per  cent,  of  residue. 

A  solution  of  0.5  Gm.  of  Red  Mercuric  Oxide  in  25  mils  of  either  hydrochloric 
or  nitric  acid  is  not  more  than  slightly  turbid. 

Heat  0.5  Gm.  of  Red  Mercuric  Oxide  for  two  hours,  in  a  test  tube  on  a  water 
bath,  with  a  solution  of  1  Gm.  of  oxalic  acid  in  10  mils  of  distilled  water  and  1 
mil  of  ammonia  water,  replacing,  from  time  to  time,  the  water  lost  by  evapora- 
tion; it  will  not  change  color  within  two  hours  (distinction  from  ijellow  mercuric 
oxide) . 

Mix  1  Gm.  of  Red  Mercuric  Oxide  with  5  mils  of  distilled  water,  add  2  mils 
of  sulphuric  acid,  cool  the  mixture  and  carefully  pour  upon  it  2  mils  of  ferrous 
sulphate  T.S.;  no  brown  zone  develops  at  the  line  of  contact  {nitrate). 

Assay — Dissolve  about  0.5  Gm.  of  Red  Mercuric  Oxide,  previously  dried  to 
constant  weight  at  150°  C.  and  accurately  weighed,  in  10  mils  of  distilled  water 
and  5  mils  of  nitric  acid,  and  further  dilute  the  solution  with  150  mils  of  distilled 
water.  Then  add  2  mils  of  ferric  ammonium  sulphate  T.S.,  and  titrate  with 
tenth-normal  potassium  sulphocyanate  V.S.  to  the  production  of  a  permanent 
yellowish-red  color.  It  shows,  in  the  dried  Oxide,  not  less  than  99.5  per  cent, 
of  HgO. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  potassium  sulphocyanate  V.S.  u.sed  corresponds 
to  0.01083  Gm.  of  HgO.  Each  gramme  of  Red  Mercuric  Oxide,  previously 
dried  to  constant  weight,  corre.sponds  to  not  less  than  91.9  mils  of  tenth-normal 
pota.ssium  sulphocyanate  V.S. 

Red  Mercuric  Oxide,  previously  dried  to  constant  weight,  may  also  be  assayed 
by  the  Electrolytic  method  (see  Part  II,  Test  No.  4). 


I 


UNITED  STATES  OF  AMEKICA  219 


HYDRARGYRI  SALICYLAS 

Mercuric  Salicylate 

Hydrarg.  Salicyl.— Mercuric  Subsalicylate 

A  compound  of  mercury  and  salicylic  acid  containing  not  less  than  54 
per  cent,  nor  more  than  59.5  per  cent,  of  Hg.  Preserve  it  in  well-closed 
containers  protected  from  light. 

Mercuric  Salicylate  is  a  white,  slightly  yellowish  or  slightly  pinkish  powder; 
odorless  and  tasteless. 

Mercuric  Salicylate  is  nearly  insoluble  in  water  or  alcohol;  dissolved  by 
solutions  of  the  fixed  alkalies  or  their  carbonates;  dissolved  by  warm  solutions 
of  the  alkali  halides  with  the  formation  of  double  salts. 

Heat  about  1  Gm.  of  the  salt  with  10  mils  of  hydrochloric  acid;  a  solution 
is  obtained  from  which  salicylic  acid  separates  on  cooling.  A  piece  of  copper 
foil  added  to  a  portion  of  the  filtered  solution,  nearly  neutralized  with  ammonia 
water,  immediately  becomes  coated  with  metalUc  mercury.  To  another  portion 
of  this  solution  add  a  few  drops  of  ferric  chloride  T.S. ;  a  violet  color  is  produced. 

Incinerate  about  0.5  Gm.  of  the  salt  in  a  porcelain  crucible;  not  more  than 
0.2  per  cent,  of  residue  remains. 

The  salt  does  not  redden  moistened  blue  litmus  paper  {free  salicylic  acid). 
No  dark  color  results  at  once  on  shaking  about  0.1  Gm.  of  the  salt  with  5  mils 
of  hydrogen  sulphide  T.S.  {foreign  mercury  compounds).  About  0.2  Gm.  of  the 
salt  dissolves  completely  in  4  mils  of  normal  sodium  hydroxide  V.S. 

Assay — Digest  about  0.5  Gm.  of  Mercuric  Sahcylate,  accurately  weighed, 
in  15  mils  of  sulphuric  acid  and  10  mils  of  nitric  acid  on  a  water  bath  until 
dissolved.  Cool  the  solution,  dilute  it  with  150  mils  of  distilled  water,  add  30 
mils  of  solution  of  hydrogen  dioxide  and  mix  well.  Now  add  gradually,  with 
constant  stirring,  5  mils  of  diluted  hypophosphorous  acid,  then  5  Gm.  of  sodium 
chloride,  dissolved  in  20  mils  of  distilled  water,  stir  thoroughly  and  allow  the 
mixture  to  stand  until  the  precipitate  has  subsided.  Filter  and  wash  the  pre- 
cipitate with  distilled  water.  Transfer  the  precipitate  and  filter  to  a  flask,  add 
50  mils  of  tenth-normal  iodine  V.S.  and  2  Gm.  of  potassium  iodide,  agitate  the 
mixture  until  all  of  the  precipitate  has  dissolved  and  titrate  the  excess  of  tenth- 
normal iodine  V.S.  with  tenth-normal  sodium  thiosulphate  V.S.  It  shows  not 
less  than  54  per  cent,  nor  more  than  59.5  per  cent,  of  Hg. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  iodine  V.S.  corresponds  to  0.02006  Gm.  of  Hg. 
Each  Gm.  of  Mercuric  Salicylate  corresponds  to  not  less  than  26.9  mils  nor  more 
than  29.7  mils  of  tenth-normal  iodine  V.S. 

Mercuric  Salicylate  may  also  be  assaj^ed  by  the  Electrolytic  method  (see 
Part  II,  Test  No.  4). 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.004  Gm. — Apothecaries,  K5  grain. 

HYDRARGYRUM 

Mercury 

Hydrarg. — Quicksilver 

It  contains  not  less  than  99.5  per  cent,  of  Hg  (200.6).  Preserve  it  in 
strong,  well-closed  containers. 

Mercury  is  a  shining,  silver-white  metal;  liquid  at  ordinary  temperatures 
and  easily  divisible  into  spherical  globules.  When  cooled  to  about  —  40*  C,  it 
forms  a  ductile,  malleable  maaa.    It  is  without  odor  or  taste. 


220  THE  PHARMACOPCEIA   OF  THE 

Specific  gravity:    about  13.5  at  25°  C. 

Mercury  is  insoluble  in  the  ordinary  solvents,  also  in  concentrated  hydro- 
chloric acid  and,  at  ordinary  temperatures,  in  sulphuric  acid,  but  it  dissolves 
in  the  latter  when  boiled  with  it,  and  is  readily  and  completely  dissolved  by 
nitric  acid. 

At  ordinary  temperatures  Mercury  volatilizes  very  slowly,  but  more  rapidly  as 
the  temperature  increases,  and  at  about  358°  C.  it  boils  and  is  volatihzed,  yielding 
not  more  than  0.02  per  cent,  of  residue. 

When  globules  of  Mercury  are  dropped  upon  white  paper,  they  roll  about 
freely,  retaining  their  globular  form,  and  leaving  no  streaks  or  traces. 

Mercury  must  be  perfectly  dry  and  present  a  bright  surface  even  after 
agitation  in  contact  with  air. 

Assay — Dissolve  about  0.4  Gm.  of  Mercury,  accurately  weighed,  in  a  mixture 
of  10  mils  of  distilled  water  and  10  mils  of  nitric  acid,  warm  the  solution  gently 
imtil  red  fumes  cease  to  be  evolved  and  the  solution  is  colorless,  and  add  150 
mils  of  distilled  water.  Then  add  2  mils  of  ferric  ammonium  sulphate  T.S.  and 
titrate  with  tenth-normal  potassium  sulphocyanate  V.S.  to  the  production  of  a 
permanent,  yellowish-red  color.    It  shows  not  less  than  99.5  per  cent,  of  Hg. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  potassium  sulphocyanate  V.S.  used  corresponds 
to  0.01003  Gm.  of  Hg.  Each  gramme  of  Mercury  corresponds  to  not  less  than 
99.2  mila  of  tenth-normal  potassium  sulphocyanate  V.S. 

Mercury  may  also  be  assayed  by  the  Electrolytic  method  (see  Part  II,  Test 
No.  4). 

Preparations — Hydrargyrum  cum  Greta       Massa  Hydrargyri       Unguentiun 
Hydrargyri         Unguentum  Hydrargyri  Dilutum  (from  Mercurial  Ointment). 


HYDRARGYRUM  AMMONIATUM 

Ammoniated  Mercury 

Hydrarg.  Ammon.— White  Precipitate 

It  contains  mercurammonium  chloride  [HgNH2Cl  =  252.09]  corre- 
sponding to  not  less  than  78  per  cent,  nor  more  than  80  per  cent,  of  Hg. 
Preserve  it  in  well-closed  containers,  protected  from  light. 

Ammoniated  Mercury  occurs  as  white,  pulverulent  pieces,  or  as  a  white, 
amorphous  powder,  without  odor,  and  having  an  earthy,  afterwards  styptic 
and  metallic  taste;  permanent  in  the  air. 

Ammoniated  Mercury  is  insoluble  in  water  or  alcohol.  By  prolonged  wash- 
ing with  water  it  is  gradually  decomposed,  assuming  a  j^ellow  color,  and  becom- 
ing converted  into  a  basic  salt.  Readily  dissolved  by  warm  hydrochloric,  nitric, 
or  acetic  acid,  and  by  a  cold  solution  of  ammonium  carbonate.  Also  completely 
dissolved  by  a  cold  solution  of  sodium  thiosulphate,  with  the  evolution  of 
ammonia;  when  this  solution  is  heated  for  a  short  time,  red  mercuric  sulphide  is 
separated,  which,  on  protracted  boihng,  turns  black. 

At  a  temperature  below  a  red  heat,  Ammoniated  Mercury  is  decomposed 
without  fusion,  and  at  a  red  heat  it  is  volatilized  without  leaving  more  than 
0.2  per  cent,  of  residue. 

When  heated  with  potassium  hydroxide  T.S.,  the  salt  turns  yellow,  and 
evolves  ammonia. 

A  solution  of  the  salt  in  diluted  nitric  acid  yields  with  potassium  iodide  T.S. 
a  red  precipitate  soluble  in  an  excess  of  the  reagent.  With  silver  nitrate  T.S. 
its  nitric  acid  solution  yields  a  white  precipitate. 

The  salt  is  completely  soluble  in  hydrochloric  acid  (mercurous  salts)  with- 
out effervescence  {carbonates). 


UNITED   STATES   OF  AMERICA  221 

Assay — Dissolve  about  0.5  Gm.  of  Ammoniated  Mercury,  accurately  weighed, 
in  2  mils  of  hydrochloric  acid  and  10  mils  of  distilled  water,  warming  gently 
until  solution  is  effected,  then  dilute  with  300  mils  of  distilled  water  and  proceed 
as  directed  under  Hydrargyri  Chloridum  Corrosinmi,  page  214,  beginning  with 
the  word  "Pass"  on  line  4  of  the  Assay.  The  weight  of  mercuric  suli)hideol)- 
tained  when  multiplied  l)y  0.862  indicates  its  equivalent  in  mercury  (Hg)  which 
corresponds  to  not  less  than  78  per  cent,  nor  more  than  80  per  cent,  of  Hg. 

Each  gramme  of  Ammoniated  Mercury  corresponds  to  not  less  than  0.9047 
Gm.  nor  more  than  0.9279  Gm.  of  mercuric  sul{)hide. 

Ammoniated  Mercury  may  also  be  assayed  by  the  Electrolytic  method  (see 
Part  II,  Test  No.  4). 

Preparation — Unguentum  Hydrargyri  Ammoniati. 

HYDRARGYRUM  CUM  CRETA 

Mercury  with  Chalk 

Hydrarg.  c.  Cret. — Gray  Powder 
It  contains  not  less  than  37  per  cent,  nor  more  than  39  per  cent,  of  Hg. 

Mercury,  thirty-eight  grammes 38  Gm. 

Clarified  Honey,  ten  grammes 10  Gm. 

Prepared  Chalk,  fifty-seven  grammes 57  Gm. 

Water,  a  sufficient  quantity,  

To  make  one  hundred  grammes 100  Gm. 

Weigh  the  mercury  and  clarified  honey  successively  into  a  strong 
bottle  of  the  capacity  of  one  hundred  mils,  and  add  two  mils  of  water. 
Cork  the  bottle,  and  shake  it  for  about  half  an  hour  at  a  time,  until  the 
aggregate  time  of  shaking  reaches  ten  hours,  or  until  the  globules  of 
mercury  are  no  longer  visible  under  a  lens  magnifying  four  diameters. 
The  shaking  may  be  more  conveniently  performed  by  mechanical  means. 
Rub  the  prepared  chalk  with  water  in  a  mortar  to  a  thick,  creamy 
paste,  and,  having  added  the  contents  of  the  bottle,  wash  out  the  last 
portions  with  a  little  water,  and  triturate  the  whole  to  a  uniform  mixture. 
Finally  dry  the  mixture,  first  between  ample  layers  of  bibulous  paper, 
and  afterwards,  in  a  dish  at  the  ordinary  temperature,  until  it  weighs 
one  hundred  grammes.  Then  reduce  it  to  a  uniform  powder,  without 
trituration,  and  keep  it  in  well-closed  containers,  protected  from  light. 

Mercury  with  Chalk  is  a  light  gray,  rather  damp  powder,  free  from  grittiness, 
without  odor,  and  having  a  slightly  sweet  taste. 

Digest  0.1  Gm.  of  the  powder  with  20  mils  of  warm  acetic  acid;  the  chalk 
dissolves  with  effervescence,  and  a  residue  of  finely  divided  mercury  is  left. 
On  filtering  tliis  mixture,  the  filtrate  becomes  not  more  than  shghtly  opalescent 
on  the  addition  of  a  few  drops  of  hydrochloric  acid  {mercurous  oxide). 

Digest  0.1  Gm.  of  the  powder  with  20  mils  of  warm  diluted  hydrochloric 
acid  and  filter;  the  filtrate  is  not  rendered  more  than  slightly  brown  by  hydrogen 
sulphide  T.S.  {mercuric  oxide). 


222  THE  PHARMACOPCEIA  OF  THE 

Assay — Dissolve  about  1  Gm.  of  Mercury  with  Chalk,  accurately  weighed, 
in  a  mixture  of  10  mils  of  distilled  water  and  10  mils  of  nitric  acid  and  heat  it 
on  a  water  bath  until  red  fumes  cease  to  be  evolved  and  the  liquid  becomes 
colorless.  Then  add  150  mils  of  distilled  water  and  2  mils  of  ferric  ammonium 
sulphate  T.S.  and  titrate  the  solution  with  tenth-normal  potassium  sulpho- 
cyanate  V.S.  It  shows  not  less  than  37  per  cent,  nor  more  than  39  per  cent. 
ofHg. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  potassium  sulphocyanate  V.S.  used  corresponds 
to  0.01003  Gm.  of  Hg.  Each  gramme  of  Mercury  with  Chalk  corresponds  to 
not  less  than  36.9  mils  nor  more  than  38.9  mils  of  tenth-normal  potassium 
sulphocyanate  V.S. 

Mercury  with  Chalk  may  also  be  assayed  by  the  Electrolytic  method  (see 
Part  II,  Test  No.  4). 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.25  Gm. — Apothecaries,  4  grains. 


HYDRASTINA 

Hydrastine 

An  alkaloid  [C2iH2i06N  =  383.18]  obtained  from  Hydrastis  or  pre- 
pared synthetically.  Preserve  it  in  well-closed  containers,  protected 
from  light. 

Hydrastine  occurs  in  white  to  creamy  white,  gUstening  prisms  or  as  a  white, 
micro-crystaUine  powder ;  permanent  in  the  air. 

Hydrastine  is  almost  insoluble  in  water;  1  Gm.  is  soluble  in  170  mils  of  alcohol, 
1.4  mils  of  chloroform,  and  in  175  mils  of  ether  at  25°  C. ;  also  in  22  mils  of  alcohol 
at  60°  C. ;  freely  soluble  in  benzene. 

Its  saturated  alcohohc  solution  is  alkahne  to  htmus. 

It  melts  at  about  131°  C. 

Sulphuric  acid  produces  a  yellow  color  when  added  to  Hydrastine;  on  heating 
the  mixture,  a  purple  color  develops. 

Sulphuric  acid  containing  0.005  Gm.  of  molybdic  acid  in  each  mil  gives  with 
Hydrastine  a  green  color,  changing  to  oUve-green  and  then  to  brown;  nitric 
acid  yields  a  reddish-yellow  color;  sulphuric  acid  containing  0.005  Gm.  of 
eelenous  acid  in  each  mil  gives  a  light  green  color,  changing  to  brown. 

No  weighable  ash  remains  on  incinerating  0.1  Gm.  of  Hydrastine. 

A  solution  of  about  0.1  Gm.  of  Hydrastine  in  10  mils  of  diluted  sulphuric 
acid  shows  no  blue  fluorescence  (hydrastinine) ,  but,  on  the  gradual  addition  of 
potassium  permanganate  T.S.,  avoiding  excess,  a  blue  fluorescence  develops. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  Hydrastine  (1  in  20),  made  with  the  aid  of  a  slight 
excess  of  diluted  hydrochloric  acid,  is  not  reddened  by  chlorine  water 
{berberine). 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.01  Gm. — Apothecaries,  }/q  grain. 


HYDRASTINE  HYDROCHLORIDUM 

Hydrastine  Hydrochloride 

Hydrastin.  Hydrochl.— Hydrastine  Chloride 

The  hydrochloride  [CaJIsiOeN.HCU  419.65]  of  the  alkaloid  hydras- 
tine.   Preserve  it  in  well-closed  containers,  protected  from  light. 


tJNITED  STATES  OF  AMERICA  223 

Hydrastine  Hydrochloride  occurs  as  a  white  to  creamy-white  powder,  odor- 
less, and  hygroscopic. 

Hydrastine  Hydrochloride  is  very  soluble  in  water  and  in  alcohol;  slightly 
soluble  in  chloroform;  very  slightly  soluble  in  ether. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  20)  is  neutral  or  only  sUghtly  acid  to 
litmus. 

An  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  20)  yield.s  with  silver  nitrate  T.S.  a 
white  precipitate,  insoluble  in  nitric  acid. 

In  other  respects  the  salt  responds  to  the  tests  for  identity  and  purity  under 
Hydraslina,  omitting  the  melting  point. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.01  Gm. — Apothecaries,  ^^  grain. 

HYDRASTININ.^  HYDROCHLORIDUM 

Hydrastinine  Hydrochloride 

Hydrastinin.  Hydrochl.— Hydrastinme  Chloride 

The  hydrochloride  [CiiHn02N.HCl  =  225.57]  of  hydrastinine,  an  alka- 
loid obtained  by  the  oxidation  of  hydrastine.  Preserve  it  in  well-closed 
containers,  protected  from  light. 

Hydrastinine  Hj-drochloride  occurs  in  hght  yellowish  needles,  or  as  a  yellowish- 
white,  crystalline  powder  without  odor. 

One  Gm.  of  H3-drastinine  Hydrochloride  dissolves  in  195  mils  of  chloroform, 
and  in  1820  mils  of  ether  at  25°  C;  very  soluble  in  water  and  alcohol. 

Its  aqueous  solution  (1  in  20)  is  neutral  to  htmus  and  shows  a  blue  fluorescence, 
especiallj-  when  liighly  diluted. 

It  melts  at  about  210°  C.  with  partial  decomposition. 

In  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  20),  potassium  dichromate  T.S.  pro- 
duces a  precipitate  which  redissolves  if  gently  heated,  but  on  coohng  the  solu- 
tion it  separates  again  in  gUstening  needles. 

Silver  nitrate  T.S.  produces  in  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  a  white  precipi- 
tate, insoluble  in  nitric  acid. 

No  weighable  ash  remains  on  incinerating  0.1  Gm.  of  Hydrastinine  Hydro- 
chloride. 

In  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  20),  bromine  T.S.  produces  a  yellow 
precipitate,  which  is  completely  soluble  in  ammonia  water,  producing  an  almost 
colorless  solution  (hydrastine). 

Add  a  few  drops  of  ammonia  water  to  1  mil  of  an  aqueous  solution  of  Hydras- 
tinine Hydrochloride  (1  in  20);  no  turbidity  is  produced  (foreign  alkaloids). 

Add  slowly  4  or  5  drops  of  a  solution  of  sodium  hydroxide  (1  in  7)  to  a  solu- 
tion of  0.2  Gm.  of  the  salt  in  3  mils  of  distilled  water;  each  drop  causes  a 
milky  turbiditj-,  which  disappears  again  on  shaking  (foreign  alkaloids).  From 
this  solution,  after  standing  for  some  time,  pure  white  hydrastinine  separates, 
and  the  supernatant  fluid  is  almost  colorless. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.03  Gm. — Apothecaries,  3^  grain. 

HYDRASTIS 

Hydrastis 

Golden  Seal 

The  dried  rhizome  and  roots  of  Hydrastis  canadensis  Linn^  (Fam. 
Ranunculacece) ,  without  the  presence  or  admixture  of  more  than  2  per 


224  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA    OF   THE 

cent,  of  the  stems,  leaves  or  other  foreign  matter  and  yielding  not  less 
than  2.5  per  cent,  of  the  ether-soluble  alkaloids  of  Hydrastis. 

Rhizome  horizontal  or  oblique,  sub-cylindrical  and  usually  more  or  less 
flexuous,  from  1  to  5  cm.  in  length  and  from  2  to  7  mm.  in  diameter,  occasion- 
ally with  stem-bases;  externally  yellowish  or  grayish-brown,  marked  by  numer- 
ous stem-scars  and  more  or  less  annulate  from  scars  of  bud-scales,  otherwise 
deeply  longitudinally  wrinkled;  on  the  under  and  lateral  portions  arise  numerous, 
long,  filiform  roots  which  are  easily  detached;  fracture  short,  waxy;  internally 
of  a  deep  yellow  color  and  consisting  mostly  of  parenchyma  enclosing  an  inter- 
rupted circle  of  small  fibro-vascular  bundles;  odor  distinctive;  taste  bitter. 

Macerate  the  drug  for  a  short  time  in  water  until  it  is  softened,  then  rnake 
sections  and  mount  them  directly  in  sulphuric  acid  and  examine  under  the  micro- 
scope; in  a  short  time  numerous  acicular  or  rod-shaped  crystals  separate, 
some  attaining  a  length  of  0.2  mm. 

The  powder  is  brownish-yellow;  starch  grains  numerous,  from  0.002  to  0.015 
mm.  in  diameter,  mostly  single,  nearly  spherical,  and  either  free  or  in  the  paren- 
chyma cells;  fragments  with  the  tissues  of  the  fibro-vascular  bundles  mostly 
associated  with  starch-bearing  parenchyma;  tracheae  with  simple  and  bordered 
pores  and  occasionally  spiral  thickenings,  and  associated  with  short  sclerenchy- 
matous  fibers  possessing  thin  walls  with  simple  pores;  occasional  fragments  of 
tabular  cork  cells  with  reddish-brown  walls. 

Assay — Introduce  10  Gm.  of  Hydrastis,  in  No.  60  powder,  into  a  250  mil 
flask  and  add  100  mils  of  ether  and  proceed  as  directed  under  Belladonnce  Radix, 
page  73,  third  line  of  the  Assay,  beginning  with  the  word  "Stopper."  Modify 
the  process  there  given  by  using  50  mils  of  the  ether  solution,  representing  5  Gm. 
of  Hydrastis,  to  complete  the  assay.  Use  ether  instead  of  chloroform  for  the  final 
shaking  out  of  the  alkaloids,  and  dry  the  residue  to  constant  weight  at  100°  C. 
instead  of  titrating.  The  weight  is  the  amount  of  ether-soluble  alkaloids  from 
5  Gm.  of  Hydrastis. 
Preparations — Extractum  Hydrastis      Fluidextractum  Hydrastis      Glyceritum 

Hydrastis      Tinctura  Hydrastis. 

Average  dose — Metric,  2  Gm. — Apothecaries,  30  grains. 


HYOSCYAMINiE  HYDROBROMIDUM 

Hyoscyamine  Hydrobromide 

Hyoscyamin.  Hydrobr. — Hyoscyamine  Bromide 
The  hydrobromide   [Ci7H2303N.HBr  =  370.12]   of  hyoscyamine,  an 
alkaloid  obtained  from  hyoscyamus  and  other  plants  of  the  SolanaceoB. 
Preserve  it  in  well-closed  containers,  protected  from  light. 

Hyoscyamine  Hydrobromide  occurs  in  white,  prismatic  crystals  without  odor. 
It  is  deliquescent  on  exposure  to  the  air.  Great  caution  must  be  observed  in  tasting 
it,  using  only  a  very  dilute  solution.    It  dilate.'^  the  pupil  of  the  eye. 

One  Gm.  of  Hyoscyamine  Hvdrobromide  dissolves  in  2.5  mils  of  alcohol,  1.7 
mils  of  chloroform,  and  in  2260  mils  of  ether  at  25°  C;  very  soluble  in  water. 

Its  aqueous  solution  (1  in  20)  is  neutral  to  litmus,  and  is  strongly  laevorotatory. 

It  melts  at  about  152°  C. 

Silver  nitrate  T.S.,  when  added  to  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt,  yields  a 
yellowish-white  precipitate  which  is  insoluble  in  nitric  acid. 

Shake  2  mils  of  chloroform  with  1  mil  of  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt 
(1  in  10)  to  which  a  few  drops  of  chlorine  water  have  been  added;  the  chloroform 
assumes  a  brownish  color. 


UNITED   STATES   OF  AMERICA  225 

Add  about  0.01  Gin.  of  the  salt  to  5  drops  of  nitric  acid,  and  evaporate  to 
dryness  in  a  porcelain  dish;  the  residue  yields  a  violet  color  upon  the  addition 
of  alcoholic  potas.sium  hydroxide  T.S. 

Gold  chloride  T.S.,  when  added  to  an  aqueous  solution  of  the  salt  (1  in  20), 
yields  a  precipitate  wliich,  when  recry.stallizcd  from  a  small  quantity  of  boiling 
distilled  water,  acidulated  with  hydrocliloric  acid,  is  dcpo.^ited  on  cooling  in 
minute,  lustrous,  golden-yellow  scales  ((HfTorcnoe  from  atropine  and  scopolamine). 

Platinic  chloride  T.8.  does  not  form  a  precijiitate  in  aqueous  solutions  of 
the  salt  (1  in  20)  (difference  from  most  alkaloids). 

No  weighable  ash  remains  on  incinerating  0.1  Gm.  of  Hyoscyamine  Hydro- 
bromide. 

About  0.05  Gm.  of  the  salt  dissolved  in  1  mil  of  sulphuric  acid  gives  not  more 
than  a  faint  yellow  color  [carhonizable  impurities). 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.0003  Gm. — Apothecaries,  3'ioo  grain. 


HYOSCYAMUS 

Hyoscyamus 

Hyosc. — Henbane        Hyoscyami  folium  P.I. 

The  dried  leaves  and  flowering  or  fruiting  tops  of  Hyoscyamus  niger 
Linne  (Fam.  Solanacece),  yielding  not  less  than  0.065  per  cent,  of  the 
alkaloids  of  Hyoscyamus. 

Usually  much  wrinkled,  with  numerous  stems  and  with  the  flowering  or  fruit- 
ing tops  intermixed;  leaves  when  entire  attaining  a  length  of  25  cm.,  a  breadth 
of  10  cm.,  ovate  or  ovate-oblong,  very  inequilateral,  the  lower  with  short  petioles, 
the  upper  sessile,  .summits  acute,  margins  coarsely  and  angularly  1-  to  4-toothed 
or  lobed;  graj'ish-gi-een,  glandular-hairy,  particularly  on  the  lower  surfaces; 
flowers  nearly  sessile  with  an  urn-shaped,  unequally  5-toothed  calyx  and  a 
campanulate  corolla  which  in  the  fresh  state  is  of  a  yellowish  color;  fruit  a 
2-locular  pyxis,  and  enclosed  in  a  large  urn-shaped  calyx  with  5  acute  teeth; 
odor  heavy,  distinctive;  taste  somewhat  bitter  and  acrid. 

Stems  from  3  to  10  cm.  in  length  and  from  2  to  5  mm.  in  thickness,  nearly 
cylindrical  or  somewhat  compressed,  longitudinally  wrinkled  and  hairy. 

The  powder  is  grayish-green;  under  the  microscope,  it  exliibits  calcium 
oxalate  crystals  usually  in  the  form  of  4-  to  6-sided,  isolated  prisms,  sometimes 
in  twins,  from  0.015  to  0.025  mm.  in  length,  also  occurring  in  spherical  aggre- 
gates either  isolated  or  attached  to  the  prismatic  crystals,  sometimes  in  rosette 
aggregates,  0.02  mm.  in  diameter,  and  occasionally  in  sphenoidal  micro-crystals; 
hairs  numerous,  of  two  kinds;  the  non-glandular  from  2  to  10  cells  in  length,  the 
glandular  with  a  1-  to  many-celled  head  and  a  1-  to  4-cened  stalk;  fragments 
of  epidermis  with  broadly  eUiptical  stomata  from  0.03  to  0.035  mm.  in  length 
and  with  3  to  4  neighboring  cells;  fragments  of  trachea?  with  .simple  or  bordered 
pores  and  spiral  or  reticulate  thickenings,  also  associated  with  sclerenchymatous 
fibers  having  thin  porous  walls  and  showing  little  or  no  lignification;  pollen 
grains,  nearly  smooth  and  from  0.035  to  0.05  mm.  in  diameter. 

The  presence  of  the  leaves  of  Hyoscyamus  muticus  Linne  in  either  the  crude  or 
powdered  Hyoscyamus  may  be  determined  by  the  characteristic,  branching, 
non-glandular  hairs  occurring  on  both  the  stems  and  leaves  of  that  species. 

Hyoscyamus  yields  not  more  than  30  per  cent,  of  ash. 

Assay — Introduce  30  Gm.  of  Hyoscyamus,  in  No.  60  powder,  into  a  500  mil 
flask  and  add  300  mils  of  a  mixture  of  1  volume  of  chloroform  and  2  volumes  of 
ether.  Stopper  the  flask,  shake  it  well,  and  aUow  it  to  stand  for  ten  minutes; 
then  add  5  mils  of  ammonia  water  and  shake  the  flask  vigorously  every  ten 
minutes  during  two  hours.  Now  add  40  mils  of  distilled  water,  again  shake  the 
20 


226  The  pharmacopceIa  of  the! 

flask  and  when  the  drug  has  settled  decant  200  mils  of  the  solution,  representing 
20  Gm.  of  Hyoscyamus,  and  proceed  as  directed  under  Belladonnce  Radix,  page 
73,  beginning  with  the  word  "Filter"  on  hne  7  of  the  Assay.  Before  titration 
treat  the  residue  twice  with  5  mils  of  ether  and  evaporate  to  dryness  each  time. 
Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  sulphuric  acid  V.S.  consumed  corresponds  to  28.92 
miUigrammes  of  the  total  alkaloids  of  Hyoscyamus. 

Preparations — Extractum  Hyoscyami      Fluidextractum  Hyoscyami      Tinctura 

Hyoscyami. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.25  Gm. — Apothecaries,  4  grains. 


HYPOPHYSIS  SICCA 

Desiccated  Hypophysis 

Hypophysis  Sic. — Desiccated  Pituitary  Body 

The  posterior  lobe  obtained  from  the  pituitary  body  of  cattle,  cleaned, 
dried,  and  powdered. 

A  yellowish  or  grayish,  amorphous  powder,  having  a  characteristic  odor. 
It  is  only  partially  soluble  in  water. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.03  Gm. — Apothecaries,  3^^  grain. 


INFUSA 

Infusions 

Infusions  must  be  freshly  made  from  the  drugs,  and,  when  the  strength 
of  Infusions  is  not  otherwise  directed,  they  are  to  be  prepared  by  the 
following  general  formula: 

The  Drug,  coarsely  comminuted,  fifty  grammes 50  Gm. 

Water,  a  sufficient  quantity,  

To  make  one  thousand  milliliters 1000  mils 

Introduce  the  substance  into  a  suitable  vessel  provided  with  a  cover, 
pour  upon  it  one  thousand  mils  of  boiling  water,  cover  the  vessel  tightly, 
and  allow  it  to  stand  for  half  an  hour.  Then  strain  with  expression,  and 
pass  enough  water  through  the  strainer  to  make  the  Infusion  measure 
one  thousand  mils.  If  the  activity  of  the  Infusion  is  affected  by  heat, 
cold  water  only  should  be  used. 

Caution — The  strength  of  Infusions  of  potent  or  very  active  drugs 
should  be  specially  directed  by  the  physician. 


UNITED    STATES   OF  AMERICA  227 

INFUSUM  DIGITALIS 

Infusion  of  Digitalis 

Inf.  Digit. 

Digitalis,  bruised,  fifteen  grammes 15  Gm. 

Cinnamon  Water,  one  hundred  and  fifty  millililcrs 150  mils 

Water,  a  sufficient  quantity, 

To  make  one  thousand  milliliters 1000  mils 

Pour  five  hundred  mils  of  boiling  water  upon  the  digitalis,  contained 
in  a  suitable  vessel,  and  allow  it  to  macerate  for  one  hour.  Then  strain, 
add  the  cinnamon  water  to  the  strained  liquid,  and  pass  enough  water 
through  the  residue  on  the  strainer  to  make  the  product  measure  one 
thousand  mils.    Mix  well. 

Infusion  of  Digitalis  must  he  freshly  prepared  from  the  leaves. 

Average  dose — Metric,  4  mils — Apothecaries,  1  fluidrachm. 


INFUSUM  SENN^  COMPOSITUM 

Compound  Infusion  of  Senna 

Inf.  Senn.  Co. 

Senna,  sixty  grammes 60  Gm. 

Manna,  one  hundred  and  twenty  grammes 120  Gm. 

Magnesium  Sulphate,  one  hundred  and  twenty  grammes  .  120  Gm. 

Fennel,  bruised,  twenty  grammes 20  Gm. 

Water,  a  sufficient  quantity, 

To  make  one  thousand  milliliters 1000  mils 

Pour  eight  hundred  mils  of  boiling  water  upon  the  senna,  manna,  and 
fennel  contained  in  a  suitable  vessel,  and  allow  the  mixture  to  macerate 
for  half  an  hour.  Then  strain,  express  and  dissolve  the  magnesium 
sulphate  in  the  Infusion,  and  again  strain.  Lastly,  add  enough  water 
through  the  strainer  to  make  the  Infusion  measure  one  thousand  mils. 

This  preparation  must  not  be  dispensed  unless  it  has  been  recently 
prepared. 

Average  dose — Metric,  120  mils — Apothecaries,  4  fluidounces. 


228  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA   OF   THE 

lODOFORMUM 

Iodoform 

lodof.  ' 

Triiodomethane  [CHl3  =  393.77]  usually  obtained  by  the  action  of 
iodine  upon  alcohol  or  acetone,  in  the  presence  of  an  alkali  or  alkali 
carbonate.  Preserve  it  in  well-closed  containers,  in  a  cool  place,  pro- 
tected from  light. 

Iodoform  occurs  as  a  fine,  lemon-yellow  powder,  or  in  lustrous  crystals  of 
the  hexagonal  system,  having  a  peculiar,  very  penetrating  and  persistent  odor, 
and  an  unpleasant,  slightly  sweetish  taste  suggestive  of  iodine. 

It  is  nearly  insoluble  in  water  to  which  it,  however,  imparts  its  odor  and  taste. 
One  Gm.  of  Iodoform  dissolves  in  60  mils  of  alcohol,  80  mils  of  glycerin,  10  mils 
of  chloroform,  7.5  mils  of  ether,  2.8  mils  of  carbon  disulphide,  and  in  34  mils  of 
olive  oil  at  25°  C;  also  in  about  16  mils  of  boihng  alcohol. 

Its  solutions  are  neutral  to  litmus. 

Iodoform  is  slightly  volatile,  even  at  ordinary  temperatures,  and  in  boiling 
water  distils  slowly  with  the  vapor  of  water.  At  about  115°  C.  it  melts  to  a 
brown  Uquid,  and  at  a  higher  temperature  it  decomposes,  emitting  vapors  of 
iodine. 

Incinerate  about  1  Gm.  of  Iodoform;  not  more  than  0.2  per  cent,  of  ash 
remains. 

Dry  about  1  Gm.  of  Iodoform,  accurately  weighed,  for  twenty-four  hours  over 
Bulphuric  acid;  the  loss  in  weight  does  not  exceed  1  per  cent. 

Shake  about  2  Gm.  of  Iodoform  for  one  minute  with  5  mils  of  distilled  water 
and  filter;  the  filtrate  is  colorless  and  free  from  bitter  taste  (soluble  yellow  coloring 
matter,  -picric  acid),  and  does  not  affect  the  color  of  litmus  {acids  or  alkalies). 

Preparation — Unguentum  lodoformi. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.25  Gm. — Apothecaries,  4  grains. 


lODUM 

Iodine 

It  contains  not  less  than  99.5  per  cent,  of  I  (126.92).    Preserve  it 
in  glass-stoppered  bottles,  in  a  cool  place. 

Iodine  occurs  as  heavy,  bluish-black,  brittle,  rhombic  plates,  having  a  metallic 
luster,  a  distinctive  odor,  and  a  sharp  and  acrid  taste. 

Specific  gravity:    about  4.6G  at  17°  C. 

Iodine  imparts  a  deep  brown,  evanescent  stain  to  the  skin,  and  slowly  destroys 
vegetable  colors. 

One  Gm.  of  Iodine  dissolves  in  2950  mils  of  water,  12.5  mils  of  alcohol,  80 
mils  of  glycerin,  and  in  4  mils  of  carbon  disulphide  at  25°  C;  freely  soluble  in 
chloroform,  ether,  or  aqueous  solutions  of  iodides;  its  .solution  in  alcohol  or  in 
an  aqueous  solution  of  potassium  iodide  has  a  reddish-brown  color;  its  diluted 
solution  in  chloroform  or  carbon  disulphide  has  a  violet  color. 

Iodine  volatilizes  slowly  at  ordinary  temperatures.  When  heated  to  about 
•  114°  C.,  it  fuses  and  is  gradually  dissipated  in  the  form  of  a  purple  vapor, 
leaving  not  more  than  0.05  per  cent,  of  residue. 


UNITED   STATES   OF  AMERICA  229 

Add  starch  T.S.  to  a  saturated  aqueous  solution  of  Iodine;  a  blue  color  is 
produced.  On  boiling  the  mixture  the  color  is  discharged  but  reappears  as  it 
cools,  unless  it  has  been  subjected  to  long  continued  boiling. 

A  solution  of  Iodine  in  cliloroform  is  transparent  (moislure) . 

To  determine  the  presence  of  cyanogen,  chlorine  or  bromine,  proceed  as 
follows: 

Triturate  0.5  Gm.  of  finely  powdered  Iodine  with  20  mils  of  distilled  water 
and  filter  the  solution.  To  one-half  of  the  filtrate  carefully  add  tenth-normal 
sodium  thicsulphate  V.S.  until  the  solution  is  ju.st  decolorized.  Then  add  a 
few  drops  of  ferrous  sulpliate  T.S.,  and  subsequently  a  little  sodium  hydroxide 
T.S.,  and  heat  the  mixture  gently.  On  now  adding  a  slight  excess  of  hydro- 
chloric acid,  the  liquid  does  not  become  blue  {cyanogen  iodide). 

To  the  other  half  of  the  aqueous  filtrate,  in  a  test  tube,  add  a  slight  excess  of 
silver  nitrate  T.S.,  shake  the  liquid  actively,  allow  the  precipitate  to  subside, 
and,  having  y)oured  off  the  clear,  supernatant  liquid  completely,  shake  the 
precipitate  with  a  mixture  of  1  mil  of  ammonia  water  and  9  mils  of  distilled 
water,  and  filter.  On  adding  a  slight  excess  of  nitric  acid  to  the  filtrate,  not 
more  than  a  slight  opalescence  makes  its  appearance  (chlorine  or  bromine). 

Assay — Introduce  about  0.5  Gm.  of  powdered  Iodine  into  a  tared  weigh- 
ing-bottle, stopper,  weigh  accurately,  and  add  1  Gm.  of  potassium  iodide 
dissolved  in  5  mils  of  distilled  water.  Dilute  this  solution  with  distilled  water 
to  about  50  mils  and  titrate  with  tenth-normal  sodium  tliiosulphate  V.S.,  starch 
T.S.  being  used  as  indicator.    It  shows  not  less  than  99.5  per  cent,  of  I. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  sodium  thiosulphate  V.S.  used  corresponds  to 
0.012692  Gm.  of  I.  Each  gramme  of  Iodine  corresponds  to  not  less  than  78.4 
mils  of  tenth-normal  sodium  thiosulphate  V.S. 

Preparations — Liquor  lodi  Compositus    Tinctura  lodi    Unguentum  lodi. 
Average  dose — Metric,  0.005  Gm. — Apothecaries,  3^12  grain. 


IPECACUANHA 

Ipecac 

Ipecac. — Ipecacuanhae  radix  P.I. 

The  dried  root  of  Cephaelis  Ipecacuanha  (Brotero)  A.  Richard,  known 
in  commerce  as  Rio  Ipecac,  or  of  Cephaelis  acuminata  Karsten,  known 
in  commerce  as  Cartagena  Ipecac  (Fam.  Ruhiacea),  without  the  pres- 
ence or  admixture  of  more  than  5  per  cent,  of  stems  or  other  foreign 
matter  and  yiekling  not  less  than  1.75  per  cent,  of  the  ether-soluble 
alkaloids  of  Ipecac. 

Rio  Ipecac — In  cylindrical  pieces,  curved  and  sharply  flexuous,  occasionally 
branched,  from  3  to  15  cm.  in  length  and  from  2.4  to  4  mm.  in  thickness;  ex- 
ternally dark  brown,  closely  annulated,  with  thickened,  incomplete  rmgs,  and 
usually  exhibiting  transverse  fissures  with  vertical  sides;  fracture  of  bark  short, 
of  wood  tough,  bark  very  thick,  light  brown,  easily  separable  from  the  yellowish- 
wliite  wood;  odor  very  slight,  distinctive,  the  dust  sternutatory;  taste  bitter  and 
nauseous,  somewhat  acrid.  ,      , .  ,  t  n  -•    ^ 

Stems  cvlindrical,  attaining  a  length  of  10  cm.  and  a  thickness  of  2  mm.,  aark 
brown,  finely  longitudinally  wrinkled  and  with  a  few  elliptical  scars. 

Cartagena  Ipecac— Cylindrical  or  slenderly  fusiform,  more  or  less  tortuous, 
from  3  to  12  cm.  in  length  and  from  4  to  6.5  mm.  in  thickness;  externally  grayish- 
brown,  the  annulations  usually  not  so  numerous  as  in  Rio  Ipecac,  occasionally 


230  tHiJ  PHARMACOPCEIA   Ot  THfi 

transversely  fissured  and  with  circular  scars  of  roots;  bark  2  mm.  in  thickness, 
dark  brown,  smooth,  somewhat  horny,  and  easily  separable  from  the  light  brown 
wood. 

Stems  attaining  a  length  of  10  cm.  and  a  thickness  of  from  2  to  3  mm.,  cylin- 
drical, somewhat  zigzag,  due  to  the  prominent  nodes  with  their  elliptical  stem- 
scars,  grayish  or  dark  brown  and  longitudinally  wrinkled;  bark  thin. 

The  powder  from  both  varieties  of  Ipecac  is  light  brown;  starch  grains  numer- 
ous, single  or  from  2-  to  4-  or  more  compound,  the  individual  grains  spherical  or 
polygonal,  from  0.003  to  0.017  mm.  in  diameter;  calcium  oxalate  in  raphides,  from 
0.015  to  0.04  mm.  in  length,  few;  tracheids  with  bordered  pores  and  oblique  slit- 
hke  pores.  The  stem  bark  shows  a  few,  slightly  elongated  stone  cells,  from  0.03  to 
0.045  mm.  in  length  with  thick  hgnified  walls  and  simple  branching  pores. 

Ipecac  yields  not  less  than  1.8  per  cent,  nor  more  than  4.5  per  cent,  of  ash. 

Assay — Introduce  10  Gm.  of  Ipecac,  in  No.  80  powder,  into  a  250  mil  flask, 
add  100  mils  of  ether  and  proceed  as  directed  under  Belladonna;  Radix,  page  73, 
third  line  of  the  Assay,  beginning  with  the  word  "Stopper."  Modify  the  proc- 
ess there  given  by  using  50  mils  of  the  ether  solution,  representing  5  Gm.  of 
Ipecac,  to  complete  the  assay.  U.se  ether  instead  of  chloroform  for  the  final 
shaking  out  of  the  alkaloid,  and  di.ssolve  the  alkaloid  from  the  residue  in  10  mils 
of  tenth-normal  sulphuric  acid  V.S. 

Each  mil  of  tenth-normal  sulphuric  acid  V.S.  consumed  corresponds  to  24 
milligrammes  of  the  ether-soluble  alkaloids  of  Ipecac. 

Preparations — Fluidextractum    Ipecacuanhae       Pulvis    Ipecacuanhae    et   Opii 
Syrupus  Ipecacuanhae  (from  Fluidextract). 

AVERA.GEDOSE — Emetic,  Metric,  1  Gm. — Apothecaries,  15grains. 


JALAPA 

Jalap 
Jalap. 

The  dried  tuberous  root  of  Exogonium  Purga  (Wenderoth)  Bentham 
(Fara.  ConvolvulaceoB),  yielding  not  less  than  7  per  cent,  of  the  total 
resins  of  Jalap. 

Fusiform,  irregularly  ovoid  or  pyriform,  upper  end  more  or  less  rounded, 
lower  end  slightly  tapering,  the  large  roots  often  incised  or  cut  into  pieces; 
from  4  to  15  cm.  in  length  and  from  12  to  60  mm.  in  diameter;  externally  dark 
brown,  longitudinally  wTuikled  or  furrowed  and  with  numerous  lenticels;  hard, 
compact,  not  fibrous;  when  broken,  internally  dark  brown,  mealy  or  waxy,  bark 
from  1  to  2  mm.  in  thickness,  outer  bundles  separated  from  the  outer  cortical 
layer  by  a  distinct,  brown  cambium  zone;  odor  shght  but  distinctive,  smoky; 
taste  somewhat  sweet  and  acrid. 

The  powder  is  light  brown ;  starch  grains  numerous,  single  or  2-  to  3-compound, 
and  more  or  less  swollen,  ellipsoidal  or  ovoid  with  concentric  or  excentral  lamellae 
and  radiating  clefts  or  fissures,  from  0.003  to  0.035  mm.  in  diameter;  calcium 
oxalate  in  rosette  aggregates  from  0.01  to  0.035  mm.  in  diameter;  tracheae 
short,  wide,  with  simple  or  bordered  pores;  lactiferous  vessels  with  yellowish- 
brown,  re-sinous  maR.ses. 

Jalap  yields  not  more  than  6.5  per  cent,  of  ash. 

Assay — Pack  10  Gm.  of  Jalap,  in  No.  60  powder,  in  a  cylindrical  percolator 
and  extract  it  with  alcohol  until  the  percolate  measures  100  mils.  Transfer 
20  mils  of  the  percolate  to  a  separator,  add  20  mils  of  chloroform,  mix  the  liquids, 
then  add  20  mils  of  distilled  water  and  shake  the  mixture  thoroughly.    When 


UNITED   STATES   OF  AMERICA  231 

the  liquids  have  completely  separated,  draw  off  the  chloroform  into  a  tared 
beaker,  wash  the  contents  of  the  separator  by  rotating  with  5  mils  of  chloroform 
and  draw  it  off  into  the  beaker.  Evaporate  the  ciiloroform  sokition  on  a  water 
bath,  add  about  2  mils  of  alcohol,  again  evaporate,  and  then  dry  the  residue  to 
constant  weight  at  100°  C.  The  weight  will  be  the  amount  of  total  resins  from 
2  Gm.  of  Jalap. 

Preparations — Pilulae   Catharticae   Compositae   (from   Resin)      Pulvis  Jalapae 
Compositus      Resina  Jalapae. 

Average  dose — Metric,  1  Gm. — Apothecaries,  15  grains. 


KINO 

Kino 

The  spontaneously  dried  juice  of  Pterocarpus  Marsupium  Roxburgh 
(Fam.  Leguminosce) . 

In  small,  brittle  angular  fragments,  usually  considerably  less  than  15  mm.  in 
diameter,  varying  in  color  from  dark  reddish-brown  to  reddish-black;  when 
crushed  upon  a  slide  and  examined  under  the  microscope  the  angular  fragments 
are  more  or  less  translucent  with  a  glass-hke,  conchoidal  surface,  the  thinner 
pieces  having  a  yellowish-red  or  deep  brownish-red  color,  the  pieces  often  being 
marked  by  nearly  parallel,  curved  and  straight  lines;  inodorous;  taste  very 
astringent;  when  masticated  it  colors  the  sahva  somewhat  pink. 

The  powder  is  of  a  dark  brick-red  color;  upon  the  addition  of  water,  the  sharp 
angular  fragments  assume  a  deep  rich-red  color  and  become  more  or  less  rounded 
and  separate  into  innumerable,  small,  granular  particles  among  wliich  are 
a  large  number  of  rod-shaped  bacteria.  On  mounting  powdered  Kino  in  alcohol 
the  fragments  at  first  assume  a  deep  red  color,  then  mostly  dissolve,  leaving  a 
number  of  small,  colorless  granules  and  indistinguishable,  cellular  fragments. 

Kino  is  only  partly  soluble  in  cold  water,  and  not  less  than  40  per  cent,  is 
soluble  in  boiling  water.  The  latter  solution,  when  cooled  and  filtered,  shows 
a  faintly  acid  reaction,  gives  a  dark  green  precipitate  with  ferric  chloride  T.S. 
and  a  reddish-violet  color  with  alkalies. 

The  yield  of  alcoholic  extractive  is  not  less  than  45  per  cent. 

Kino  contains  not  more  than  12  per  cent,  of  moisture,  and  yields  not  more 
than  3  per  cent,  of  ash. 

Preparation — Tinctura  Kino. 

Average  dose — Metric,  0.5  Gm. — Apothecaries,  8  grains. 


LACTUCARIUM 

Lactucarium 

Lactucar. 

The  dried  milk-juice  of  Lactuca  virosa  Linne  (Fam.  Compositce). 

Usually  in  quarter  sections  of  hemispherical  masses,  or  in  irregular,  angular 
pieces;  externally  dull  reddish-  or  grayish-brown;  fracture  tough,  waxy;  inter- 
nally light  brown  or  yellowish,  somewhat  porous;  odor  distinctive,  opium-like; 
tftste  bitter. 


232  THE  PHARMACOPCEIA   OF  THE 


Lactucarium  is  partly  soluble  in  alcohol  and  ether  and,  when  triturated  with 
water,  it  yields  a  turbid  mixture.  Treat  Lactucarium  with  boiling  water  and 
filter;  the  filtrate  is  clear  while  hot;  on  coohng  it  becomes  turbid  but  clears  upon 
the  addition  of  ammonia  water  or  alcohol;  it  is  not  colored  blue  by  iodine  T.S. 
(starch).  An  alcohohc  solution  of  Lactucarium  gives  not  more  than  a  faint 
green  color  upon  the  addition  of  a  drop  of  ferric  chloride  T.S.  (tannin). 

The  powder  is  grayish-brown  to  dark  brown,  consisting  almost  entirely  of 
irregular  fragments  without  any  cellular  structure;  when  mounted  in  hydrated 
chloral  T.S.,  the  fragments  become  clear,  showing  granular  fragments,  and 
from  this  deposit,  numerous  rod-shaped  crystals  and  broad  monoclinic  prisms 
as  well  as  aggregates  of  these,  all  of  which  polarize  light. 

In  the  preparation  of  powdered  Lactucarium,  dry  the  crude  drug  at  a  tem- 
perature not  exceeding  70°  C. 

Lactucarium  contains  not  more  than  15  per  cent,  of  moisture,  and  yields  not 
more  than  10  per  cent,  of  ash. 
Preparations — Syrupus  Lactucarii  (from  Tincture)     Tinctura  Lactucarii. 

Average  dose — Metric,  1  Gm. — Apothecaries,  15  grains. 


LIMONIS  CORTEX 

Lemon  Peel 

Limon.  Cort. 

The  outer  rind  of  the  fresh  ripe  fruit  of  Citrus  medica  Limonum 
(Risso)  Hooker  fiUus  (Fam.  Rutacece). 

The  outer,  lemon-yellow  or  dark  yellow  layer,  recently  separated  by  grating  or 
paring  and  consisting  of  an  epidermal  layer,  numerous  parenchyma  cells  containing 
yellow  chromoplastids,  and  large  oil  reservoirs  with  globules  of  the  volatile  oil; 
odor  highly  fragrant,  distinctive;  taste  pungent,  aromatic. 

Under  the  microscope,  sections  of  the  rind,  mounted  in  a  fixed  oil,  show  an  epi- 
dermal layer  composed  of  small  tabular  cells,  a  hypodermal  layer  containing  numer- 
ous plastids,  a  mesocarp  with  colorless,  thin-walled  parenchyma  and  large,  ellipti- 
cal oil  reservoirs;  parenchyma  cells  containing  a  layer  of  granular  protoplasm 
adhering  to  the  walls  and  occasionally  membrane  crystals  of  calcium  oxalate, 
which  are  irregularly  polygonal  in  shape,  and  from  0.015  to  0.025  mm.  in 
diameter. 


LINIMENTUM  AMMONITE 

Ammonia  Liniment 

Lin.  Ammon. — Volatile  Liniment    Hartshorn  Linimeat 

Ammonia  Water,  two  hundred  and  fifty  milliliters 250  mils 

Sesame  Oil,  seven  hundred  and  fifty  milliliters 750  mils 

To  make  one  thousand  milliliters 1000  mils 

Agitate  the  ammonia  water  with  the  sesame  oil  until  a  uniform  mix- 
ture is  obtained. 


UNITED   STATES   OF  AMERICA  233 

LINIMENTUM  BELLADONN^E 

Belladonna  Liniment 
Lin.  Bellad. 

Camphor,  jijty  grammes 50  Gm. 

Fluidextract  of  Belladonna  Root,  a  sufficient  quantity, 

To  make  one  thousand  milliliters 1000  mils 

Dissolve  the  camphor  in  about  eight  hundred  mils  of  the  fluidextract, 
and  then  add  enough  of  the  latter  to  make  the  product  measure  one 
thousand  inils.    Mix  thoroughly. 

LINIMENTUINI  CALCIS 

Lime  Liniment 

Lin.  Calc— Carron  OU 

Solution  of  Calcium  Hydroxide,  five  hundred  milliliters.      500  mils 
Linseed  Oil,  five  hundred  milliliters 500  mils 

To  make  one  thousand  milliliters 1000  mils 

Mix  them  by  agitation. 


LINIMENTUM  CAMPHORiE 

Camphor  Liniment 

Lin.  Camph. — Camphorated  Oil 

Orie  hundred  grammes  of  Liniment  of  Camphor  yields  not  less  than 
19.5  Gm.  nor  more  than  20.5  Gm.  of  camphor.  This  preparation  is 
not  intended  for  hypodermic  use. 

Camphor,  in  coarse  powder,  two  hundred  grammes 200  Gm. 

Cottonseed  Oil,  eight  hundred  grammes 800  Gm. 

To  make  one  thousand  grammes 1000  Gm. 

Introduce  the  cottonseed  oil  into  a  suitable  flask  or  bottle,  heat  it 
on  a  water  bath,  introduce  the  camphor  and  stopper  the  container 
securely.  Dissolve  the  camphor  by  agitation  without  the  further  appli- 
cation of  heat. 

Assay — Weigh  25  Gm.  of  Camphor  Liniment  into  a  tared  150  mil  flask  and 
connect  this  flask  with  a  500  mil  distillation  flask  containing  275  mils  of  alcohol. 
Adjust  the  tube  from  the  distiUation  flask  so  that  it  reaches  to  within  0.5  cm .  of  the 
bottom  of  the  flask  containing  the  Liniment  and  connect  the  latter  flask  with  a 
condenser.    Now  heat  both  flasks  on  sand  baths  and  regulate  the  temperature 


234  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA   OF   THE 

SO  that  the  alcohol  vapors  will  pass  rapidly  through  the  Liniment  without 
condensing.  Receive  the  distillate  in  a  flask  graduated  to  250  mils  and  continue 
the  distillation  until,  at  25°  C,  the  distillate  measures  250  mils.  Fill  a  200  mm. 
polariscope  tube  with  the  distillate  and  take  the  mean  of  four  or  more  readings 
of  the  rotation,  beginning  at  zero  each  time.  The  temperature  correction  for 
each  degree  is  half  a  minute,  additive  if  above,  subtractive  if  below  25°  C. 
Place  about  20  Gm.  of  the  Camphor  Liniment  in  an  evaporating  dish,  9  cm.  in 
diameter,  and  cover  it  with  an  inverted  funnel  8  cm.  in  diameter.  Place  the 
dish  on  wire  gauze,  10  cm.  above  a  Bunsen  burner  having  a  flame  4  cm.  high. 
When  the  camphor  has  all  subhmed,  dissolve  0.5  Gm.  of  the  subhmate  in  suffi- 
cient alcohol  to  make  exactly  25  mils  at  25°  C.  and  take  the  mean  of  four  or  more 
polariscope  readings  as  before.  The  minutes  of  rotation  of  the  distillate  divided 
by  the  minutes  of  rotation  of  the  control  test  just  made,  and  this  multiphed 
by  20,  wiU  give  the  number  of  grammes  of  camphor  in  100  Gm.  of  Camphor 
Laniment. 


LINIMENTUM  CHLOROFORMI 

Chloroform  Liniment 

Lin.  Chlorof. 

Chloroform,  three  hundred  milliliters 300  mils 

Soap  Liniment,  seven  hundred  milliliters 700  mils 

To  make  one  thousand  milliliters 1000  mils 


Mix  them  by  agitation. 


LINIMENTUM  SAPONIS 

Soap  Liniment 

Lin.  Sapon. — Liquid  Opodeldoc 

Soap,  dried  and  granulated  or  powdered,  sixty  grammes.  . .  60  Gm. 

Camphor,  in  small  pieces,  forty-five  grammes 45  Gm. 

Oil  of  Rosemary,  ten  milliliters 10  mils 

Alcohol,  seven  hundred  milliliters 700  mils 

Water,  a  sufficient  quantity,  

To  make  one  thousand  milliliters 1000  mils 

Dissolve  the  camphor  and  the  oil  of  rosemary  in  the  alcohol,  add  the 
soap  and  sufficient  water  to  make  the  product  measure  one  thousand 
mils.    Agitate  the  mixture  until  the  soap  is  dissolved,  set  it  aside  in  a 
cool  place  for  twenty-four  hours,  and  then  filter. 
Preparation — Linimentum  Chlorof ormi. 


UNITED   STATES   OF  AMERICA  ^35 

LINIMENTUM  SAPONIS  MOLLIS 

Liniment  of  Soft  Soap 

Lin.  Sapon.  Moll.— Tincture  of  Green  Soap 

Soft  Soap,  six  hundred  and  fifhj  (jrammcs 650  Gm. 

Oil  of  Lavender,  twenty  milliliters 20  mils 

Alcohol,  a  sufficient  quantitij,  

To  make  one  thousand  milliliters 1000  mils 

Mix  the  oil  of  lavender  with  three  hundred  mils  of  alcohol,  dissolve 
in  this  the  soft  soap  by  stirring  or  agitation,  and  set  the  solution  aside 
for  twenty-four  hours.  Then  j&lter  it  through  paper,  adding  sufficient 
alcohol  to  make  the  product  measure  one  thousand  mils. 


LINIMENTUM  TEREBINTHINiE 

Turpentine  Liniment 

Lin.  Terebinth. — Kentish's  Ointment 

RosiN  Cerate,  six  hundred  and  fifty  grammes 650  Gm. 

Oil  of  Turpentine,  three  hundred  and  fifty  grammes 350  Gm. 

To  make  one  thousand  grammes 1000  Gm. 

Dissolve  the  rosin  cerate,  previously  melted  in  a  dish  on  a  water  bath, 
in  the  oil  of  turpentine,  and  mix  them  thoroughly. 


LINUM 

Linseed 
Flaxseed 

The  ripe  seeds  of  Linum  usitatissimum  Linn^  (Fam.  LinacecE),  with- 
out the  presence  or  admixture  of  more  than  3  per  cent,  of  other  seeds 
or  foreign  matter.  Preserve  it  in  tightly-closed  containers  and  add  a 
few  drops  of  carbon  tetrachloride  or  chloroform  from  time  to  time  to 
prevent  attack  by  insects. 

Ovate  or  oblong-lanceolate,  flattened,  obliquely  pointed  at  one  end,  from  3  to 
5  mm.  in  length;  externally  chestnut-brown,  very  smooth  and  shiny,  the  raphe 
extending  as  a  distinct,  light -yellow  ridge  along  one  edge;  easily  cut  with  the 
finger-na3;  internally  olive-green;  oily;  odor  slight;  taste  mucilaginous  and  oily. 


236  THE   PHARMACOPCEIA    OF   THE 

Under  the  microscope,  transverse  sections  of  Linseed  when  mounted  in  hydrated 
chloral  T.S.  show  an  epidermis  with  a  mucilaginous  layer  from  0.01  to  0.03 
mm.  in  thickness,  covered  by  a  very  thin  layer  of  cutin  which  is  often  more  or 
less  broken;  two  layers  of  parenchyma  which  overlie  a  continuous  ring  of  stone 
cells  having  yellowish,  porous  walls  and  rather  large  lumina;  a  pigment  layer, 
the  cells  having  a  reddish-brown  content;  an  endosperm  consisting  of  from  6  to 
10  rows  of  cells  surrounding  the  two  large  plano-convex  cotyledons;  the  cells 
of  both  the  endosperm  and  the  cotyledons  contain  a  fixed  oil  and  aleurone  grains, 
the  latter  being  from  0.003  to  0.02  mm.  in  diameter. 

The  powder  is  lemon-yellow  or  light  brown,  consisting  chiefly  of  large,  oily 
globules  and  irregular  fragments  of  endosperm  and  seed-coat;  the  seed-coat  is 
characterized  by  the  tabular  pigment  cells  filled  with  a  reddish-brown,  insoluble 
content  and  the  somewhat  elongated  stone  cells  with  yellowish  walls;  mounts 
made  from  material  from  which  the  fixed  oil  has  been  removed  show  aleurone 
grains  from  0.003  to  0.02  mm.  in  diameter,  both  free  and  in  the  cells  of  the 
endosperm  and  embryo. 

Linseed  Meal  or  Flaxseed  Meal  is  light  olive-brown  with  reddish-brown  frag- 
ments; the  latter  very  coarse  and  the  cellular  tissues  are  the  same  as  those  of 
the  powder. 

Powdered  Linseed  or  Flaxseed  and  Linseed  Meal  or  Flaxseed  Meal  must  be 
free  from  any  unpleasant  or  rancid  odor. 

The  powder,  upon  extraction  with  purified  petroleum  benzin,  yields  not  less 
than  30  per  cent,  of  a  fixed  oil,  at  least  98  per  cent,  of  which  is  saponifiable. 

Boil  1  Gm.  of  the  fat-free  Linseed  or  Flaxseed  Powder  or  Meal,  with  50  mils 
of  water,  cool  and  filter;  the  filtrate  gives  not  more  than  a  faint  blue  color,  on 
the  addition  of  iodine  T.S. 

Linseed  yields  not  more  than  6  per  cent,  of  ash. 


LIQUOR  ACIDI